Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
2.6, 2.4 (northern blot)
cad protein forms a
gradient from posterior to anterior in the developing embryo and this gradient
for the maintainance of the cad gradient, as deletions of PEST sequences in
translation in the anterior region of the embryo.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cad using the Feature Mapper tool.
cad transcript expression is increased with age and oxidative stress; expression levels in the adult gut are higher at 30 or 60 days of age than at 5 days of age.
Zygotic expression of cad transcript, rather than cad protein, contributes to the abdominal region expression pattern of cad. The wild type expression domain of zygotic cad transcript covers up to 50% egg length from the posterior. High levels of transcript are detected in two broad bands which range from approximately 10-30% egg length and 40-55% egg length respectively.
The 2.6 kb zygotic cad transcript is first detected during cellularization, and is restricted to a 4-5 cell wide stripe at 13-19% egg length at the start of gastrulation. Later in embryogenesis, cad transcript is detected in the hindgut and posterior midgut primordia. After germ band retraction, cad is expressed in the Malpighian tubules, posterior midgut, and hindgut. This expression is still present in third instar larvae, and additional expression in the gonad and the posterior region of the genital disc is also detected.
The maternal cad transcript is detected in the nurse cell cytoplasm starting at stage S6 of oogenesis. Transcript is later detected in the oocyte; and at stage S14, cad transcript is distributed evenly throughout the oocyte. cad transcript remains evenly distributed soon after fertilization, but becomes distributed in an anterior-posterior gradient at embryonic cycle 13. Maternal transcripts dissapear first from the anterior pole, and have disappeared completely before cellularization.
The cad transcript is detected at high levels in the malpighian tubules of later stage embryos, and lower levels in portions of the the posterior midgut and in the hindgut.
The cad protein isdistributed in a gradient from the posterior pole up to approximately 50% egglength. The cad protein gradient is acheived through repression oftranslation of the uniformly distributed cad transcript in the anterior of theembryo.
The cad protein isexpressed in a gradient from the posterior tip of the embryo reaching up to 30%egg length.
cad protein is first detected just before the formation of pole cells, and is cytoplasmic. After embryonic cycle 9, cad protein becomes nuclear. During embryonic cycles 10-13, cad protein is distributed in an anterior-posterior gradient, and is once again detected in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. At gastrulation, cad protein is detected in a 4-5 cell wide stripe at 13-19% egg length, and in the pole cell nuclei. At germ band extension, cad protein is detected in the posterior of the germ band and in the hindgut and postrior midgut rudiments. After germ band retraction, cad protein is detected in posterior epidermal structures such as the anal pads.
The expression of cadprotein is dynamic during embryogenesis. In early embryos, a posterior toanterior gradient of protein, with highest concentrations in the posterior polecovers up to 90% egg length. As embryogenesis proceeds, the gradient moves moreposteriorly, covering 70-20% egg length. In the late embryo, just prior to germband extension, protein expression coelesces in a posterior ring aprroximately3-4 cells wide which spans between 10% and 15% egg length. Throughoutembryogenesis, protein is detected in the pole cells. During germ bandextension cad protein is detected at the germ band terminus and in the polecells. Specifically, protein is detected in cells which give rise to the analpads, the posterior midgut and the malpighian tubules.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\cad in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: cad CG1759
RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
Zygotic activation of h stripe 6 expression is preceded by activation in response to maternal cad activity, activation does not depend exclusively on the zygotic activity of kni as thought previously. cad and kni activities cooperate in a non-synergistic manner to activate h stripe 6 transcription.
cad is essential for invagination of the hindgut primordium and for further specification and development of the hindgut. cad acts through fog, fkh and wg, but does not play a role in activating tll, hkb, byn and bowl which are also required for proper hindgut development. cad, fkh, byn and wg constitute a conserved constellation of genes that plays a required role in gastrulation and gut development.
One of a class of genes with TATA-less promoters that have a subset of the conserved DPE sequence.
Regulation of cad by bcd occurs at the level of translation and depends on both the bcd homeodomain and on cis-acting sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the cad message. The bcd homeodomain can bind specifically to these cis-acting sequences in vitro. bcd regulates cad expression by blocking translational initiation.
bcd may act in the region specific control of cad mRNA translation. In vitro studies reveal that bcd binds through its homeodomain to cad mRNA and exerts translational control through a bcd-binding region of cad mRNA.
cad, a conserved homeodomain protein that forms a posterior to anterior concentration gradient, and the anterior determinant bcd cooperate to form a partly redundant activator system in the posterior region of the embryo.
The abdominal cad domain is under the control of the hb gradient. It is activated at low concentrations of hb and repressed at high concentrations. The abdominal cad domain itself is required to activate the gap genes kni and gt.
Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.
Kr activity is required for cad expression in the tubules, cad expression is maintained as the Malpighian tubules develop. cad and ct are independent of each other with respect to Malpighian tubule regulation: both pathways require Kr.
cad mutants exhibit elimination of anal tuft and anal sense organs, additional lack of maternal product causes severe segmentation defects.
Heat shock induced expression of cad at the anterior end of cellular blastoderm embryos was found to disrupt head development and segmentation due to the alteration of ftz and en expression and the repression of Dfd.