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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\D
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Dichaete
Annotation Symbol
CG5893
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000411
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Dichaete (D) encodes an HMG-domain protein and member of the Sox family of transcription factors. Its roles include hindgut development, embryonic segmentation, and nervous system development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

fish, fish-hook, DM23, DM10, DM33

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:14,175,610..14,178,620 [-]
Recombination map

3-42

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:14175610..14178620
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
HIGH MOBILITY GROUP BOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The High mobility group box (HMGB) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. The HMGB proteins have a characteristic L-shaped HMGB domain of about 80 amino acid residues, which binds the DNA minor groove and induce DNA bending. The HMGB domains are found in one or more copies and are involved in the regulation of DNA-dependent processes such as transcription, replication and chromatin remodeling. (Adapted from FBrf0194706, FBrf0108466, PMID:24086078 and PMID:23153957).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Essential for segmentation and CNS development. May modulate the actions of other transcription factors, including gap and pair-rule proteins.
(UniProt, Q24533)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
D: Dichaete
thumb
D: Dichaete
From Bridges and Morgan, 1923, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 327: 127.
Wings extended uniformly at 45 from body axis and elevated 30 above (occasionally sharply downcast and dragging). Alulae missing. Dorsocentrals and some other bristles reduced in number (Sturtevant, 1918, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 264; Plunkett, 1926, J. Exp. Zool. 46: 181-244). Head often deformed or split in postvertical region. Halteres turned down. Homozygous lethal. Nearly lethal in combination with eyD (Sobels, Kruijt, and Spronk, 1951, DIS 25: 128). Partially suppressed by sc alleles that remove postverticals (sc, sc4, sc6, sc7) but not by others (sc2, sc5) (Sturtevant). Classifiable in triploids. RK2A.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

HMG-domain protein - SOX-domain protein - implicated in the regulation of pair-rule genes and later functions in wing morphogenesis - roles include hindgut development, embryonic segmentation, and nervous system development.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\D or the JBrowse view of Dmel\D for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075746
2935
382
FBtr0333034
1612
382
FBtr0333035
1928
382
FBtr0333036
2619
382
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.0 (northern blot)

1.8 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075488
40.2
382
10.07
FBpp0305248
40.2
382
10.07
FBpp0305249
40.2
382
10.07
FBpp0305250
40.2
382
10.07
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

382 aa isoforms: D-PA, D-PB, D-PC, D-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\D using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:98364
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000030384
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000030384
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000030384
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000030384
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:98364
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000030384
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000030384
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

D transcripts are detected in the nurse cells and the ooctye in stage 6 of oogenesis while the protein is only seen in the oocyte.

The D transcript is first detected in embryonic cycle 13 as a wide band from 15-65% egg length. At cycle 14, the band splits into two domains at 15-30% egg length and about 50% egg length. Procephalic expression is detected at cycle 14. In the cellular blastoderm embryo, D transcript is expressed in 7 irregular stripes, as well as in a dorsal saddle pattern. During gastrulation and germ band extension, two 4-cell wide rows of ventral neurectoderm flanking the invaginating mesoderm, as well as procephalic neurectoderm, express D transcript. During germ band retraction, D is expressed in a subset of cells in the brain, the ventral nerve cord, the hindgut, and segmentally repeated stripes of cells along the ventral epidermis.

D transcript is not detected before nuclear cycle 10 of embryogenesis. In early stage 4 embryos, D transcript is present in a wide central domain, and in late stage 4, it is also present in an anterior domain. The central domain begins to split in early stage 5, and seven stripes are visible by late stage 5. The 6 anterior stripes and the anterior domain expression subsequently disappear. In late stage 6 to early stage 7, neurectodermal expression appears, first as 14 stripes, then expanding to a continuous longitudinal band along the germ band.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ectoderm | segmentally repeated

Comment: 8 patches of cells; expression levels decay after stage 13

hindgut

Comment: expression levels decay after stage 13

Additional Descriptive Data

D-protein expression can be found in the distal part of the inner proliferation zone in the larval optic anlage and in the larval medulla anlage.

D protein labels three paired clusters of cells in the adult brain: one in the protocerebrum, another near the optic lobe border and a third lateral to each antennal lobe (LAAL), which contains around 225 neurons. Subsets of these LAAL neurons co-express Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4 or Scer\GAL4Gad1.3.098, identifying them as cholinergic or GABAergic, respectively. They do not co-express olfactory projection neuron markers such as Scer\GAL4GH146, Scer\GAL4acj6-PG63, Scer\GAL4NP6115 or Scer\GAL4Mz699. A significant proportion of LAAL neurons correspond to olfactory local neurons, as identified by the expression of Scer\GAL4KL107, Scer\GAL4c305a, Scer\GAL4NP1227 and Scer\GAL4NP2426. D protein is also expressed in ring neurons R2 and R4, which co-express Scer\GAL4c547, and in three midline neuron clusters in the thoracic-abdominal ganglion.

D-protein is expressed in medial neuroblasts of the developing larval medulla. A subset of these neuroblasts co-express slp1- and slp2-protein. D-protein is detected in a small number of ganglion mother cells in the medulla anlage.

l(1)sc-protein is expressed in around two rows of neuroepithelial cells at the border of the developing larval medulla.

vvl-protein is expressed in newly formed larval medulla neurons.

run-protein is expressed in newly formed larval medulla neurons.

D is first detected in the presumptive oocyte in region IIb of the germarium. From oogenesis stages 2-7, it is detected specifically in the oocyte cytoplasm and not in nurse cells or follicle cells. It is not detected from stage 8 on.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\D in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
lethal (with D87)
lethal (with D89)
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult cuticle & adult head | somatic clone
larval hindgut & embryo & cell (with Df(3L)fz-GS1a)
macrochaeta & adult thorax
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (21)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
Yes
No
 
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
 
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (21)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
 
 
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (26)
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (17)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (29)
7 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190EET )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509Q5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0E85 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0EKI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0F15 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
7 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-42

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:14,175,610..14,178,620 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    70D3-70D3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)70Da02402&P{PZ}btl00208 and P{PZ}Mpcp00564
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    70D1-70D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    3-40.7

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (80)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: D CG5893

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: D Sry-rDM10 Sry-rDM23 Sry-rDM33 Sry-rDM36 Sry-rDM63

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for D protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_D collection report.

    SoxN and D appear to be partially functionally redundant with respect to formation of ventral and intermediate neuroblasts.

    D and SoxN have differential and redundant functions during central nervous system development.

    D and vvl act in concert with sim to control midline gene expression in the embryo.

    D may have a role in appendage development and may influence the progression of proximal/distal and dorsal/ventral patterning processes.

    D is required for thr differentiation of a restricted group of neural cells in the brain and for the correct development of the hindgut.

    There is some uncertainty in the designation of D1, D3 and "D9" as dominant D alleles.

    The amino terminal portion of the D protein can act as a transcriptional activator. The D HMG domain binds to the vertebrate Sox protein consensus binding sites (AACAAT and AACAAAG) and this binding induces an 85o DNA bend.

    D is required for the development of the central nervous system midline in embryos.

    Mutant embryos show loss and or fusion of head and abdominal segments, and defects in CNS organisation and differentiation of the CNS midline cells.

    Gene was termed 'fish-hook' based on the appearance of its expression pattern in sagittal views of early germ-band-extended embryos.

    Mutant analysis suggests that D plays an important role in segmentation and is essential for proper differentiation and/or survival of specific CNS cells.

    The P{PZ} insertion P{PZ}rJ375 which is 5' and close to D, maps to 70D1-70D3 by deficiency mapping.

    Data suggests that D corresponds to the Sox70D gene and that the recessive lethality associated with D alleles is a result of regulatory mutations that reduce Sox70D expression in the embryo.

    The striking features of null mutations in D are the variability of their phenotypes and their variable effects on the expression of other segmentation genes. This suggests that D has a supporting role in regulating the expression of key developmental genes during segmentation.

    Phenotypes common to all dominant alleles include held out wings, reduced or missing alulae and/or adjacent wing tissue; the halteres are held out or down and are missing some tissue at the bulb-stalk join. Other aspects of the dominant phenotype are allele-specific; wings may be reduced or elongated, and many alleles remove specific thoracic bristles (most often the presuturals). All extant dominant alleles are associated with a chromosome rearrangement with a break at the 70D1-2 interband; revertants of the dominant phenotype are also often associated with a new break in this region. D alleles associated with a break distal to this region are associated with recessive lethality, whereas D alleles with a break proximal to this region are viable, both over deficiencies and other D alleles, as are their non-deficiency revertants.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Bridges, 3rd Jan. 1915.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 64 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Sry-rDM10
    Sry-rDM23
    Sry-rDM33
    Sry-rDM36
    Sry-rDM63
    loD
    Name Synonyms
    Sox box protein 70D
    Sry-related DM10
    Sry-related DM23
    Sry-related DM33
    Sry-related DM36
    Sry-related DM63
    lethal of Dichaete
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010271
    • FBgn0010273
    • FBgn0010274
    • FBgn0010275
    • FBgn0010276
    • FBgn0013641
    • FBgn0014030
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (252)