Shares 5' UTR with upstream gene.
Unconventional translation start (GUG) postulated; FBrf0052176.
Gene model reviewed during 5.54
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.
The 54 kDa and 13 kDa chains exist as a heterodimer.
The N-terminus of choline O-acetyltransferase 67 kDa and 54 kDa chains are blocked.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ChAT using the Feature Mapper tool.
VAChT and Cha transcripts are detected in heads and bodies of adult flies. The ratios of the two transcripts vary in different samples indicating that they are differentially regulated despite sharing a common first exon.
ChAT co-localizes with expression driven by Scer\GAL4S3.Hug in larval Hugin neuron of the protocerebrum, and larval Hugin neuron of the ventral nerve cord/larval Hugin neuron of the ventral nerve cord as well as, weakly, larval Hugin neuron of the corpus cardiacum.
Cha protein labels a subset of neurons in the adult medulla cortex, including the medullary intrinsic neuron Mi1.
Cha protein labels the axonal projections in the central brain of Rh5 and Rh6 photoreceptors of Bolwig organ.
Cha protein is expressed in a subset of neurons of the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate.
Expression of Cha is seen in both large and small monopolar neurons of the lamina.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\ChAT in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: ChAT Cha
The gene symbol "Cha" has been changed to "ChAT" in order to reflect the clear preference in the literature, and also to reduce confusion with the "cha" ("chaff") gene symbol, from which it differed only by case.
One or more of the processed transcripts for this gene share(s) untranslated sequences with a transcript of an adjacent gene, but encode(s) a single open reading frame (ORF). The non-overlapping ORFs that share untranslated sequences are represented by Cha and VAChT.
Cha and VAChT share a common first exon. The remainder of the VAChT transcript contains a single coding exon residing entirely within the first intron of Cha. The relative levels of Cha and VAChT transcript differ in different tissues or Cha mutants indicating independent regulation of Cha and VAChT transcripts may occur post-transcriptionally.
The effect of restrictive temperature on the in vivo expression of Cha mRNA and immunohistochemical observations of the central brain indicate Cha expression is differentially regulated in particular cholinergic neurons in response to a temperature shift.
The cis-regulatory regions involved in expression of Cha have been analysed using germline transformants. The 5' flanking DNA of Cha can be divided into several separable positive and negative regulatory regions, which define various subsets of cholinergic neurons in the nervous system.
A complete Cha cDNA is able to direct the expression of hydrophilic and amphiphilic enzyme activity in Xenopus oocyte.
Homozygotes and hemizygotes for either of the original two non-conditionally mutant alleles, Df(3R)Cha9 or Chal2, show no detectable choline acetyl transferase enzymatic activity as late embryos, which is when the mutants die; Either of two temperature-sensitive alleles, Chats1 or Chats2, causes a variety of phenotypic defects when hemizygous or homozygous: reduced viability at 25oC and death at 29oC (Chats1), reduced viability at 18oC and death at 22oC or above (Chats2). Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities of general mobility and male courtship ability.
Recombinant Cha enzyme shares the same kinetic properties and same catalytic residues as the enzyme from a variety of different sources.
A major point of regulation of Cha expression may occur at the transcriptional level.
The site of cleavage of the 67kD enzyme that gives rise to the clipped enzyme polypeptide has been determined. The cleavage site has identified an important functional domain and may be the result of cellular processing.
Immunohistochemical staining of ChAT reveals wide distribution in CNS; this staining is strong in Chats1 at permissive temperature but diminishes after in-vivo heat treatment (FBrf0046829); Chats2 staining is poor even at permissive temperature and diminishes after heating the flies.
Whereas wild type exhibits two molecular forms of ChAT activity after isoelectric focusing, homogenates of Chats1 lead to a single form and of Chats2 to two forms shifted to higher-than-normal pI. Chats1 and Chats2 also cause ChAT activity to have accentuated thermolability in vitro, plus gradual but reversible decline of enzymatic activity and of acetylcholine levels following transfer of low-temperature reared mutants to 29-30oC or above.
Chats1 or Chats2 show heat-induced abnormalities of several elements of physiological responses made by thoracic indirect flight muscles following stimulation of giant fiber pathway, implying that certain interneuronal synapses in this pathway are cholinergic.