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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\CkIIβ
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Casein kinase II β subunit
Annotation Symbol
CG15224
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000259
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Casein kinase II β subunit (CkIIβ) encodes the regulatory subunit of the CKII holoenzyme, a protein serine/threonine kinase composed of a and b subunits. Interactions have been reported with other kinases (e.g., the products of PIP4K and S6kII), the RNA-binding protein encoded by orb , the Hedgehog signaling pathway and clock proteins such as the products of tim and per. The product of CkIIβ functions in oogenesis, neurogenesis, development (brain and other tissues) as well as circadian behavior. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

CK2, CKII, CK2β, And, Andante

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:11,792,533..11,801,587 [+]
Recombination map

1-36

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:11792533..11801587
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (13 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000201362
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in circadian rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in locomotor rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:orb; FB:FBgn0004882
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in eclosion rhythm
traceable author statement
involved_in rhythmic behavior
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000201362
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000201362
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the casein kinase 2 subunit beta family. (P08182)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Participates in Wnt signaling (By similarity). Plays a complex role in regulating the basal catalytic activity of the alpha subunit.
(UniProt, P08182)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
And: Andante (J.C. Hall)
The normal free-running 24 hr periods of the circadian rhythms of eclosion and adult locomotor activity (in constant conditions) are lengthened by 1.5-2 hr/cycle; And/+ heterozygotes have a period phenotype intermediate between wild-type and mutant homozygotes (Konopka, R. Smith and Orr). The phase-response curves (PRCs) for eclosion and activity rhythms, indicating light-induced phase shifts, show a similar degree of lengthening as seen in free-running periodicities. And rhythms are highly temperature-compensated, as are those of wild-type (Konopka et al.). And males are defective in after effects on courtship behavior that are usually induced by prior exposure to mated females or very young males (Jackson et al., 1983).
CkII β: Casein kinase II, β subunit
The structural gene for the autophosphorylated, regulatory β subunit of casein kinase II (CKII).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\CkIIβ for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073558
3121
215
FBtr0073560
1331
215
FBtr0073561
966
215
FBtr0073562
2392
235
FBtr0100540
1043
215
FBtr0299569
997
215
FBtr0307896
2376
215
FBtr0308084
1600
233
FBtr0308085
934
233
FBtr0333204
2006
234
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

0.946 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073403
24.8
215
5.29
FBpp0073405
24.8
215
5.29
FBpp0073406
24.8
215
5.29
FBpp0089135
27.1
235
4.99
FBpp0099985
24.8
215
5.29
FBpp0288844
24.8
215
5.29
FBpp0300330
24.8
215
5.29
FBpp0300427
26.8
233
4.61
FBpp0300428
26.9
233
5.28
FBpp0305406
26.8
234
6.30
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

215 (aa); 24.7 (kD predicted)

28.2 (kD observed)

Comments

Two CkIIα polypeptides plus two CkIIβ polypeptides form a 130 kD tetramer.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits.

(UniProt, P08182)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated by alpha subunit.

(UniProt, P08182)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\CkIIβ using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\CkIIβ in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 28 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of CkIIβ
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of CkIIβ
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190EJF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509XZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0B4S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0B28 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0L2H )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (17)
8 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits.
    (UniProt, P08182 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map

    1-36

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:11,792,533..11,801,587 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    10E3-10E3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP345&P{EP}EP1409 and P{EP}ATP7EP308
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    10E1-10E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (11)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (105)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: CkIIβ mbu

    Additional comments

    The 'Andante' mutant chromosome carries two independent EMS-induced mutations, one in dy (dyQ189stop) and one in CkIIβ (CkIIβAnd). The dyQ189stop mutation has no effect on rhythmicity, rather the CkIIβAnd allele is responsible for the circadian long-period phenotype of the mutant chromosome.

    Drosophila Casein kinase II α and β subunits can rescue the lethality of S.cerevisiae deleted for both genes.

    Other Comments

    Splice isoforms CkIIβ-VIIc and -VIId are dispensable for viability and for formation of normal mushroom bodies.

    CkIIβ dependant phosphorylation has a role in the circadian rhythm.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    The number of neurons forming the adult mushroom body is greatly reduced in CkIIβ hypomorphs.

    Mutations in CkIIβ reduce the number of mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells).

    Stimulation of CkIIβ activity by a polyamine molecule and its binding efficiency toward CkIIβ rely not only on its number of positive charges but also on the length of its aliphatic chain.

    Casein kinase II specifically phosphorylates a set of serine residues within the cact PEST domain.

    Casein kinase II phosphorylates Ser468 (a residue in the PEST domain) of cact in vitro.

    Casein kinase II (encoded by CkIIα and CkIIβ) phosphorylates dsh in vitro. This phosphorylation is regulated by fz2, implicating a role for Casein kinase II in wg signalling.

    Genetic mosaic analysis identifies the tissues that require the CkIIβ product.

    Serine 2 and Serine 4 residues are major sites of autophosphorylation of the β subunit of casein kinase (as shown by the construction of A2 and A4 mutants in vitro). Autophosphorylation of this subunit reduces the phosphorylation of some substrate proteins in vitro (calmodulin, elongation factor 1, glycogen synthase) but not of others (casein).

    Recombinant CkII in vitro binds to spermine and this interaction is concomitant with a striking effect on the structural polymeric organisation on the kinase which in the presence of the polyamine exhibits a ring-like structure.

    Chimeric β subunits of human and Drosophila cDNA reveal that the N terminal region of the CkIIβ subunit is responsible for the requirement for the redox state during renaturation, and is also responsible for solubility and electrophoretic mobility. of S.cerevisiae deleted for both genes.

    Recombinant Casein kinase reconstituted from human and Drosophila, α and β subunits demonstrate that CkIIβ is responsible for renaturation and reconstitution of Casein kinase II dependent on the redox conditions.

    CkIIβ is primarily an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of CkIIα in the absence of salt.

    Casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of Top2 stimulates its activity by enhancing the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyse its high energy ATP cofactor.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 105 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (47)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CKII-beta1
    Cask-II-b
    Ds cas kin
    dCKII beta
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0027953
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (203)