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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\CecA2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Cecropin A2
Annotation Symbol
CG1367
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000277
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Cecropin A2 (CecA2) encodes an antibacterial peptide with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. It is expressed in the fat body during the systemic immune response and in various epithelia, and it is regulated at the transcriptional level by the immune deficiency pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
Cecropin, CecA, cecropin A, Cec, cecropinA
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,212,156..30,212,568 [+]
Recombination map
3-100
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the cecropin family. (C0HKQ7C0HKQ8)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CECROPINS -
Cecropins are small, amphiphilic peptides with antibacterial activity. (Adapted from FBrf0241672.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Cecropins have lytic and antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:2390977, PubMed:11266367). Functions in the imd/NF-kappa-B (Imd) epithelial and humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11266367).
(UniProt, C0HKQ7)
Cecropins have lytic and antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
(UniProt, C0HKQ8)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cec: Cecropin
Three structural genes for three very similar cecropin proteins (cecropin A1, A2, and B), bacteriacidal proteins that are induced in adults in response to bacterial infection. All three cecropin genes are coordinately induced by injection of bacteria, although the B gene is expressed at a much lower level. Levels appreciable within one hour, peak at 6 hours and have generally returned to base line by 24 hours. Cecropins also induced by ingested bacteria.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\CecA2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\CecA2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085614
355
63
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
0.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084978
6.8
63
10.84
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
Small CecA2-derived peptides identified by nano LC-MS/MS: GIAQQAANVAATAR-amide.
Small CecA2-derived peptides identified by nano LC-MS/MS: pQAANVAATAR-amide, GIAQQAANVAATAR-amide, DATIQGLGIAQQAANVAATAR-amide.
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\CecA2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (7 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002212115
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002212115
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002212115
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002212115
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Cecropin mRNAs are induced after injection of a bacterial suspension into adult abdomens. They can also be induced by feeding flies bacteria-containing food.
CecA2 transcripts are only detected in untreated animals in small amounts in early pupae and adults. The transcripts are strongly induced by bacteria. CecA expression is stronger in fat body than CecB but they are at comparable levels in hemocytes.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\CecA2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 0 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 2 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of CecA2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of CecA2
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KWR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150KDC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0S72 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-100
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:30,212,156..30,212,568 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    99E2-99E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (3)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (36)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for identity of: CecA2 CG1367
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day. Shows alteration in expression in a Clk mutant background.
        Genes encoding antibacterial peptides are regulated in a manner distinct from that of Drs, encoding the antifungal peptide. The Cecropins require the spz-cact regulatory cassette for expression at the adult stage.
        Transcription is not strongly induced by hymenopteran parasitoids.
        One of four structural genes for four very similar cecropin proteins (cecropin A1, A2, B and C), bacteriocidal proteins that are induced in adults in response to bacterial infection. All cecropin genes are coordinately induced by injection of bacteria, although the B gene is expressed at a much lower level. Cecropins also induced by ingested bacteria.
        CecA2 and CecC show a moderate transcriptional response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and bacterial flagellin in Schneider cells, but no response in Kc cells.
        The Cec gene region contains three genes: CecA1, CecA2 and CecB. Cecropins are antibacterial peptides: transcripts appear within one hour after bacteria has been injected in to the haemocoel.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 73 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        Name Synonyms
        Cecropin-A
        Cecropin-A1/A2 precursor
        Cecropin-A2
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (176)