General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ChAT
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Choline acetyltransferase
Annotation Symbol
CG12345
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000303
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Choline O-acetyltransferase (2.3.1.6)
Gene Snapshot
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ChAT is considered to be a specific marker for cholinergic neurons. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-09]
Also Known As
Cha
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:18,705,501..18,732,344 [+]
Recombination map
3-64
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. (P07668)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine (2.3.1.6)
Predictions / Assertions
Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine (2.3.1.6)
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses.
(UniProt, P07668)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cha: Choline acetyltransferase (J.C. Hall)
Probable structural gene for choline acetyl transferase [ChAT, acetyl CoA-choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6)], which has been purified and whose molecular weight approximates 67 kilodaltons (Slemmon, Salvaterra, Crawford and Roberts, 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 3847-52); monoclonal antibodies prepared and inhibit enzyme (Crawford, Slemmon, and Salvaterra, 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 3853-56); homozygotes and hemizygotes for either of the original two non-conditionally mutant alleles, Chal1 or Chal2, show no detectable enzymatic activity as late embryos, which is when the mutants die; other non-conditional lethals at the locus not tested for lethal stage or ChAT activity; either of two temperature sensitive alleles, Chats1 or Chats2, causes a variety of phenotypic defects when hemizygous or homozygous: reduced viability at 25 and death at 29 (Chats1), reduced viability at 18 and death at 22 or above (Chats2) plus gradual but reversible decline of enzymatic activity and of acetylcholine levels following transfer of low-temperature reared Chats adults to 29-30 or above (Greenspan, 1980; Salvaterra and McCaman, 1985, J. Neurosci. 5: 903-10); correlated with decrements in these biochemical parameters (reversible on lowering temperature), are heat-induced abnormalities of general mobility, male courtship ability, plus electroretinogram (Greenspan, 1980), landing response (Gorczyca and Hall, 1985, Neurosci. Abstr. 11: 512), and of several elements of physiological responses made by thoracic indirect flight muscles following stimulation of giant fiber pathway, implying that certain interneuronal synapses in this pathway are cholinergic (Gorczyca and Hall, 1984, J. Neurogenet. 1: 289-313); whereas wild type exhibits two molecular forms of ChAT activity after isoelectric focusing, homogenates of Chats1 lead to a single form, and of Chats2 to two forms shifted to higher-than-normal pI (Salvaterra and McCaman, 1985); these two conditional Cha mutations also cause ChAT activity to have accentuated thermolability in vitro (Greenspan, 1980; Salvaterra and McCaman, 1985). Immunohistochemical staining of ChAT reveals wide distribution in CNS; this staining is strong in Chats1 at permissive temperature but diminishes after in-vivo heat treatment (Gorczyca and Hall, 1987, J. Neurosci. 7: 1361-69); Chats2 staining is poor even at permissive temperature and diminishes after heating the flies (Gorczyca and Hall, 1987). In situ hybridization to tissue sections detected transcriptional activity in most neuronal elements of the cell-rich areas of the cortical regions of the cerebrum and optic lobes; however, some cells in the lamina including the amacrine neurons showed no label. Highest expression is seen in laminar monopolar-cell region, and the cerebral cortical rind, and to a lesser degree, over cortical cells of medulla-lobula, the antennal sensory neurons, and the retinular-cell layer of the compound eye (Barber, Sugihara, Lee, Vaughn, and Salvaterra, 1989, J. Comp. Neurol. 280: 533-43). Immunolocalization of ChAT in the adult cephalic ganglion reveals weak staining in the lamina corresponding to the synaptic layer of photoreceptor cells 1-6 of the ommatidia, three layers of strong reaction corresponding to the synaptic layers in the medulla, and labeling of four layers in the lobula (Ikeda and Salvaterra, 1989, J. Comp. Neurol. 280: 283-90). In Chats1 staining seen at 19 but disappears by 120 hours after shift to 30; Chats2 shows reduced staining at 19 and none after 80 hours at 30.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ChAT or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ChAT for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Shares 5' UTR with upstream gene.
gene_with_non_canonical_start_codon ; SO:0001739
Unconventional translation start (GUG) postulated; FBrf0052176.
Gene model reviewed during 5.54
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089367
4011
721
FBtr0089368
2824
714
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.0 (northern blot)
4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088397
81.3
721
5.64
FBpp0088977
80.5
714
5.54
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
67 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
The 54 kDa and 13 kDa chains exist as a heterodimer.
(UniProt, P07668)
Post Translational Modification
The N-terminus of choline O-acetyltransferase 67 kDa and 54 kDa chains are blocked.
(UniProt, P07668)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ChAT using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (7 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000502016
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RNase protection, primer extension, SI map
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
VAChT and Cha transcripts are detected in heads and bodies of adult flies. The ratios of the two transcripts vary in different samples indicating that they are differentially regulated despite sharing a common first exon.
Cha transcripts were detected in adult head RNA.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ChAT co-localizes with expression driven by Scer\GAL4S3.Hug in larval Hugin neuron of the protocerebrum, and larval Hugin neuron of the ventral nerve cord/larval Hugin neuron of the ventral nerve cord as well as, weakly, larval Hugin neuron of the corpus cardiacum.
Cha protein labels a subset of neurons in the adult medulla cortex, including the medullary intrinsic neuron Mi1.
Cha protein labels the axonal projections in the central brain of Rh5 and Rh6 photoreceptors of Bolwig organ.
Cha protein is expressed in a subset of neurons of the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate.
Expression of Cha is seen in both large and small monopolar neurons of the lamina.
Cha protein has widespread expression in the ventral nerve cord and it is in close apposition to the processes of neurons labelled by Scer\GAL4CCAP.PP.
Cha protein is expressed in the presynaptic terminals in the ventral nerve cord, in a mutually exclusive pattern to Ace protein, and colocalising with VAChT protein.
The axon terminals of Bolwig's nerve that contact the dendritic arborizations of the lateral neurons (LNs) are immunopositive for Cha.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{ChAT.7.4kb-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-dsRed.7347}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.1.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.7.4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ellipsoid body

Comment: strong expression

adult mushroom body

Comment: strong expression

eye

Comment: strong expression

Reporter: P{ChAT-GAL4.DBD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}ChATNP4784
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}NP1131
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ChAT in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of ChAT
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ChAT
    Allele of ChAT
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ChAT
    Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    eye photoreceptor cell & axon & pupa | somatic clone | conditional ts
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    14 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    14 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
    10 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
    7 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 12
    No
    No
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    3 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (12)
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
    10 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903J8 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503AF )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04GO )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04D9 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G038F )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
      protein-protein
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      The 54 kDa and 13 kDa chains exist as a heterodimer.
      (UniProt, P07668 )
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map
      3-64
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3R:18,705,501..18,732,344 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      91C1-91C5
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sprd05284 and P{PZ}cdi07013&P{lacW}nosj3B6
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      91B8-91C3
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      91B-91D
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      3-64.6
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (28)
      Genomic Clones (34)
      cDNA Clones (34)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: ChAT Cha
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      The gene symbol "Cha" has been changed to "ChAT" in order to reflect the clear preference in the literature, and also to reduce confusion with the "cha" ("chaff") gene symbol, from which it differed only by case.
      One or more of the processed transcripts for this gene share(s) untranslated sequences with a transcript of an adjacent gene, but encode(s) a single open reading frame (ORF). The non-overlapping ORFs that share untranslated sequences are represented by Cha and VAChT.
      Cha and VAChT share a common first exon. The remainder of the VAChT transcript contains a single coding exon residing entirely within the first intron of Cha. The relative levels of Cha and VAChT transcript differ in different tissues or Cha mutants indicating independent regulation of Cha and VAChT transcripts may occur post-transcriptionally.
      Other Comments
      The effect of restrictive temperature on the in vivo expression of Cha mRNA and immunohistochemical observations of the central brain indicate Cha expression is differentially regulated in particular cholinergic neurons in response to a temperature shift.
      Analysis of Cha constructs containing different lengths of 5' flanking sequences has defined a 0.3kb region which is essential for rescuing the Cha lethal mutant phenotype.
      The cis-regulatory regions involved in expression of Cha have been analysed using germline transformants. The 5' flanking DNA of Cha can be divided into several separable positive and negative regulatory regions, which define various subsets of cholinergic neurons in the nervous system.
      A complete Cha cDNA is able to direct the expression of hydrophilic and amphiphilic enzyme activity in Xenopus oocyte.
      Proper expression of Cha requires at least 7.4kb of upstream region.
      Homozygotes and hemizygotes for either of the original two non-conditionally mutant alleles, Df(3R)Cha9 or Chal2, show no detectable choline acetyl transferase enzymatic activity as late embryos, which is when the mutants die; Either of two temperature-sensitive alleles, Chats1 or Chats2, causes a variety of phenotypic defects when hemizygous or homozygous: reduced viability at 25oC and death at 29oC (Chats1), reduced viability at 18oC and death at 22oC or above (Chats2). Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities of general mobility and male courtship ability.
      Recombinant Cha enzyme shares the same kinetic properties and same catalytic residues as the enzyme from a variety of different sources.
      A major point of regulation of Cha expression may occur at the transcriptional level.
      The site of cleavage of the 67kD enzyme that gives rise to the clipped enzyme polypeptide has been determined. The cleavage site has identified an important functional domain and may be the result of cellular processing.
      Immunohistochemical staining of ChAT reveals wide distribution in CNS; this staining is strong in Chats1 at permissive temperature but diminishes after in-vivo heat treatment (FBrf0046829); Chats2 staining is poor even at permissive temperature and diminishes after heating the flies.
      Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities in the landing response.
      Whereas wild type exhibits two molecular forms of ChAT activity after isoelectric focusing, homogenates of Chats1 lead to a single form and of Chats2 to two forms shifted to higher-than-normal pI. Chats1 and Chats2 also cause ChAT activity to have accentuated thermolability in vitro, plus gradual but reversible decline of enzymatic activity and of acetylcholine levels following transfer of low-temperature reared mutants to 29-30oC or above.
      Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities of several elements of physiological responses made by thoracic indirect flight muscles following stimulation of giant fiber pathway, implying that certain interneuronal synapses in this pathway are cholinergic.
      Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities in the electroretinogram.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Cat
      ChAT
      (Fisher et al., 2017, Keleş and Frye, 2017, Kulkarni et al., 2017, Liao et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Huang et al., 2016, Liu and Bossing, 2016, Pankova and Borst, 2016, Schlegel et al., 2016, Karuppudurai et al., 2014, Mauss et al., 2014, Selcho et al., 2014, Karsai et al., 2013, Pech et al., 2013, Yi et al., 2013, Sadananda et al., 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Kahsai and Winther, 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Séjourné et al., 2011, Thum et al., 2011, Varija Raghu et al., 2011, Colodner and Feany, 2010, de Haro et al., 2010, Nicolaï et al., 2010, Pauls et al., 2010, Pauls et al., 2010, Doodhi et al., 2009, Johard et al., 2008, Kolodziejczyk et al., 2008, Vömel and Wegener, 2007, Ashraf et al., 2006, Baqri et al., 2006, Ramaekers et al., 2005, Yang and Kunes, 2004, Yasuyama, 2003, Yasuyama et al., 2003, Lee and Salvaterra, 2002, Malpel et al., 2002, Python and Stocker, 2002, Yasuyama et al., 2002, Lee et al., 2001, Salvaterra and Kitamoto, 2001, Yasuyama et al., 2001, Certel et al., 2000, Kitamoto et al., 2000, Yao et al., 2000, Bowman et al., 1999, Cole, 1999, Lee and O'Dowd, 1999, Ray et al., 1999, Yasuyama and Meinertzhagen, 1999, Yasuyama and Salvaterra, 1999, Kitamoto et al., 1998, Pahud et al., 1998, Kitamoto and Salvaterra, 1995, Kitamoto and Salvaterra, 1995, Kitamoto et al., 1995, Pahud et al., 1995, Raeber et al., 1995, Yasuyama et al., 1995, Salem et al., 1994, Salem et al., 1994, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Sugihara, 1994.3.29, Wu and Hersh, 1994, Carbini and Hersh, 1993, Wu et al., 1993, Kitamoto et al., 1992, Salem and Eder-Colli, 1992, Salvaterra et al., 1991, Sugihara et al., 1991, Carbini et al., 1990, Salem et al., 1990)
      l(3)91Cc
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      • FBgn0064131
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