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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Cam
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Calmodulin
Annotation Symbol
CG8472
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000253
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Calmodulin (Cam) encodes a Calcium-binding messenger protein. It acts as a part of the calcium signal transduction pathway and interacts with various target proteins such as kinases or phosphatases. It is involved in actin filament-based movement, mitotic spinde assembly, axon guidance, DNA damage response, autophagy, cell death, sensory perception, and muscle homeostasis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
dCaM, D-CaM, CalA, lincRNA.S2634
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,259,398..12,278,809 [+]
Recombination map
2-66
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the calmodulin family. (P62152)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS -
Myosin light chains (MLC) bind myosin heavy chains via an IQ motif in the neck region. They are involved in myosin motor-based movement along actin filaments, regulating ATP hydrolysis or providing a structural function. The calmodulins included in this group have been shown to act as MLCs. (Adapted from FBrf0134714).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels and other proteins by Ca(2+) (By similarity). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases (By similarity). In photoreceptor cells, light-induced Ca(2+) influx activates calmodulin, which in turn is likely to promote Crag activity in trafficking of newly synthesized ninaE (Rh1) from the trans-Golgi network to rhabdomere membranes (PubMed:23226104). Together with Akap200, regulates PKA activity and ethanol-induced sensitivity and tolerance (PubMed:10480937, PubMed:29444420).
(UniProt, P62152)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cal: Calmodulin
The structural gene of the calcium-binding protein, calmodulin (148 amino acids, 17000 daltons).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Cam or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Cam for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Stage-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088001
1488
149
FBtr0088002
695
149
FBtr0304963
5672
149
FBtr0304964
3406
149
FBtr0345018
1435
149
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.6 (compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087109
16.8
149
3.84
FBpp0087110
16.8
149
3.84
FBpp0293502
16.8
149
3.84
FBpp0293503
16.8
149
3.84
FBpp0311269
16.8
149
3.84
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

149 aa isoforms: Cam-PA, Cam-PB, Cam-PC, Cam-PD, Cam-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
Methionine only
Site directed mutagenesis was used to create 4 mutants. In each, a conserved glutamic acid residue within one of the Ca2+-binding sites has been replaced with glutamine, thus creating four Cam proteins with analagous mutations in each of the Ca2+-binding sites. Conformational studies on these mutants confirm that the carboxy-terminal two sites show cooperative Ca2+ binding which produces a major change in the protein conformation. The amino terminal Ca2+-binding sites show more independent properties with respect to Ca2+ binding and conformational change. Mutants at the amino-terminal sites were shown to affect conformational change induced by Ca2+ binding at the carboxy-terminal end. This work supports the idea that the carboxy-terminal sites are high affinity for Ca2+ binding and the amino-terminal sites are lower affinity.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Crag (PubMed:18331716). Interacts with stac (PubMed:9813038). Interacts with Akap200; the interaction is calcium-dependent and is inhibited by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of Akap200 (PubMed:10480937).
(UniProt, P62152)
Post Translational Modification
Trimethylation of Lys-116 observed in other calmodulins is absent here, but does occur at Lys-95 specifically in the compound eye.
(UniProt, P62152)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Cam using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (36 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:didum; FB:FBgn0261397
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VLL3
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Crag; FB:FBgn0025864
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000549682
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000549861
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:didum; FB:FBgn0261397
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:jar; FB:FBgn0011225
inferred from high throughput direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: extended 3' UTR isoform

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Zygotic-specific isoforms of Cam with long 3' UTR extensions were observed.
Northern analysis reveals a strongly-expressed doublet of Cam transcript from early embryonic stages through early third instar larval stage (0-89hr AEL), then drops precipitously in late third instar larvae (90-120 hr AEL). Expression increases to a moderate level during pupal stages 7-8 (150-176 hr AEL). Maternally expressed Cam transcript is homogenously distributed through embryonic stage 6. From embryonic stage 14, Cam transcript is expressed in developing central nervous system. In adults Cam transcript is localized to the cell bodies surrounding the lamina, medulla, and lobula, and in cell bodies of the subesophageal ganglion and photoreceptor cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:didum; FB:FBgn0261397
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:jar; FB:FBgn0011225
inferred from high throughput direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{PZ}Cam03909
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain

Comment: expression throughout adult brain neuropil, concentrated around outside areas

Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult gnathal ganglion

Comment: expression in all neuropil areas ( adult subesophageal ganglion, supraesophageal ganglion ), higher in localised areas possibly layered or punctate

supraesophageal ganglion

Comment: expression in all neuropil areas ( adult subesophageal ganglion, supraesophageal ganglion ), higher in localised areas possibly layered or punctate

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Cam in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 51 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Cam
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Cam
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
bouton & abdominal 2 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 3 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 4 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 5 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 6 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 7 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (31)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
 
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (29)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (25)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (17)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (34)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (18)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (17)
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HQF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DNB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0C34 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0C0Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0V73 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (22)
6 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Crag (PubMed:18331716). Interacts with stac (PubMed:9813038). Interacts with Akap200; the interaction is calcium-dependent and is inhibited by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of Akap200 (PubMed:10480937).
    (UniProt, P62152 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-66
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:12,259,398..12,278,809 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    48F1-48F1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Cam03909 and P{lacW}Camk11802&P{lacW}l(2)k01103k01103
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    48F5-48F6
    48F1-48F2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    48F1-48F2
    48F3--4 48F5--6
    49A-49A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (41)
    Genomic Clones (35)
    cDNA Clones (298)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Cam anon- EST:Posey59
    Additional comments
    l(2)k08317 may correspond to Cam: the P{lacW}l(2)k08317k08317 insertion maps within the transcription unit.
    Other Comments
    Cam is involved in centriole duplication and is required for efficient recruitment of pericentriolar material.
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in unfocused spindle microtubules and pole detachment when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in kinetochore-fiber unfocusing and centrosome detachment phenotypes when assayed in S2 cells.
    Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.
    The interaction of Cam domains with target peptides derived from the target sequence of sk-MLCK is investigated.
    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
    The complex expression patterns of Cam are examined.
    The effects of Ca-Cam on light adaptation, light- and chemically induced Ca2+ release from internal stores, and the resulting inward current are examined using whole cell patch-clamp and fluorimetric recordings from photoreceptor cells. Negative regulation of Ca-Cam on Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores is essential for light excitation and light adaptation and for keeping the store-operated current (ISOC) under a tight control.
    The stability of Cam can be dramatically reduced by mutation of a single highly conserved residue, but changes in solvent or in the binding of a target sequences can readily compensate for this, restoring the wild-type properties.
    Generation and analysis of point mutations in the protein coding region of the Cam gene. The mutants identify several cellular, developmental and behavioural processes regulated by Cam.
    Cam protein coordinates termination of the light response in photoreceptor cells by modulating receptor and ion channel activity.
    Isoforms of CaMKII have similar biochemical properties, they exhibit differential activity by mutant Cam proteins. Data supports a role for the C-terminal variable region of CaMKII in the mechanism of activation and demonstrate that stimulation of CaMKII catalytic activity by Cam is a multistep process, with separate binding and activation steps.
    The spontaneous avoidance behaviour of Cam null mutants has striking similarities to the enhanced avoidance response produced by some calmodulin mutations in Paramecium. This suggests evolutionary conservation of a role for calmodulin in membrane excitability and linked behavioural responses.
    UV-difference spectroscopy and near-UV CD are used to monitor conformational changes to Tyr-138. The ability of Cam mutants to activate one of the target enzymes of Cam, Strn-Mlck, is examined. Results provide strong evidence that events in the N-terminal lobe of Cam are detected in the C-terminal lobe, as monitored by Tyr-138.
    Clonal analysis suggests that Cam null clones in the PNS result in abnormal differentiation of the sense organs, and that null clones in all tissues are generally small, if not deleted.
    Null Cam individuals die as first larval instar. Larvae display a locomotor defect, they have backward movements 50% of the time and these occur spontaneously in the absence of any overt stimulus.
    Calcium signaling in the growth cone is required for proper axon pathfinding. Calcium may in part regulate certain growth cone decisions, including whether or not to cross the midline.
    Interaction between ninaC gene product and Cam gene product is required for subcellular localization of calmodulin and for phototransduction.
    Backbone dynamics of Cam, studied by 15N relaxation using inverse detected two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, reveal the central helix is flexible.
    The pattern of Cam RNA expression during embryogenesis has been analysed.
    Stopped-flow kinetic methods have been used to study the Ca2+ binding properties of Cal mutants.
    Circular dichroism measurements were used to assess Ca2+-induced changes in secondary and tertiary structure of calmodulin. In vitro mutagenesis alleles assayed in cell free translation systems revealed significant interaction between N and C terminal domains required for Ca2+ binding.
    Calcium binding properties and calcium induced conformation changes of mutant proteins is studied.
    Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.
    One dimensional 1H-NMR has been used to monitor Ca2+-induced changes in mutant Cam proteins. The results reveal interactions between the calcium-binding sites of Cam.
    Calcium-induced conformational changes have been studied in Cal by the use of a hydrophobic reporter molecule 9AC, this results in the exposure of hydrophobic surfaces on the protein.
    Complete 1H and 13C side chain assignments and the secondary structure of Cam in solution are determined using NMR spectroscopy.
    The crystal structure of Cal as expressed in a bacterial system has been determined and refined at 2.2-A resolution. This structure is compared with the structure of the mammalian calmodulin protein.
    Structure and expression studies of the single Cal gene have found that the gene encodes a tiny additional 5' exon encoding only 50 residues of the 5' leader. Two transcript classes are derived from the gene as a result of alternative polyadenylation site usage, the sites are developmentally regulated.
    The structure and sequence of the Cal gene has been determined.
    The structural gene for the calcium-binding protein, calmodulin.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Yamanaka.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 90 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CaM
    (Ito et al., 2019, Bronk et al., 2018, Citron et al., 2018, Mazzotta et al., 2018, Sun et al., 2018, Kim et al., 2017, Bahk and Jones, 2016, Xu et al., 2016, Davis, 2015, Schoborg et al., 2015, Galletta et al., 2014, Kukic et al., 2014, Mukunda et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Brubaker-Purkey and Woodruff, 2013, Sartain and Wolfner, 2013, Chorna and Hasan, 2012, Pak et al., 2012, Xiong et al., 2012, Wang et al., 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Goshima et al., 2007, Goshima et al., 2007, Gwack et al., 2007, Harrisingh et al., 2007, Frank et al., 2006, Gribovskaja et al., 2005, Wen et al., 2005, Delmas et al., 2004, Martin and Bayley, 2004, Martin et al., 2004, Biekofsky et al., 2002, Clapperton et al., 2002, Wang et al., 2002, Bilder, 2001, Harris and Lim, 2001, Kim et al., 2001, Lee et al., 2001, Wang and Beckingham, 2001, Andruss et al., 2000, Fefeu et al., 2000, Fritz and VanBerkum, 2000, Masino et al., 2000, Villain et al., 2000, Wang et al., 2000, Fanning and Anderson, 1999, Martin et al., 1999, Li et al., 1998, Martin et al., 1998, Onyike et al., 1998, Arnon et al., 1997, Browne et al., 1997, Brown et al., 1997, Nelson et al., 1997, Peerson et al., 1997, Scott and Zuker, 1997, Stevens-Truss et al., 1997, Andruss et al., 1996, Bayley et al., 1996, Bayley et al., 1996, Browne et al., 1996, GuptaRoy et al., 1996, Andres and Thummel, 1995, Andruss and Beckingham, 1995, Findlay et al., 1995, VanBerkum and Goodman, 1995, Findlay et al., 1994, Andruss and Beckingham, 1993, Maune et al., 1992, Yovell et al., 1992, Ikura et al., 1991)
    Cal
    Cal49A
    anon-EST:Posey59
    l(2)03909
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010559
    • FBgn0015611
    • FBgn0027677
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (330)