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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ChAT
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Choline acetyltransferase
Annotation Symbol
CG12345
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000303
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Choline O-acetyltransferase (2.3.1.6)
Gene Snapshot
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) encodes a protein that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is considered to be a specific marker for cholinergic neurons. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Cha

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:18,705,501..18,732,344 [+]
Recombination map

3-64

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:18705501..18732344
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. (P07668)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine (2.3.1.6)
Predictions / Assertions
Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine (2.3.1.6)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER ACETYLTRANSFERASES -
The Other acetyltransferases is a collection of transferases that do not fit into any of the other major acetyltransferases.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses.
(UniProt, P07668)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cha: Choline acetyltransferase (J.C. Hall)
Probable structural gene for choline acetyl transferase [ChAT, acetyl CoA-choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6)], which has been purified and whose molecular weight approximates 67 kilodaltons (Slemmon, Salvaterra, Crawford and Roberts, 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 3847-52); monoclonal antibodies prepared and inhibit enzyme (Crawford, Slemmon, and Salvaterra, 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 3853-56); homozygotes and hemizygotes for either of the original two non-conditionally mutant alleles, Chal1 or Chal2, show no detectable enzymatic activity as late embryos, which is when the mutants die; other non-conditional lethals at the locus not tested for lethal stage or ChAT activity; either of two temperature sensitive alleles, Chats1 or Chats2, causes a variety of phenotypic defects when hemizygous or homozygous: reduced viability at 25 and death at 29 (Chats1), reduced viability at 18 and death at 22 or above (Chats2) plus gradual but reversible decline of enzymatic activity and of acetylcholine levels following transfer of low-temperature reared Chats adults to 29-30 or above (Greenspan, 1980; Salvaterra and McCaman, 1985, J. Neurosci. 5: 903-10); correlated with decrements in these biochemical parameters (reversible on lowering temperature), are heat-induced abnormalities of general mobility, male courtship ability, plus electroretinogram (Greenspan, 1980), landing response (Gorczyca and Hall, 1985, Neurosci. Abstr. 11: 512), and of several elements of physiological responses made by thoracic indirect flight muscles following stimulation of giant fiber pathway, implying that certain interneuronal synapses in this pathway are cholinergic (Gorczyca and Hall, 1984, J. Neurogenet. 1: 289-313); whereas wild type exhibits two molecular forms of ChAT activity after isoelectric focusing, homogenates of Chats1 lead to a single form, and of Chats2 to two forms shifted to higher-than-normal pI (Salvaterra and McCaman, 1985); these two conditional Cha mutations also cause ChAT activity to have accentuated thermolability in vitro (Greenspan, 1980; Salvaterra and McCaman, 1985). Immunohistochemical staining of ChAT reveals wide distribution in CNS; this staining is strong in Chats1 at permissive temperature but diminishes after in-vivo heat treatment (Gorczyca and Hall, 1987, J. Neurosci. 7: 1361-69); Chats2 staining is poor even at permissive temperature and diminishes after heating the flies (Gorczyca and Hall, 1987). In situ hybridization to tissue sections detected transcriptional activity in most neuronal elements of the cell-rich areas of the cortical regions of the cerebrum and optic lobes; however, some cells in the lamina including the amacrine neurons showed no label. Highest expression is seen in laminar monopolar-cell region, and the cerebral cortical rind, and to a lesser degree, over cortical cells of medulla-lobula, the antennal sensory neurons, and the retinular-cell layer of the compound eye (Barber, Sugihara, Lee, Vaughn, and Salvaterra, 1989, J. Comp. Neurol. 280: 533-43). Immunolocalization of ChAT in the adult cephalic ganglion reveals weak staining in the lamina corresponding to the synaptic layer of photoreceptor cells 1-6 of the ommatidia, three layers of strong reaction corresponding to the synaptic layers in the medulla, and labeling of four layers in the lobula (Ikeda and Salvaterra, 1989, J. Comp. Neurol. 280: 283-90). In Chats1 staining seen at 19 but disappears by 120 hours after shift to 30; Chats2 shows reduced staining at 19 and none after 80 hours at 30.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ChAT for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Shares 5' UTR with upstream gene.

gene_with_non_canonical_start_codon ; SO:0001739

Unconventional translation start (GUG) postulated; FBrf0052176.

Gene model reviewed during 5.54

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089367
4011
721
FBtr0089368
2824
714
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.0 (northern blot)

4 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088397
81.3
721
5.64
FBpp0088977
80.5
714
5.54
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

67 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

The 54 kDa and 13 kDa chains exist as a heterodimer.

(UniProt, P07668)
Post Translational Modification

The N-terminus of choline O-acetyltransferase 67 kDa and 54 kDa chains are blocked.

(UniProt, P07668)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ChAT using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RNase protection, primer extension, SI map
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

VAChT and Cha transcripts are detected in heads and bodies of adult flies. The ratios of the two transcripts vary in different samples indicating that they are differentially regulated despite sharing a common first exon.

Cha transcripts were detected in adult head RNA.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

ChAT co-localizes with expression driven by Scer\GAL4S3.Hug in larval Hugin neuron of the protocerebrum, and larval Hugin neuron of the ventral nerve cord/larval Hugin neuron of the ventral nerve cord as well as, weakly, larval Hugin neuron of the corpus cardiacum.

Cha protein labels a subset of neurons in the adult medulla cortex, including the medullary intrinsic neuron Mi1.

Cha protein labels the axonal projections in the central brain of Rh5 and Rh6 photoreceptors of Bolwig organ.

Cha protein is expressed in a subset of neurons of the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate.

ChAT is expressed at the junction of anterior midgut and acid-secreting portion of the larval midgut. Expression does not overlap that of Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4 in the midgut.

Expression of Cha is seen in both large and small monopolar neurons of the lamina.

Cha protein has widespread expression in the ventral nerve cord and it is in close apposition to the processes of neurons labelled by Scer\GAL4CCAP.PP.

Cha protein is expressed in the presynaptic terminals in the ventral nerve cord, in a mutually exclusive pattern to Ace protein, and colocalising with VAChT protein.

The axon terminals of Bolwig's nerve that contact the dendritic arborizations of the lateral neurons (LNs) are immunopositive for Cha.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT.7.4kb-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-dsRed.7347}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.1.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.7.4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ellipsoid body

Comment: strong expression

adult mushroom body

Comment: strong expression

eye

Comment: strong expression

Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.DBD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}ChATNP4784
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}NP1131
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ChAT in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 44 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 16 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ChAT
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ChAT
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye photoreceptor cell & axon & pupa | somatic clone | conditional ts
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903J8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503AF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04GO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04D9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G038F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
6 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    The 54 kDa and 13 kDa chains exist as a heterodimer.
    (UniProt, P07668 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-64

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:18,705,501..18,732,344 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    91C1-91C5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sprd05284 and P{PZ}cdi07013&P{lacW}nosj3B6
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    91B8-91C3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    91B-91D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    3-64.6

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (31)
    Genomic Clones (34)
    cDNA Clones (34)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: ChAT Cha

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    The gene symbol "Cha" has been changed to "ChAT" in order to reflect the clear preference in the literature, and also to reduce confusion with the "cha" ("chaff") gene symbol, from which it differed only by case.

    One or more of the processed transcripts for this gene share(s) untranslated sequences with a transcript of an adjacent gene, but encode(s) a single open reading frame (ORF). The non-overlapping ORFs that share untranslated sequences are represented by Cha and VAChT.

    Cha and VAChT share a common first exon. The remainder of the VAChT transcript contains a single coding exon residing entirely within the first intron of Cha. The relative levels of Cha and VAChT transcript differ in different tissues or Cha mutants indicating independent regulation of Cha and VAChT transcripts may occur post-transcriptionally.

    Other Comments

    The effect of restrictive temperature on the in vivo expression of Cha mRNA and immunohistochemical observations of the central brain indicate Cha expression is differentially regulated in particular cholinergic neurons in response to a temperature shift.

    Analysis of Cha constructs containing different lengths of 5' flanking sequences has defined a 0.3kb region which is essential for rescuing the Cha lethal mutant phenotype.

    The cis-regulatory regions involved in expression of Cha have been analysed using germline transformants. The 5' flanking DNA of Cha can be divided into several separable positive and negative regulatory regions, which define various subsets of cholinergic neurons in the nervous system.

    A complete Cha cDNA is able to direct the expression of hydrophilic and amphiphilic enzyme activity in Xenopus oocyte.

    Proper expression of Cha requires at least 7.4kb of upstream region.

    Homozygotes and hemizygotes for either of the original two non-conditionally mutant alleles, Df(3R)Cha9 or Chal2, show no detectable choline acetyl transferase enzymatic activity as late embryos, which is when the mutants die; Either of two temperature-sensitive alleles, Chats1 or Chats2, causes a variety of phenotypic defects when hemizygous or homozygous: reduced viability at 25oC and death at 29oC (Chats1), reduced viability at 18oC and death at 22oC or above (Chats2). Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities of general mobility and male courtship ability.

    Recombinant Cha enzyme shares the same kinetic properties and same catalytic residues as the enzyme from a variety of different sources.

    A major point of regulation of Cha expression may occur at the transcriptional level.

    The site of cleavage of the 67kD enzyme that gives rise to the clipped enzyme polypeptide has been determined. The cleavage site has identified an important functional domain and may be the result of cellular processing.

    Immunohistochemical staining of ChAT reveals wide distribution in CNS; this staining is strong in Chats1 at permissive temperature but diminishes after in-vivo heat treatment (FBrf0046829); Chats2 staining is poor even at permissive temperature and diminishes after heating the flies.

    Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities in the landing response.

    Whereas wild type exhibits two molecular forms of ChAT activity after isoelectric focusing, homogenates of Chats1 lead to a single form and of Chats2 to two forms shifted to higher-than-normal pI. Chats1 and Chats2 also cause ChAT activity to have accentuated thermolability in vitro, plus gradual but reversible decline of enzymatic activity and of acetylcholine levels following transfer of low-temperature reared mutants to 29-30oC or above.

    Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities of several elements of physiological responses made by thoracic indirect flight muscles following stimulation of giant fiber pathway, implying that certain interneuronal synapses in this pathway are cholinergic.

    Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities in the electroretinogram.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 57 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Cat
    ChAT
    (Eschbach et al., 2020, Estacio-Gómez et al., 2020, Kondo et al., 2020, Alekseyenko et al., 2019, Deng et al., 2019, Dolan et al., 2019, Hamid et al., 2019, Khuong et al., 2019, Kong et al., 2019, Ni et al., 2019, Palavicino-Maggio et al., 2019, Rao and Deng, 2019.10.23, Shih et al., 2019, Dey and Ray, 2018, Fisher et al., 2017, Keleş and Frye, 2017, Kulkarni et al., 2017, Liao et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Huang et al., 2016, Liu and Bossing, 2016, Pankova and Borst, 2016, Schlegel et al., 2016, Karuppudurai et al., 2014, Mauss et al., 2014, Selcho et al., 2014, Karsai et al., 2013, Pech et al., 2013, Yi et al., 2013, Sadananda et al., 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Kahsai and Winther, 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Séjourné et al., 2011, Thum et al., 2011, Varija Raghu et al., 2011, Colodner and Feany, 2010, de Haro et al., 2010, Nicolaï et al., 2010, Pauls et al., 2010, Pauls et al., 2010, Doodhi et al., 2009, Johard et al., 2008, Kolodziejczyk et al., 2008, Vömel and Wegener, 2007, Ashraf et al., 2006, Baqri et al., 2006, Ramaekers et al., 2005, Yang and Kunes, 2004, Yasuyama, 2003, Yasuyama et al., 2003, Lee and Salvaterra, 2002, Malpel et al., 2002, Python and Stocker, 2002, Yasuyama et al., 2002, Lee et al., 2001, Salvaterra and Kitamoto, 2001, Yasuyama et al., 2001, Certel et al., 2000, Kitamoto et al., 2000, Yao et al., 2000, Bowman et al., 1999, Cole, 1999, Lee and O'Dowd, 1999, Ray et al., 1999, Yasuyama and Meinertzhagen, 1999, Yasuyama and Salvaterra, 1999, Kitamoto et al., 1998, Pahud et al., 1998, Kitamoto and Salvaterra, 1995, Kitamoto and Salvaterra, 1995, Kitamoto et al., 1995, Pahud et al., 1995, Raeber et al., 1995, Yasuyama et al., 1995, Salem et al., 1994, Salem et al., 1994, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Wu and Hersh, 1994, Carbini and Hersh, 1993, Wu et al., 1993, Kitamoto et al., 1992, Salem and Eder-Colli, 1992, Salvaterra et al., 1991, Sugihara et al., 1991, Carbini et al., 1990, Salem et al., 1990)
    l(3)91Cc
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    • FBgn0064131
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