General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Ddc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Dopa decarboxylase
Annotation Symbol
CG10697
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000422
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (4.1.1.28)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Dopa decarboxylase
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:19,116,483..19,120,306 [-]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the group II decarboxylase family. (P05031)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
(1) L-dopa = dopamine + CO(2) (4.1.1.28)
(2) 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan = 5-hydroxytryptamine + CO(2) (4.1.1.28)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
CARBOXY-LYASES -
Carboxy-lyases are involved in the the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). (Adapted from FBrf0238856).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine. Variation in the synthesis of bioamines may be a factor contributing to natural variation in life span.
(UniProt, P05031)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ddc: Dopa decarboxylase (T.R.F. Wright and J. Hirsh)
Structural gene for dopa decarboxylase [DDC, 3-4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine-carboxylase (EC 4.1.28)] which catalyzes the decarboxylation of dopa to dopamine (Lunan and Mitchell, 1969, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 132: 450-56) and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) but not tyrosine to tyramine (Livingstone and Tempel, 1983, Nature 303: 67-70). Native DDC isolated from mature larvae is a homodimer with subunit molecular weight 54 kd (Clark, Pass, Venkataraman, and Hodgetts, 1978, Mol. Gen. Genet 162: 287-97). Distinct DDC isoforms are generated in the CNS and hypoderm by alternate splicing of the Ddc primary transcript; the CNS isoform differs by the addition of 35 amino acids at the amino terminus (Morgan, Johnson, and Hirsh, 1986, EMBO J. 5: 3335-42). The predicted subunit molecular weights of these are 57.1 and 53.4 kd, respectively. DDC requires pyridoxal-5-phosphate for activity and is strongly inhibited by heavy-metal ions and the sulfhydryl reagent, N-ethylmaleimide. Initial velocity constants determined by Black and Smarrelli (1986, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 870: 31-40). The dopamine produced by DDC is necessary to effect sclerotization of the cuticle, being further metabolized both to N-acetyldopamine and N-β-alanyldopamine, which after oxidation to their respective quinones, crosslink cuticular proteins. Thus in adults and white prepupae more than 90% of the DDC activity is located in the epidermis (Lunan and Mitchell, 1969; Scholnick, Morgan, and Hirsh, 1983, Cell 34: 37-45). Some DDC activity (~5%) is found in the central nervous system of white prepupae and adults where it produces the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin [Wright, 1977, Amer. Zool. 17: 707-21; Livingstone and Tempel, 1983; White and Valles, 1985, Molecular Basis of Neural Development (Edelman, Gell, and Cowan (eds.). John Wiley and Sons, N.Y., pp 547-63]. The limited amounts found in the ovaries (Wright, Steward, Bentley and Adler, 1981, Dev. Genet. 2: 223-35) and proventriculus (Wright and Wright, Proc. Int. Congr. Genet., 15th, 1978, Part I, p. 615) are localized in associated neural ganglia (Konrad and Marsh, 1987, Dev. Biol. 122: 172-85). Five peaks of DDC activity evident during development: at the end of embryogenesis, the two larval molts, pupariation, and eclosion (Marsh and Wright, 1980, Dev. Biol. 80: 379-87; Kraminsky, Clark, Estelle, Gietz, Sage, O'Conner, and Hodgetts, 1980, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 4175-79). The largest peak, which occurs at pupariation, is induced by a coincident ecdysone peak of the molting larvae (Marsh and Wright, 1980) and has been shown to be attributable to a rapid increase in translatable DDC mRNA following administration of 20-0H-ecdysone (Kraminsky et al., 1980). Ecdysone induces Ddc expression in the mature larval epidermis within two to four hrs (Karminsky, et al., 1980; Clark, Doctor, Fristrom, and Hodgetts, 1986, Dev. Biol. 114: 141-50). Since cycloheximide addition is sufficient to largely abolish this induction, it appears that this response is an indirect action of ecdysone. A different response of Ddc to ecdysone occurs in cultured imaginal discs; Ddc induction occurs only subsequent to withdrawal of the hormone (Clark et al., 1986). Most mutations in Ddc are homozygous or hemizygous lethal. The effective lethal phases of the first eight lethal alleles, Ddcn1-Ddcn8, were almost identical. As hemizygotes over Df(2L)TW130 almost all mortality is late embryonic with actively moving larvae, exhibiting unpigmented cephalopharyngeal apparatuses and denticle belts, unable to hatch. When homozygous there is a fairly uniform shift in effective lethal phases with mean mortalities from all eight alleles in the cross of Ddcn/CyO x Ddcn/cn bw being 13.6% embryonic, 14.1% larval, and 4.8% pupal (Wright and Wright, 1978). Many larvae hemizygous for lethal alleles, or homozygous deficient for Ddc, when mechanically released from the egg membranes, continue development to the 3rd larval instar and to the pharate adult stage. Genotypes which produce individuals with drastically reduced DDC activities (~0.5-5% of wild type) exhibit an "escaper" phenotype characterized by incomplete pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle; developmental time can be prolonged for as many as four or five days; puparia are easily scored showing melanization at each end of the greenish-gray pupa case; adults often die or get stuck in the food within 24 hr of eclosion; macrochaetae may be very thin, long, and straw-colored or colorless; the whole body remains light, i.e., doesn't take on its normal pigmentation; abdominal markings are apparent but do not darken; upon aging a few hours wing axillae become melanized similar to the phenotype of sp, leg joints also become melanized perhaps due to the phenoloxidase wound reaction brought on by ruptures of weakened cuticle; flies walk on tibias rather than tarsi, but leg movements appear to be coordinated (Wright, Bewley, and Sherald, 1976). Genotypes that produce flies exhibiting the "escaper" phenotype include heteroallelic intragenic complementing heterozygotes with less than 5% of the expected number of survivors (Wright, Bewley, and Sherald, 1976), hemizygotes of the ts allele Ddcts2 raised continuously at 22 or 25, or homozygotes for Ddcts1 or Ddcts2 exposed to the restrictive temperature 30 for 24- or 48-hour pulses at the end of the pupal stage (Wright). Ddc temperature-sensitive mutants have been reported to show reduced learning after a three-day period at the restrictive temperature (Tempel, Livingstone, and Quinn, 1984, Proc Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 3577-81). However, these results cannot presently be reproduced by other investigators (see Tully, 1987, Trends in Neurosci. 10: 330-35; Hirsh, 1989, Dev. Genet. 10: 232-38). It is possible that this lack of reproducibility is due to the accumulation of genetic modifiers. In homozygous deficient larvae normally-serotonin-containing neurons lack immunologically detectable serotonin but display normal levels of uptake of exogenously supplied serotonin (Valles and White, J. Neurosci. 6: 1482-91). Further studies of these Ddc- larvae, on which catecholamine histofluorescence studies were performed, revealed novel neuronal subsets lighting up, which become fluorogenic earlier than the wild-type-like neurons in the mutant CNS (Budnik, Martin-Morris, and White, 1986, J. Neurosci. 6: 1482-91). Certain serotonin-containing nerve fibers in developing larvae are still able to reach their normal targets in Ddc- animals (which therefore are intrinsically serotonin-minus), but there is anomalous extra branching associated with the incoming fibers (Budnik, Wu, and White, 1989, J. Neurosci. 9: 2866-77). Ddc mosaics generated by crossing a transduced Ddc+ insert into R(1)wvC (Gailey, Bordne, Valles, Hall, and White, 1987, Genetics 115: 305-11). Such adult mosaics used to reveal no absolute requirement of DDC in any particular portion of epidermis or CNS, but there was low recovery of gynandromorphs with large Ddc- patches. Larval mosaics show that DDC-positive neurons always contain serotonin, but some serotonin-positive cells (which were near DDC+) have no detectable enzyme protein; hence, the serotonin phenotype can be nonautonomous (Valles and White, 1990). In addition to the naturally occurring alleles, DdcRE, DdcRS, and Ddc+4, which are described separately, three surveys of natural populations for Ddc variants have been reported. Estelle and Hodgetts (1984, Mol. Gen. Genet. 195: 434-41) measured DDC levels in 109 strains isogenic for second chromosomes isolated independently by Bewley (1978, Biochem. Genet. 16: 769-75) from collections at Raleigh, NC, Bloomington, IN., and Webster Groves, MO. (WGM). Two (WGM) strains (including Ddc+4) had increased activities and two had reduced activities when compared with a Canton-S control. Marsh and Wright report DDC activities from twelve different wild-type strains maintained in laboratories for many years. Relative to Oregon-R (DdcC) females, they ranged from a low of 68% for Urbana males to a high for Canton-S females (180%) and males (130%) with most strains with activities between Oregon-R and Canton-S. Aquadro, Jennings, Bland, Laurie-Ahlberg, and Langley (1984, Genetics 107: s3) surveyed forty-six second chromosome lines isolated from five natural populations for restriction fragment variations in the 80kb region surrounding Ddc and for adult DDC activity. No consistent pattern of association between level of DDC activity and restriction site haplotype was apparent although the lines showed a two-fold variation in DDC activity. Two lines with 5kb and 1.5kb inserts within an intron and at the 5' end of Ddc showed normal adult DDC activities. The temperature-sensitive periods causing lethality for Ddcts2 homozygotes are primarily during embryogenesis and late in the third larval instar. Heat shocks, 30 for 24 or 48 hr, during metamorphosis do not increase lethality significantly but produce adults with the extreme "escaper" phenotype. DDC in extracts from adult Ddcts1 and Ddcts2 homozygotes is significantly more thermolabile than that from wild-type controls. DDC from Ddcts1/+ heterozygotes is much less labile showing a biphasic inactivation curve. Ddcts2/+ DDC is no more thermolabile than wild-type DDC (Wright, unpublished data). Genotypes with reduced levels of DDC activity, e.g. Ddcn5/Ddcn8 and Ddcn1/Ddcn8 with less than 4% DDC activity, are not more sensitive to dietary alpha methyl dopa nor are genotypes with increased levels of DDC activity more resistant (Marsh and Wright, 1986, Genetics 112: 249-65). In fact, the reverse may be true: reduced DDC, more resistant; increased DDC, more sensitive.
DdcC: Dopa decarboxylase-C
DDC activity and resistance to dietary alpha methyl dopa in the normal range for Oregon-R derived stocks. This strain was put through the same genetic manipulations as DdcRE and DdcRS so it could serve as a valid control for those strains.
DdcDE1: Dopa decarboxylase Differential Expression 1
Hemizygous adults (9% of expected eclose) exhibit an extreme "escaper" phenotype (see Ddc above) except macrochaetae are normally pigmented suggesting that DdcDE1 is differentially active in the epidermis vis-a-vis the bristle-forming cells. Pupa cases of DdcDE1 homo- and hemizygotes are wild type. DDC activity in newly eclosed adult DdcDE1 homozygotes is 4.4 _ 0.2% and in hemizygotes is 0.6 _ 0.1% of wild-type controls. Homozygous late embryos have 4.8 _ 2.3% activity. In striking contrast homozygous white prepupae have 46.5 _ 2.8% DDC activity. However, central nervous systems dissected from these DdcDE1 homozygous white prepupae show a tissue specific difference having 4.8 _ 2.3% DDC activity compared to wild-type CNS. Specific DDC activity in DdcDE1 homozygotes ranges significantly more than two times DDC levels in DdcDE1/Df(2L)TW130 hemizygotes. DDC from DdcDE1 homozygotes, crawling third instar larvae and adults, is less thermostable in vitro in comparison to controls. Late DdcDE1/DdcDE1 embryos (16-20 hr) have no detectable mature 2.0 kb Ddc RNA and have reduced levels of the 2.3 kb RNA. The precise reason for the differential expression has yet to be established but is not due to position effect variegation (Bishop and Wright, 1987, Genetics 115: 477-91). DdcDE1 phenotype rescued by a 7.5kb transformant of Ddc+ DNA.
Ddclo1: Dopa Decarboxylase low-1
Some hemizygous adults exhibit the incomplete sclerotization "escaper" phenotype. Not temperature sensitive: hemizygotes being equally viable at 18, 25, and 30 (40-56% of expected). DDC from Ddclo1 hemizygotes is not more thermolabile in vitro than that from wild type. Heterozygous Ddclo1/CyO have about 77% wild type specific DDC activity and Ddclo1 homozygotes have 15-30% activity.
DdcRE: Dopa decarboxylase-RE
Dual phenotype of elevated DDC activity and increased resistance to dietary alpha methyl dopa relative to Oregon-R derived controls (DdcC). Specific DDC activity of newly eclosed adults 158% and DDC crossreacting material (CRM) 156% of the DdcC control. LD50 for alpha methyl dopa is ~0.4 mM vs. ~0.2 mM for the DdcC control. Gene dosage studies with Ddc+ and l(2)amd+ demonstrate that increased resistance to alpha methyl dopa is not the result of increased DDC activity. Thus, the dual phenotype is inferred to arise from a coordinated increase in Ddc+ activity and l(2)amd+ activity produced either by accumulated changes in a genetic element (or elements) in the close proximity to the Ddc and amd genes.
DdcRS: Dopa decarboxylase-RS
Dual phenotype of elevated DDC activity and increased resistance to dietary and methyl dopa relative to Oregon-R derived controls (DdcC). Specific DDC activity of newly eclosed adults 141% and DDC crossreacting material (CRM) 137% of the DdcC control. Interpretation of phenotype identical to that for DdcRE.
Ddc+4: Dopa decarboxylase +4
No visible phenotype: Ddc+4 overproduces DDC activity at embryonic hatching, the second to third instar molt, and at adult eclosion relative to a Canton-S control: 141%, 150%, and 118% respectively; in contrast, underproduces DDC at pupariation: 50%. These temporal differences are found in epidermis but not in neural tissues where DDC activities are normal. DDC CRM at pupariation and adult eclosion are 49% and 140% respectively of Canton-S CRM. No difference was found in the electrophoretic mobility of non-denatured and denatured DDC molecules. DDC mRNA is 140%, 52%, and 148% of Canton-S at embryonic hatching, pupariation, and adult eclosion respectively indicating that the temporal phenotype is reflected in mRNA levels.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Ddc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Ddc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081166
1929
475
FBtr0081167
2085
510
FBtr0290291
2797
475
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.3, 2.0 (northern blot)
4.6, 4.05, 2.95, 2.75, 2.22, 2.14, 2.10, 1.92, 1.75 (northern blot)
2.1 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080709
53.6
475
6.46
FBpp0080710
57.3
510
6.51
FBpp0288730
53.6
475
6.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

475 aa isoforms: Ddc-PB, Ddc-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
56 (kD observed)
510, 502 (aa); 56.7, 56.2 (kD predicted)
60 (kD observed)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, P05031)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Ddc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002129
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Hn; FB:FBgn0001208
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Ddc labels serotonergic neurons and expression is more widespread than that seen with Scer\GAL45-HT7.ERGP which labels a serotonergic receptor. Expression of Ddc is seen in subsets of cells in the larval brain and ventral nerve cord. In the adult, labelling is widespread but stronger in the central complex, including the ring neurons of the ellipsoid body, the lateral triangles (bulbs) and the fan-shaped body. Co-localisation of Ddc with Scer\GAL45-HT7.ERGP is observed in the central complex. There is also Ddc staining in 2 centrifugal neurons which innervate most of the antennal lobe glomeruli. These neurons do not express Scer\GAL45-HT7.ERGP. Ddc is also observed in all thoracic and abdominal neuromeres of the thoracico-abdominal ganglion, with stronger expression in the abdominal neuromeres.
Ddc protein is expressed in a subset of serotonergic neurons of the adult brain, including the mushroom body dorsal paired medial neurons.
Markers that uniquely identify the cells of the NB3-7 lineage were used to examine the serotonin expressing cell lineages.
Ddc activity was investigated in whole imagos and in developing wings. In the whole imago, activity increases steadily between 64 hours after pupariation and eclosion. In wings, there is a peak of activity at 76 hrs which correlates with the time when the wing microchaetae and hairs have become fully melanized.
In third instar larvae, Ddc protein localizes to approximately 125 neurons, and a subset of glial cells. About 80 of the 125 neurons also stain for serotonin.
Immunolocalization experiments using an anti-Ddc antibody indicate that Ddc protein is expressed in the epidermis and the nervous system of the third instar larva and adult. A segmentally repeated pattern of staining is seen in the larval ventral ganglion and brain. A subset of the Ddc-positive cells match the pattern of serotonin-containing cells. The staining in the adult hindgut and oviduct is likely to be due neurons associated with these structures.
Ddc activity reaches a maximum late in embryogenesis and persists into first instar larvae. It does not parallel ecdysone activity which is at a maximum at midembryogenesis.
Ddc protein enzymatic activity levels rise during late larval stages, are highest during the pre-pupal stage of development, and rise again prior to ecolsion after a decrease in activity.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Ddc-GAL4.HL9}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ddc-GAL4.L}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ddc-lacZ.be1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Ddc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 77 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Ddc
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      Transgenic Constructs ( 71 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Ddc
      Allele of Ddc
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Ddc
      characterization construct
      Deletions and Duplications ( 57 )
      Not disrupted in
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Sterility
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      3 of 15
      No
      No
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      13 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      3 of 15
      No
      No
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
      13 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
      8 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      2 of 12
      No
      No
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      3 of 15
      No
      No
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
      5 of 15
      Yes
      No
      4 of 15
      No
      No
      4 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
      9 of 9
      Yes
      Yes
      7 of 9
      No
      No
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905YV )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503F3 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Lucilia cuprina
      Australian sheep blowfly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05UW )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02CJ )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03KI )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
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        Models ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Interactions ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Interactions Browser
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Homodimer.
        (UniProt, P05031 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
        External Data
        Linkouts
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        2L
        Recombination map
        2-54
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        2L:19,116,483..19,120,306 [-]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        37C1-37C1
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)37Dbk16106&P{lacW}Catsupk05424 and P{lacW}Ddck02104
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        37C1-37C2
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        37B9-37D2
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        37C-37C
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        37B13-37C5
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Location
        Notes
        Mapping based on 5/5781 recombinants.
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (28)
        Genomic Clones (12)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (64)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: Ddc l(2)k02104
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          The consequences of HRB overexpression and absence in living flies is examined. Overexpression of Hrb87F does alter the splicing of Ddc pre-mRNA, indicating the overexpressed protein can reproduce the in vitro effect of excess protein.
          Temporal profile of gene expression is altered in Eip74EF mutant background.
          Hormonal induction of Ddc in the epidermis is mediated by genes of the Broad complex.
          Tissue specific elements necessary for the CNS expression of Ddc map to Ddc intron ab.
          RT-PCR procedure designed to quantitate the Ddc epidermal mRNA independent of the neural transcript level demonstrates Ddc primary transcript is spliced by two alternative pathways in neural and epidermal tissue.
          Overexpression of Hrb98DE leads to skipping of all internal exons in the Ddc pre-mRNA in vivo, regardless of the normal Ddc splice site choice.
          Located between coordinates +0.1 and +4.1.
          The S element in the Ddc promoter region may be the fifth in the set of cis-acting sequences in the complex regulatory domain known to specify epidermal Ddc expression during development.
          Splicing of Ddc RNA has been studied in B5228 mutant embryos.
          Analysis of Ddc-ftz fusion constructs shows that Ddc intron ab and exon B are sufficient to regulate Ddc alternative splicing.
          Ecdysteroid-regulated gene.
          P-element mediated expression of Ddc under the control of an uninduced heat shock promoter demonstrates that regulation of Ddc splicing in the CNS is at the level of the whole tissue.
          65kb around Ddc used in a study that showed that restriction site distribution shows no departure from that expected under the equilibrium model, but insertions and deletions are rarer than predicted indicating that they are deleterious. Variation in level of Ddc activity is twofold from the highest to the lowest, and restriction enzyme patterns are linked to particular activities.
          Profile of zfh2 expression in the larval CNS shows intriguing overlap with Ddc expression in specific serotonin and dopamine neurons. In vitro mutagenesis of the Ddc 5' region dissected the functional redundancy of two serotonin response regulatory regions. The product of zfh2 binds to a protein binding site in the Ddc promoter.
          Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.
          Derepression of Ddc expression in the glia cells requires the presence of promoter sequences -209 to -25.
          Ddc mutants that cannot bind vvl can distinguish between dopaminergic and serotonic neurons and defines anatomical subsets of dopaminergic neurons that regulate Ddc expression.
          Genetic mosaics were used to determine the distribution of Ddc and 5HT. Phenotypic mosaicism was observed for both Ddc and 5HT immunoreactivity. Ddc neurons were always 5HT neurons, but some 5HT neurons were devoid of Ddc activity, though were always found in close proximity to other Ddc neurons. Results suggest that in vivo uptake mechanisms are responsible for 5HT accumulation in the neurons devoid of Ddc immunoreactivity.
          Ddc sequences upstream of -2200bp are not required for normal neuronal expression but deletion to -760bp causes a near total loss of neuron specific expression. Hypoderm Ddc activity remains unchanged. A distal regulatory element has been identified extending from -1019 to -1623 bp. The region possesses enhancer-like properties and is essential for normal neuron-specific expression.
          Element I of the Ddc promoter is responsible for stimulating Ddc expression in the CNS, but Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that it is not sufficient alone to confer CNS expression on an heterologous promoter.
          Ddc affects cuticle formation.
          amd is located 2kb distal to Ddc.
          The 3' end of the CG10561 gene overlaps with the 3' end of the Ddc gene. Overall orientation not stated: Ddc+ l(2)37Cc- Overall orientation not stated: Ddc+ CG10561-
          Ddc and amd share extensive sequence homology and are the products of a gene duplication event. Dot matrix analysis demonstrates there is very little sequence homology between Ddc or amd, and l(2)37Cc or CG10561 transcripts.
          Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.
          Genetic and immunological evidence suggest that Ddc gene product is required for cuticle sclerotization during late embryogenesis and the early first larval instar.
          Of 16 Ddc alleles tested, none show dominant hypersensitivity to α-methyl dopa.
          Ddc is required for female fertility and the requirement is ovary-autonomous.
          Ddc and amd are non-allelic.
          Ddc mutant alleles do not give rise to a dominant α-MD hypersensitive phenotype.
          Structural gene for dopa decarboxylase (DDC, 3-4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine-carboxylase) which catalyzes the decarboxylation of dopa to dopamine (Lunan and Mitchell, 1969) and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) but not tyrosine to tyramine (Livingstone and Tempel, 1983). Native DDC isolated from mature larvae is a homodimer with subunit molecular weight 54kD (Clark et al., 1978). Distinct DDC isoforms are generated in the CNS and hypoderm by alternate splicing of the Ddc primary transcript; the CNS isoform differs by the addition of 35 amino acids at the amino terminus (Morgan, Johnson and Hirsh, 1986). The predicted subunit molecular weights of these are 57.1 and 53.4kD, respectively. DDC requires pyridoxal-5-phosphate for activity and is strongly inhibited by heavy-metal ions and the sulfhydryl reagent, N-ethylmaleimide. Initial velocity constants determined by Black and Smarrelli (1986). The dopamine produced by DDC is necessary to effect sclerotization of the cuticle, being further metabolized both to N-acetyldopamine and N-β-alanyldopamine, which after oxidation to their respective quinones, crosslink cuticular proteins. Thus in adults and white prepupae more than 90% of the DDC activity is located in the epidermis (Lunan and Mitchell, 1969; Scholnick, Morgan and Hirsh, 1983). Some DDC activity (about 5%) is found in the central nervous system of white prepupae and adults where it produces the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin (Wright, 1977; Livingstone and Tempel, 1983; White and Valles, 1985). The limited amounts found in the ovaries (Wright, Steward, Bentley and Adler, 1981) and proventriculus (Wright and Wright, 1978) are localized in associated neural ganglia (Konrad and Marsh, 1987). Five peaks of DDC activity evident during development: at the end of embryogenesis, the two larval molts, pupariation and eclosion (Marsh and Wright, 1980; Kraminsky et al., Sage, O'Conner and Hodgetts, 1980). The largest peak, which occurs at pupariation, is induced by a coincident ecdysone peak of the molting larvae (Marsh and Wright, 1980) and has been shown to be attributable to a rapid increase in translatable DDC mRNA following administration of 20-0H-ecdysone (Kraminsky et al., 1980). Ecdysone induces Ddc expression in the mature larval epidermis within two to four hrs (Karminsky et al., 1980; Clark et al., 1986). Since cycloheximide addition is sufficient to largely abolish this induction, it appears that this response is an indirect action of ecdysone. A different response of Ddc to ecdysone occurs in cultured imaginal discs; Ddc induction occurs only subsequent to withdrawal of the hormone (Clark et al., 1986). Most mutations in Ddc are homozygous or hemizygous lethal. The effective lethal phases of the first eight lethal alleles, Ddc1-Ddc8, were almost identical. As hemizygotes over Df(2L)TW130 almost all mortality is late embryonic with actively moving larvae, exhibiting unpigmented cephalopharyngeal apparatuses and denticle belts, unable to hatch. When homozygous there is a fairly uniform shift in effective lethal phases with mean mortalities from all eight alleles in the cross of Ddcn/CyO x Ddcn/cn bw being 13.6% embryonic, 14.1% larval and 4.8% pupal (Wright and Wright, 1978). Many larvae hemizygous for lethal alleles, or homozygous deficient for Ddc, when mechanically released from the egg membranes, continue development to the 3rd larval instar and to the pharate adult stage. Genotypes which produce individuals with drastically reduced DDC activities (about 0.5-5% of wild type) exhibit an 'escaper' phenotype characterized by incomplete pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle; developmental time can be prolonged for as many as four or five days; puparia are easily scored showing melanization at each end of the greenish-gray pupa case; adults often die or get stuck in the food within 24 hr of eclosion; macrochaetae may be very thin, long and straw-colored or colorless; the whole body remains light, i.e., doesn't take on its normal pigmentation; abdominal markings are apparent but do not darken; upon aging a few hours wing axillae become melanized similar to the phenotype of sp, leg joints also become melanized perhaps due to the phenoloxidase wound reaction brought on by ruptures of weakened cuticle; flies walk on tibias rather than tarsi, but leg movements appear to be coordinated (Wright, Bewley and Sherald, 1976). Genotypes that produce flies exhibiting the 'escaper' phenotype include heteroallelic intragenic complementing heterozygotes with less than 5% of the expected number of survivors (Wright, Bewley and Sherald, 1976), hemizygotes of the temperature-sensitive allele Ddcts2 raised continuously at 22oC or 25oC, or homozygotes for Ddcts1 or Ddcts2 exposed to the restrictive temperature 30oC for 24- or 48-hour pulses at the end of the pupal stage (Wright). Ddc temperature-sensitive mutants have been reported to show reduced lea
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Wright, 1974.
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 280 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Linkouts
          ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          Ddc
          (Croset et al., 2018, Uechi et al., 2018, Branco et al., 2017, Hughes and Leips, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Yao et al., 2017, Crocker et al., 2016, Juarez, 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Hamilton et al., 2015, Tomita et al., 2015, Xie et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Yamamoto and Seto, 2014, Ghezzi et al., 2013, Hodges et al., 2013, Pech et al., 2013, Short and Lazzaro, 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2012, Commar et al., 2012, Gangishetti et al., 2012, Hazelett et al., 2012, Rynes et al., 2012, Winbush et al., 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Anh et al., 2011, Bang et al., 2011, Ferdousy et al., 2011, Juarez et al., 2011, Kim and McGinnis, 2011, Lee et al., 2011, Loeschcke et al., 2011, Ortega-Arellano et al., 2011, Sekine et al., 2011, Agrawal et al., 2010, Kong et al., 2010, Lajeunesse et al., 2010, van der Linde et al., 2010, Agrawal et al., 2009, Bernardo et al., 2009, Claridge-Chang et al., 2009, Ji and Tulin, 2009, Kozlova et al., 2009, Pearson et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Yew et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Davis et al., 2008, Hoopfer et al., 2008, Park et al., 2008, Tarone et al., 2008, Wicker-Thomas and Hamann, 2008, Wright and O'Donnell, 2008, Davis et al., 2007, Davis et al., 2007, Dierick and Greenspan, 2007, Dietzl et al., 2007, Juarez et al., 2007, Laayouni et al., 2007, Lee and Lundell, 2007, Levine et al., 2007, Tatarenkov and Ayala, 2007, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2006, Gauthier and Hewes, 2006, Jordan et al., 2006, Park et al., 2006, Zurovcova et al., 2006, Mace et al., 2005, Mace et al., 2005, Moussian and Uv, 2005, Lawniczak and Begun, 2004, Marican et al., 2004, Hall, 2003, Powell et al., 2003, Tuckfield et al., 2002, Lundell et al., 1996, McCrady and Tolin, 1994, Wright, 1987)
          l(2)37Bl
          l(2)37Ch
          l(2)k02104
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0022245
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          References (393)