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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\disco
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
disconnected
Annotation Symbol
CG9908
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000459
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
disconnected (disco) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor involved in development of ventral appendages (e.g. legs and some mouthparts) during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:16,210,598..16,216,750 [-]
Recombination map
1-53
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the establishment of stable connections between the larval optic nerves, the Bolwig's nerves, and their target cells in the brain during embryonic development.
(UniProt, P23792)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
disco: disconnected (J.C. Hall and H. Steller)
Compound eyes are disconnected from optic ganglia in most mutant individuals, but approximately 5-10% have superficially normal eye-brain connections. Photoreceptor cells initially present but degenerate progressively with age; axons of photoreceptor cells which are still present form plexus beneath the eye. Focus of gene function fate maps to a point well anterior to the focus of either the eye or optic lobe (Fischbach). Adult defect arises as consequence of a defect in the larval visual nerve (Bolwig's nerve) which fails to connect with its target cells in the central nervous system; subsequently, owing to loss of the pioneer function of Bolwig's nerve, retinular axons fail to innevate their target cells in the developing optic lobes leading to massive degeneration of the optic ganglia during the early pupal stages (Steller and Rubin). Slight disarray of embryonic peripheral nervous system detectable; occasional errant neurons seen. Developing CNS appears normal, but adult brain is abnormal in that certain lateral neurons, which normally express per are either absent or do not express per (Zerr et al.). Larval reacts normally to all stimuli except light. All alleles display significantly reduced viability; death occurs in late pupal stages as pharate adults. In tests of circadian rhythms, eclosion and adult locomotor activity are essentially arrhythmic (Dushay et al.). Cyclical expression of per protein, which normally occurs in eyes and brain, is fairly robust in disco, whether eyes connected to the brain or not (Zerr et al.); hence this eye rhythm may be autonomous, i.e., given absence of CNS neuronal staining in mutant adults.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\disco or the JBrowse view of Dmel\disco for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074250
3247
568
FBtr0100384
3067
568
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.9 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074028
62.4
568
6.68
FBpp0099796
62.4
568
6.68
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

568 aa isoforms: disco-PA, disco-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
568 (aa); 62 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\disco using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (13 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states >=6 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
disco transcripts are first detected at 6hr of embryonic development. They are detected throughout embryonic and larval stages and increase in abundance at each larval molt. Levels remain high in pupae and drop in adults where transcripts are detected at higher levels in head than body RNA.
The disco transcript is first detected in the posterior pole of the cellular blastoderm, and expression in then detected in anterior regions. Following head involution, expression is detected in the gnathal buds, labral and antennal segments as well as in the posterior of the procephalic lobe. Signal is also detected in the ectoderm of the thoracic segments, as well as in the visceral mesoderm. Following germ band retraction, expression in detected in the ventral nerve cord and in a sheet of cells surrounding the gut.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
disco protein expression essentially recapitualtes the disco transcript expression pattern. In addition to the regions marked by in situ hybridization, disco antibody staining detects expression in the cardioblast cells which give rise to the dorsal vessel. A segmentally repeated pattern is also detected in the lateral ectoderm near the peripheral nervous system. Expression is also detected in tissues which give rise to the visual system.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\disco in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of disco
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of disco
Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye photoreceptor cell & axon & larva
sensory neuron & haltere
sensory neuron & leg
sensory neuron & wing
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
4 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FHD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AWM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W042X )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03ZJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0638 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
5 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-53
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:16,210,598..16,216,750 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    14B3-14B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1458&P{EP}EP1522 and P{EP}kat80EP620&P{EP}cazEP1564
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    14B3-14B4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    1-53.1
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (15)
    Genomic Clones (19)
     
    cDNA Clones (24)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Not allelic to bss or eas, two closely linked behavioral mutants in 14B4-13; order = disco eas bss.
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for disco protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_disco collection report.
    disco and disco-r appear to have redundant functions during development of the larval head. Presence of either gene is sufficient for normal development of the mandibular, maxillary and labial lobes.
    Absence of both disco and disco-r disrupts development in the mandibular, maxillary and labial lobes.
    disco expression in the optic lobe primordium is dependant on an autoregulatory feedback loop.
    Mutations disrupt neural cell patterning in the visual system, leading to the loss of many optic lobe neurons. The presence of a single ventral lateral neurons (LNV) is sufficient to provoke robust circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity if the LNV terminals reach the superior protocerebrum.
    The development of an identified serotonergic aborization that projects from the central brain has been analysed. Using mutations of disco that impair the connectivity of the larval optic nerve to the larval neuropil centre it is concluded that neither cell viability nor the initial outgrowth of this projection depends on the presence of the larval optic nerve. Aborization of the projection within the larval optic neuropil requires the presence of the larval optic nerve.
    Genetic mosaic analysis demonstrates that R cell degeneration in disco mutant does not depend on the genotype of cells in the eye and is strictly correlated with the failure of R cells to project to the optic ganglia. Retinal degeneration can be rescued by the establishment of connections with disorganized optic lobes.
    disco flies are rhythmic, indicating they have an active circadian pacemaker that can be entrained by light. Analysis of mutants suggests they block or interfere with elements of the circadian system located between the central pacemaker and its outputs that mediate overt rhythms.
    Increasing the copy number of disco+ has no major effect on development.
    Fas3, mys, disco, zip, l(2)gl, N and Egfr mutants show an additive phenotype in combination with Fas1TE89Da.
    disco mutants sing in an essentially normal manner, although their locomotor activity is largely arrhythmic.
    Mutant analysis suggests that light normally triggers the coupling of multiple ultradian oscillators into a functional circadian clock and that this process is disrupted in disco mutant flies as a result of the neural lesion.
    disco mutants have a characteristic deformed eye: the absence of the Bolwig nerve in larvae prevents retinula axons from finding their way to the optic lobe.
    Mosaic analysis and fate mapping data concludes that the primary defect responsible for the adult disco phenotype is a failure of Bolwig's nerve to contact its correct target cells during embryonic development.
    The adult phenotype of disco is caused by a pathfinding defect of a larval pioneer nerve. disco is required for the navigation of a specific subset of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Phenotypic analyses and genetic mosaic experiments suggest that disco mutations affect the nerve rather than the target in the CNS or cells guiding the nerve's growth cone.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    K. Fischbach and M. Heisenberg.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 39 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (166)