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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dhod
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
Annotation Symbol
CG9741
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000447
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (quinone) (1.3.5.2)
Gene Snapshot
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (Dhod) encodes a protein that is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. It catalyzes the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, which is required for normal cuticle formation and oogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

DHODH, l(3)s3512

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:8,651,391..8,652,916 [-]
Recombination map

3-48

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:8651391..8652916
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (7 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000234184
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q02127
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q02127
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000234184
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000234184
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000234186
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q02127
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000234186
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase family. Type 2 subfamily. (P32748)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
(S)-dihydroorotate + a quinone = orotate + a quinol (1.3.5.2)
Predictions / Assertions
(S)-dihydroorotate + a quinone = orotate + a quinol (1.3.5.2)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CH-CH OXIDOREDUCTASES -
The Other CH-CH oxidoreductases, is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major oxidoreductases acting on the CH-CH group of donors.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Catalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate with quinone as electron acceptor.
(UniProt, P32748)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Dhod: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
Likely to be the structural gene for dehydroorotate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis [DHOdehase (EC 1.3.3.1)]. Homozygotes for null alleles display less than 3% normal levels of enzyme activity; heterozygotes have half-normal levels; flies with three normal alleles show increased levels. Enzyme appears to be monomeric; no interallelic complementation among null alleles. Enzyme activity located in outer surface of inner mitochondrial membrane in other species; also mitochondrial in Drosophila. Homozygotes for null alleles exhibit wing truncation, irregular lengths and distribution of hairs on wing margin, deformed posterior legs, and female sterility, as seen in r and r-l. Viability normal. Phenotype suppressed, but enzyme level not restored, by su(r). Null mutants suppress eye mottling characteristic of r-l in doubly mutant genotypes.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dhod for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.43

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081890
1355
405
FBtr0300442
1472
405
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.3 (northern blot, longest cDNA)

1.6, 1.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081376
44.3
405
9.73
FBpp0289671
44.3
405
9.73
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

405 aa isoforms: Dhod-PA, Dhod-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dhod using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The 1.5 kb Dhod transcript is most abundant in early embryos, and least abundant in mid-larval stages. It is present in intermediate amounts in mid-embryonic and mid-pupal stages, and in adult flies of both sexes.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Using an enzyme assay, Dhod protein activity is demonstrated in elongated spermatid bundles, but is absent from earlier and later stages.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{ds1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ds1Δ947}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ds1Δ975}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ds1ΔBH}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ds1ΔCH}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Dhod in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909CG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915059F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08TG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08P9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07JK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-48

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:8,651,391..8,652,916 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85A5-85A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP833 and P{lacW}l(3)L4740L4740
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    85A5-85A7
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    3-48.0

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    No recombinants with pp among 11,618 offspring of heterozygous mothers.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (57)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Dhod CG9741

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Dhod l(3)s3512

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    A novel class of Dhod RNA of approximately 1.6kb is relatively abundant in adult males. Expression of a male specific promoter is limited to spermatogenic cells. This RNA is subject to a translational delay system operative during spermatogenesis.

    Structural organisation, embryonic transcript and protein product of Dhod are characterised.

    The location of the Dhod gene within 85A has been determined by mapping two rearrangement mutations. A cDNA clone has been isolated and the developmental expression of the Dhod transcript has been studied.

    Dhod was involved in a complementation analysis of the 85A region.

    Likely to be the structural gene for dehydroorotate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis (DHOdehase). Homozygotes for null alleles display less than 3% normal levels of enzyme activity; heterozygotes have half-normal levels; flies with three normal alleles show increased levels. Enzyme appears to be monomeric; no interallelic complementation among null alleles. Enzyme activity located in outer surface of inner mitochondrial membrane in other species; also mitochondrial in Drosophila. Homozygotes for null alleles exhibit wing truncation, irregular lengths and distribution of hairs on wing margin, deformed posterior legs and female sterility, as seen in r and r-l. Viability normal. Phenotype suppressed, but enzyme level not restored, by su(r). Null mutants suppress eye mottling characteristic of r-l in doubly mutant genotypes.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 54 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (70)