General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dnc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
dunce
Annotation Symbol
CG32498
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000479
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
dunce (dnc) encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, responsible for cAMP degradation. dnc product plays a pivotal role in neurological and behavioral plasticity including synaptic development and function, learning and courtship. dnc is also known to affect regulation of several developmental processes such as oogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Also Known As
PDE4, dunce, fs(1)M42, EG:140G11 .4, EG:96G10 .7
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:3,176,440..3,343,767 [+]
Recombination map
1-2
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE4 subfamily. (P12252Q8IRU4Q9W4S9Q9W4T4)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes (By similarity). Vital for female fertility. Required for learning/memory.
(UniProt, P12252)
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes (By similarity). Vital for female fertility. Required for learning/memory (By similarity).
(UniProt, Q8IRU4)
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes (By similarity). Vital for female fertility. Required for learning/memory (By similarity).
(UniProt, Q9W4S9)
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes (By similarity). Vital for female fertility. Required for learning/memory.
(UniProt, Q9W4T4)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
dnc: dunce (R. Davis; J.C. Hall)
Gene encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase. Mutants blocked or impaired in learning, with respect to several of the conditioning tests used on groups of flies or larvae or on individual adults, e.g., those involving odors and electric shocks or sugars (Aceves-Pina and Quinn, 1979, Science 206: 93-96; Tempel, Bonini, Dawson, and Quinn, 1983, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 1482-86; see also Aceves-Pina, Booker, Duerr, Livingstone, Quinn, Smith, Sziber, Tempel, and Tully, 1983, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 48: 831-40), visual stimuli (Folkers, 1982, J. Insect Physiol. 28: 535-39), or various elements of courtship (with respect to tests on mutant males or females, summarized by Hall, 1984, Dev. Genet. 4: 355-78); also, dncM14 males have reduced reproductive fitness after exposure to and courtship of immature females, i.e. when mutant males are put, post training, with mixed female/young male populations (Gailey, Siegel, and Hall, 1985, Genetics 111: 795-804). dnc females display an increased frequency of mating; it is suggested that this could account for their 50% normal longevity (Bellen and Kiger, 1987, Genetics 115: 153-60). dnc males are not conditioned to avoid virgin females by sequestration with such females in the presence of quinine; wild type males are (Ackerman and Siegel, 1986, J. Neurogenet. 3: 111-23). dnc mutants apparently learn normally, or nearly so, in certain experiments but have abnormally short memory (e.g., Dudai, 1979, J. Comp. Physiol. 130: 271-75; Mariath, 1985, J. Insect Physiol. 31: 779-87); more specifically, modificatons of original shock-odor testing system reveal that dnc is defective in short term memory, with long-term memory similar to wild type (Tully and Quinn, 1985, J. Comp. Physiol. 157: 263-77); dnc/+ females also memory deficient (Dudai, 1983, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 5445-48). Whereas dnc adults seem normal in several general behaviors (Dudai et al., 1976), the mutant displays aberrant "centrophobic" behavior [i.e., transient avoidance of the center of an arena displayed by normal adults (Gotz and Biesinger, 1985, J. Comp. Physiol. 156: 319-27, 329-37)]. Mosaic studies suggest that the focus of dnc/+ function is the brain, even though some learning responses demonstrated by headless flies (Aceves-Pina, et al.). Sensory fatigue associated with an adult mechanosensory neuron, as measured by bristle stimulation, occurs more rapidly than normal in dnc (allele not specified) (Corfas and Dudai, 1990, J. Neurosci. 10: 491-99). There is an increased number of mushroom-body axonal fibers in young adults expressing dnc1 or dncM11, which, unlike wild type, decreases over the next few days (Balling, Technau, and Heisenberg, 1987, J. Neurogenet. 4: 65-73). Mutations or deletions of the locus reduce or eliminate one form of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) activity; caffeine, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreases visual learning performance of normal adults and of dnc1 as well, suggesting that the biochemical effects of the drug and the mutation are not identical (Folkers and Spatz, 1984, J. Insect Physiol. 30: 957-65). The effects of dnc mutations on heat stability or Km of this activity indicate that the locus codes for this enzyme (Kauvar, 1982, J. Neurosci. 2: 1347-58; Davis and Kauvar); dnc variants also lead to increased levels of cyclic AMP (summarized by Davis and Kauvar, 1983), more specifically, such that most of the excess is in free (vs. bound) nucleotide; both fractions exist in whole-fly homogenates (Friedrich, Solti, Gyurkovicz, 1984, J. Cell. Biochem. 26: 197-203). dncM11 affects the level of phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of the cyclic-AMP-dependent kinase (Devay, Pinter, Yalcin, and Friedrich, 1986, Neurosci. 18: 193-203). Levels of regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase tend to be higher than normal in dnc1 and dnc2 (Muller and Spatz, 1989, J. Neurogenet. 6: 95-114). dncM11 flies exhibit increased levels of expression of copia (Yun and Davis, 1989, Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 8313-26). dnc alleles cause varying degrees of female sterility; oocytes of females homozygous for amorphic alleles rarely reach maturity, and for the most part are not oviposited; 90% of the few that are oviposited are fragile, lacking a chorion. That this phenotype is somatic in origin is demonstrated by the observation that homozygous germ-line clones produce morphologically normal eggs; some of these eggs undergo a few abortive nuclear divisions, but they never reach an identifiable stage of oogenesis. The maternal-effect lethality partially suppressible by rut, which reduces adenylate cyclase activity. The earliest defect seen in the embryos produced by dnc rut females occurs soon after fertilization and affects DNA replication and mitosis, prevents nuclear migration, and leads to large polyploid nuclei; a later defect prevents cleavage nuclei from migrating into, or dividing in, the poserior region of the egg, affecting the developmental behavior or fate of blastoderm cells. The few surviving offspring of double-mutant females show frequent developmental abnormalities of the second and third thoracic, and the first five abdominal segments; these include deficiencies, duplications, and transformation of structures; some 15% of the daughters of such females lack one or both ovaries (Livingstone, Sziber, and Quinn, 1984, Cell 37: 205-15; Bellen, Gregory, Olsson, and Kiger, 1987, Dev. Biol. 121: 432-44; Bellen and Kiger, 1988, Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 197: 258-68).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
17
Number of Unique Polypeptides
12

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\dnc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\dnc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070517
2841
701
FBtr0070509
4093
1209
FBtr0070512
3792
1057
FBtr0070515
3828
1068
FBtr0070518
2386
642
FBtr0070521
2435
662
FBtr0070520
2604
814
FBtr0070511
3834
1070
FBtr0070513
3831
1070
FBtr0070522
2167
521
FBtr0070519
11128
983
FBtr0333312
10159
642
FBtr0333313
8328
703
FBtr0333314
7521
703
FBtr0333315
9576
1209
FBtr0333316
8691
715
FBtr0333317
9456
715
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
9.5, 7.0 (unknown)
9.6, 9.5, 7.4, 7.2, 7.0, 6.7, 5.0, 4.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070493
77.2
701
4.69
FBpp0070485
129.4
1209
5.99
FBpp0070488
113.5
1057
5.25
FBpp0070491
114.8
1068
5.20
FBpp0070494
70.6
642
4.71
FBpp0070497
73.0
662
4.74
FBpp0070496
89.1
814
4.72
FBpp0070487
115.1
1070
5.26
FBpp0070489
115.1
1070
5.26
FBpp0070498
57.4
521
4.61
FBpp0070495
107.3
983
5.35
FBpp0305504
70.6
642
4.71
FBpp0305505
77.4
703
4.69
FBpp0305506
77.4
703
4.69
FBpp0305507
129.4
1209
5.99
FBpp0305508
78.9
715
4.88
FBpp0305509
78.9
715
4.88
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

642 aa isoforms: dnc-PE, dnc-PP
1209 aa isoforms: dnc-PB, dnc-PS
1070 aa isoforms: dnc-PI, dnc-PJ
703 aa isoforms: dnc-PQ, dnc-PR
715 aa isoforms: dnc-PT, dnc-PU
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
777, 714, 702, 628 (aa); 85, 79, 77, 71 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Monomer.
(UniProt, P12252, Q8IRU4, Q9W4S9, Q9W4T4)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dnc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (26 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000886915
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005887
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000886915
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002602772
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005887
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002602772
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002602772
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Immunolocalization of dnc protein to thin sections of adult brain shows that it is largely concentrated in the mushroom bodies. Within mushroom bodies, the γ lobes stain more intensely than the α or β lobes, peduncle staining intensity varies with position and calyx expression is uniform. An intermediate level of staining is seen in most neuropil structures including the inner optic lobe neuropil, protocerebrum, suboesophageal ganglion, antennal lobes, and central complex. A conspicuous lack of staining is found in the photoreceptor cell layer, lamina, antennal nerve, and median bundle. Staining was also observed in the neuropil of thoracic and abdominal ganglia. Intense staining was observed in larval mushroom body neuropil. In contrast to adult brain, some cell body staining was observed in the larval mushroom body.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dnc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 73 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of dnc
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
        0
        Yes
          0
          Yes
            0
            Yes
            Other relevant insertions
            miscellaneous insertions
            Name
            Expression Data
            Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
            For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
            Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dnc
            Allele of dnc
            Mutagen
            Associated Transgenic Construct
            Stocks
            Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dnc
            GAL4 construct
            Name
            Expression Data
            reporter construct
            Name
            Expression Data
            Deletions and Duplications ( 13 )
            Summary of Phenotypes
            For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
            Lethality
            Allele
            Sterility
            Allele
            Other Phenotypes
            Allele
            Phenotype manifest in
            Allele
            axon & motor neuron
            axon & motor neuron (with dnc1)
            axon & motor neuron (with dncM11)
            cell body & embryonic neuron
            growth cone & embryonic neuron
            larval brain & neuron
            mushroom body & neuron
            neuromuscular junction & abdominal 4 ventral longitudinal muscle 3 & larva, with Scer\GAL4Toll-6-D42
            neuromuscular junction & abdominal 4 ventral longitudinal muscle 4 & larva, with Scer\GAL4Toll-6-D42
            neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 1 & larva, with Scer\GAL4Toll-6-D42
            neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 2 & larva, with Scer\GAL4Toll-6-D42
            nurse cell & nucleus
            nurse cell & nucleus (with Df(1)N-64i16)
            nurse cell & nucleus (with dnc225)
            nurse cell & nucleus (with dncM14)
            nurse cell & nucleus | germ-line clone
            RP3 neuron & postsynaptic membrane
            RP3 neuron & synaptic vesicle
            Orthologs
            Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Homo sapiens (Human) (16)
            Species\Gene Symbol
            Score
            Best Score
            Best Reverse Score
            Alignment
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            11 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            11 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
             
            10 of 15
            No
            Yes
            8 of 15
            No
            Yes
            2 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
             
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
             
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
             
            Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (16)
            Species\Gene Symbol
            Score
            Best Score
            Best Reverse Score
            Alignment
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            12 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            10 of 15
            No
            Yes
            10 of 15
            No
            Yes
            10 of 15
            No
            Yes
            2 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (12)
            10 of 13
            Yes
            Yes
            9 of 13
            No
            Yes
            9 of 13
            No
            Yes
            6 of 13
            No
            Yes
            1 of 13
            No
            Yes
            1 of 13
            No
            No
            1 of 13
            No
            No
            1 of 13
            No
            No
            1 of 13
            No
            No
            1 of 13
            No
            Yes
            1 of 13
            No
            No
            1 of 13
            No
            No
            Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (15)
            8 of 12
            Yes
            Yes
            6 of 12
            No
            Yes
            5 of 12
            No
            Yes
            5 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            No
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            No
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            No
            1 of 12
            No
            Yes
            1 of 12
            No
            No
            Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (21)
            10 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            10 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            9 of 15
            No
            Yes
            9 of 15
            No
            Yes
            5 of 15
            No
            Yes
            5 of 15
            No
            Yes
            2 of 15
            No
            No
            2 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
            12 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
            1 of 9
            Yes
            Yes
            Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
            7 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
            No orthologs reported.
            Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903LP )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            AAA Syntenic Ortholog
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Drosophila melanogaster
            fruit fly
            Drosophila suzukii
            Spotted wing Drosophila
            Drosophila simulans
            Drosophila sechellia
            Drosophila erecta
            Drosophila yakuba
            Drosophila ananassae
            Drosophila persimilis
            Drosophila willistoni
            Drosophila virilis
            Drosophila mojavensis
            Drosophila grimshawi
            Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503OF )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Musca domestica
            House fly
            Glossina morsitans
            Tsetse fly
            Lucilia cuprina
            Australian sheep blowfly
            Mayetiola destructor
            Hessian fly
            Mayetiola destructor
            Hessian fly
            Aedes aegypti
            Yellow fever mosquito
            Anopheles darlingi
            American malaria mosquito
            Anopheles gambiae
            Malaria mosquito
            Culex quinquefasciatus
            Southern house mosquito
            Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05ML )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Bombyx mori
            Silkmoth
            Bombyx mori
            Silkmoth
            Bombyx mori
            Silkmoth
            Danaus plexippus
            Monarch butterfly
            Danaus plexippus
            Monarch butterfly
            Danaus plexippus
            Monarch butterfly
            Heliconius melpomene
            Postman butterfly
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis mellifera
            Western honey bee
            Apis mellifera
            Western honey bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus terrestris
            Buff-tailed bumblebee
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Megachile rotundata
            Alfalfa leafcutting bee
            Nasonia vitripennis
            Parasitic wasp
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Tribolium castaneum
            Red flour beetle
            Tribolium castaneum
            Red flour beetle
            Pediculus humanus
            Human body louse
            Rhodnius prolixus
            Kissing bug
            Cimex lectularius
            Bed bug
            Acyrthosiphon pisum
            Pea aphid
            Zootermopsis nevadensis
            Nevada dampwood termite
            Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X045S )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Strigamia maritima
            European centipede
            Ixodes scapularis
            Black-legged tick
            Stegodyphus mimosarum
            African social velvet spider
            Stegodyphus mimosarum
            African social velvet spider
            Tetranychus urticae
            Two-spotted spider mite
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06CD )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
            Purple sea urchin
            Ciona intestinalis
            Vase tunicate
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Human Disease Model Data
            FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
            Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
            Download
            Models ( 0 )
            Allele
            Disease
            Evidence
            References
            Interactions ( 4 )
            Comments ( 0 )
             
            Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
            Functional Complementation Data
            Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
            Interactions
            Summary of Physical Interactions
            esyN Network Diagram
            Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
            Select Layout:
            Legend:
            Protein
            RNA
            Selected Interactor(s)
            Interactions Browser

            Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
            RNA-protein
            Interacting group
            Assay
            References
            Summary of Genetic Interactions
            esyN Network Diagram
            esyN Network Key:
            Suppression
            Enhancement

            Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
            Starting gene(s)
            Interaction type
            Interacting gene(s)
            Reference
            Starting gene(s)
            Interaction type
            Interacting gene(s)
            Reference
            suppressible
            External Data
            Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
            Monomer.
            (UniProt, P12252, Q8IRU4, Q9W4S9, Q9W4T4 )
            Linkouts
            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            Pathways
            Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
            External Data
            Linkouts
            KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
            Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
            Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
            Chromosome (arm)
            X
            Recombination map
            1-2
            Cytogenetic map
            Sequence location
            X:3,176,440..3,343,767 [+]
            FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
            Cytogenetic map
            Evidence for location
            3C9-3D1
            Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1362 and P{EP}dncEP1395
            Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
            Cytogenetic map
            Notes
            References
            3C12-3D4
            (determined by in situ hybridisation)
            3D4-3D4
            (determined by in situ hybridisation)
            3C8-3D4
            (determined by in situ hybridisation)
            Determined by deficiency mapping (details unspecified).
            Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
            Right of (cM)
            Notes
            Maps about five-eighths of the recombinational distance from w to ec.
            The interval between sam and dnc is that between sam2 (rightmost allele of sam in this study) and dncM11 (leftmost allele of dnc in this study). dncM11 is 0.04 +/- 0.01cM to the left of a cluster of dnc mutations (dncM14, dncML, dnc1 and dnc2). The interval between dnc and cff is that between dnc1 and cff1.
            Stocks and Reagents
            Stocks (47)
            Genomic Clones (55)
            cDNA Clones (204)
             

            Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

            cDNA clones, fully sequences
            Other clones
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

            For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
             
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of
            Source for database merge of
            Source for merge of: dnc EG:96G10 .7
            Source for merge of: CG10791 CG10792 CG14268
            Additional comments
            Annotations CG10791, CG10792, CG14268, CG14267 and CG10797 merged as CG32498 (dnc) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
            Source for merge of dnc EG:96G10 .7 was sequence comparison ( date:000403 ).
            Other Comments
            dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
            dnc mutant larval neurons lack a maintained outward current component that is down-regulated by cAMP.
            Subsets of dnc and rut neurons display abnormal spontaneous spikes and altered firing patterns in 'giant' neuron cultures. Abnormal spike activity and reduced K+ current remain in dnc rut double mutants suggesting that the opposite effects on cAMP metabolism by dnc and rut do not counterbalance the mutual functional defects. The aberrant spontaneous activity and altered frequency coding in different stimulus paradigms may present problems in the stability and reliability of neural circuits for information processing during certain behavioural tasks, raising the possibility of modulation in neuronal excitability as a cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory.
            Expression of the CrebB-17A repressor in the dnc mutant blocks functional but not structural plasticity.
            Mutations of dnc affect habituation of the electrically stimulated giant fibre response.
            Phenotypic analysis reveals control of growth cone mobility requires optimal cAMP levels within an operational range.
            Fas2 is necessary for the synaptic sprouting induced by increased activity (eag Sh double mutants) or increased cAMP (dnc).
            At temperatures ranging from 20oC to 37.5oC temperature sensitive mutants exhibit no effect on the heart rate of larvae.
            SP injection into dnc mutant females fails to elicit the usual SP response of increased oviposition and decreased receptivity to males.
            Injection of Acp70A into mutant virgin females fails to elicit any response in behaviour.
            Mutation of dnc is associated with an abnormal pacemaker resetting response and a shortening of circadian period. Mutations selectively alter phase delays with no apparent effects on phase advances of the pacemaker.
            dnc gene product is preferentially expressed in the mushroom bodies. Cell specific ablation of the mushroom bodies, by hydroxyurea, demonstrates they mediate associative odour learning in flies.
            P-element mediated introduction of dnc and rat dnc into dnc mutants allows some phenotype rescue and supports the physiological role of the dnc gene product during memory and learning acquisition as opposed to a purely developmental defect as the cause of the dnc phenotype. Rat dnc is capable of partially replacing the function of dnc.
            Mutations at stnA show allele-specific interactions with mutations at dnc and shi.
            The relationship between structural complexity and functional diversity of the dnc gene has been investigated using the many chromosomal rearrangements in the dnc region. Transcription start sites 4 and 5 are required for female fertility. Transcription start site 3 is important for elevated dnc expression in the mushroom bodies and normal 90 minute memory. Transcription start site 4 is required for general neuropil expression and for normal initial learning.
            Behavioural experiments reveal interesting functional properties of the dnc gene that have eluded molecular and biochemical analyses.
            P-element mediated introduction of the rat dnc gene into dnc mutants demonstrates that the rat dnc gene has functional similarities to the Drosophila homologue, dnc.
            Two electrode voltage clamping studies of third-instar larval muscle, with and without K+-channel blockers suggests that a specific K+ channel conductance might be relevant to the lack of synaptic plasticity at the dnc neuromuscular synapse.
            dnc plays a major role in the maternal regulation of embryonic cAMP content.
            dnc mutant analysis suggests that the cAMP cascade plays a role in the shaping neuronal connectivity.
            In dnc mutants a K+ selective channel, that is activated directly and reversibly by cAMP, has a much higher probability of opening compared to wild type.
            dnc phosphodiesterase (PDE) localization has been determined by antibody staining. Results demonstrate that dnc PDE is very concentrated in the neuropil associated with the mushroom body cells.
            dnc is structurally complex gene with multiple RNAs exhibiting a heterogeneity of dnc transcripts that result from transcription initiation at multiple sites, alternative splicing and processes that generate different 3' ends.
            dnc mutants are defective in a step of the cAMP cascade: they show impaired synaptic facilitation and post-tetanic potentiation as well as abnormal responses to direct application of dibutyryl cAMP. Results suggest that the cAMP cascade plays a role in synaptic facilitation and potentiation and indicate that synaptic plasticity is altered in memory mutants.
            Mutations in dnc affect sensory fatigue due to anteronotopleural bristle deflection, not sensory adaptation.
            Mutant analysis provides evidence for the participation of a G0-like protein in learning and memory.
            Mutations in dnc significantly reduce the females song memory after prestimulation with courtship hums. This suggests a simple sensitization process may be involved with the female pulse song memory (Kyriacou and Hall, Nature 308: 62).
            dnc has been cloned and sequenced. Pig1 and Sgs4 are located within the 79kb intron of the dnc gene. Pig1 is transcribed from the opposite strand to dnc and Sgs4.
            Df(1)N-71h/Df(1)dm75e19 females survive, even though they are completely deleted for some five bands, including 3D4; such females are defective in learning and are sterile. dncM11-induced sterility partly suppressed by rut (Livingstone, Sziber and Quinn, 1984) and this phenotype of the double mutant used to select two new purported rut alleles, one of which (rut2) also suppresses learning defects associated with dncM14 (Feany, 1990).
            Gene encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase. Mutants blocked or impaired in learning, with respect to several of the conditioning tests used on groups of flies or larvae or on individual adults, e.g., those involving odors and electric shocks or sugars (Aceves-Pina and Quinn, 1979; Tempel, Bonini, Dawson and Quinn, 1983; see also Aceves-Pina, Booker, Duerr, Livingstone, Quinn, Smith, Sziber, Tempel, and Tully, 1983), visual stimuli (Folkers, 1982), or various elements of courtship (with respect to tests on mutant males or females, summarized by Hall, 1984); also, dncM14 males have reduced reproductive fitness after exposure to and courtship of immature females, i.e. when mutant males are put, post-training, with mixed female/young male populations (Gailey et al., 1985). dnc females display an increased frequency of mating; it is suggested that this could account for their 50% normal longevity (Bellen and Kiger, 1987). dnc males are not conditioned to avoid virgin females by sequestration with such females in the presence of quinine; wild type males are (Ackerman and Siegel, 1986). dnc mutants apparently learn normally, or nearly so, in certain experiments but have abnormally short memory (e.g., Dudai, 1979; Mariath, 1985); more specifically, modifications of original shock-odor testing system reveal that dnc is defective in short term memory, with long-term memory similar to wild type (Tully and Quinn, 1985); dnc/+ females also memory deficient (Dudai, 1983). Whereas dnc adults seem normal in several general behaviors (Dudai, Jan, Byers, Quinn and Benzer, 1976), the mutant displays aberrant 'centrophobic' behavior [i.e., transient avoidance of the center of an arena displayed by normal adults (Gotz and Biesinger, 1985). Mosaic studies suggest that the focus of dnc/+ function is the brain, even though some learning responses demonstrated by headless flies (Aceves-Pina, Booker, Duerr, Livingstone, Quinn, Smith, Sziber, Tempel, and Tully, 1983). Sensory fatigue associated with an adult mechanosensory neuron, as measured by bristle stimulation, occurs more rapidly than normal in dnc (allele not specified) (Corfas and Dudai, 1990). There is an increased number of mushroom-body axonal fibers in young adults expressing dnc1 or dncM11, which, unlike wild type, decreases over the next few days (Balling, Technau, and Heisenberg, 1987). Mutations or deletions of the locus reduce or eliminate one form of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity; caffeine, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreases visual learning performance of normal adults and of dnc1 as well, suggesting that the biochemical effects of the drug and the mutation are not identical (Folkers and Spatz, 1984). The effects of dnc mutations on heat stability or Km of this activity indicate that the locus codes for this enzyme (Kauvar, 1982; Davis and Kauvar, 1983); dnc variants also lead to increased levels of cyclic AMP (summarized by Davis and Kauvar, 1983), more specifically, such that most of the excess is in free (vs. bound) nucleotide; both fractions exist in whole-fly homogenates (Friedrich, Solti, Gyurkovicz, 1984). dncM11 affects the level of phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of the cyclic-AMP-dependent kinase (Devay, Pinter, Yalcin and Friedrich, 1986). Levels of regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase tend to be higher than normal in dnc1 and dnc2 (Muller and Spatz, 1989). dncM11 flies exhibit increased levels of expression of copia (Yun and Davis, 1989). dnc alleles cause varying degrees of female sterility; oocytes of females homozygous for amorphic alleles rarely reach maturity, and for the most part are not oviposited; 90% of the few that are oviposited are fragile, lacking a chorion. That this phenotype is somatic in origin is demonstrated by the observation that homozygous germ-line clones produce morphologically normal eggs; some of these eggs undergo a few abortive nuclear divisions, but they never reach an identifiable stage of oogenesis. The maternal-effect lethality partially suppressible by rut, which reduces adenylate cyclase activity. The earliest defect seen in the embryos produced by dnc rut females occurs soon after fertilization and affects DNA replication and mitosis, prevents nuclear migration and leads to large polyploid nuclei; a later defect prevents cleavage nuclei from migrating into, or dividing in, the posterior region of the egg, affecting the developmental behavior or fate of blastoderm cells. The few surviving offspring of double-mutant females show frequent developmental abnormalities of the second and third thoracic and the first five abdominal segments; these include deficiencies, duplications and transformation of structures; some 15% of the daughters of such females lack one or both ovaries (Livingstone, Sziber and Quinn, 1984; Bellen, Gregory, Olsson, and Kiger, 1987; Bellen and Kiger, 1988).
            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Byers.
            Etymology
            The term "dunce" refers to John Duns Scotus, 13th century opponent to the revival of classical learning.
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 182 )
            Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Other crossreferences
            BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
            KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
            Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
            Linkouts
            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
            FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
            Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
            Reported As
            Symbol Synonym
            CG10792
            CG10797
            CG14267
            CG14268
            EG:140G11.4
            EG:96G10.7
            EG:BACN05I09.3
            EG:BACN5I9.2
            dnc
            (Al-Ramahi et al., 2018, Baggett et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Dove et al., 2017, Franz et al., 2017, Ma et al., 2017, Murakami et al., 2017, Ruppert et al., 2017, Sharma et al., 2017, VanKirk et al., 2017, Vonhoff and Keshishian, 2017, Fear et al., 2016, Hao et al., 2016, Murmu and Martin, 2016, Naganos et al., 2016, Scholz-Kornehl and Schwärzel, 2016, Androschuk et al., 2015, Barckmann et al., 2015, Bouzaiane et al., 2015, Chaston et al., 2015, Choi et al., 2015, Dissel et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Nagarkar-Jaiswal et al., 2015, Ping et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Scopelliti et al., 2014, Baggio et al., 2013, Ganguly and Lee, 2013, Harbison et al., 2013, Ishimoto et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Neckameyer and Argue, 2013, Scheunemann et al., 2013, Walker et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Zhang and Emery, 2013, Diao and White, 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kanellopoulos et al., 2012, Khurana et al., 2012, Koon and Budnik, 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Scheunemann et al., 2012, Tsai et al., 2012, Ueda and Wu, 2012, Arthaud et al., 2011, Guan et al., 2011, Guo et al., 2011, Kang et al., 2011, Koon et al., 2011, Yuan et al., 2011, Dahdal et al., 2010, Gervasi et al., 2010, Knight et al., 2010, Lee and Wu, 2010, Zars, 2010, de Bivort et al., 2009, Honjo and Furukubo-Tokunaga, 2009, Iijima-Ando et al., 2009, Koganezawa et al., 2009, Lebreton and Martin, 2009, Li et al., 2009, Mohammad et al., 2009, Perkins et al., 2009.8.10, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Sackton et al., 2009, Seugnet et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Hong et al., 2008, Masek and Heisenberg, 2008, Neuser et al., 2008, Ogden et al., 2008, Shakiryanova and Levitan, 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Acevedo et al., 2007, Asztalos et al., 2007, Balling et al., 2007, Huang et al., 2007, Martin et al., 2007, Motosaka et al., 2007, Peng et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Tinette et al., 2007, Tong et al., 2007, van Swinderen, 2007, van Swinderen, 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Xia and Tully, 2007, Yamazaki et al., 2007, Zhou et al., 2007, Ganguly-Fitzgerald et al., 2006, Honjo and Furukubo-Tokunaga, 2005, Davis, 2004, Hou et al., 2004, Mee et al., 2004, Tinette et al., 2004, Zhong and Wu, 2004, Aravamudan and Broadie, 2003, Devaud et al., 2003, Hall, 2003, Ueyama and Fuyama, 2003, Hall, 2002, Rohrbough and Broadie, 2002, Zhang et al., 2002, Hendricks et al., 2001, Kamyshev et al., 2000, Wu et al., 2000, Barth and Heisenberg, 1997)
            Name Synonyms
            dunce
            (Widmann et al., 2018, Tomita et al., 2017, Vonhoff and Keshishian, 2017, Dissel et al., 2015, Lee, 2015, Siudeja et al., 2015, Singh et al., 2014, Wright, 2014, Harbison et al., 2013, Scheunemann et al., 2013, van Alphen et al., 2013, Weislogel et al., 2013, Ueda and Wu, 2012, Winbush et al., 2012, Chow et al., 2011, Evans et al., 2011, Guan et al., 2011, Guo et al., 2011, Lawlor et al., 2011, Meiklejohn et al., 2011, Yuan et al., 2011, Dahdal et al., 2010, Gervasi et al., 2010, Knight et al., 2010, Lee and Wu, 2010, de Bivort et al., 2009, Honjo and Furukubo-Tokunaga, 2009, Iijima-Ando et al., 2009, Khurana et al., 2009, Koganezawa et al., 2009, Lebreton and Martin, 2009, Li et al., 2009, Mummery-Widmer et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Seugnet et al., 2009, van Swinderen et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Bhaskara et al., 2008, Hong et al., 2008, Masek and Heisenberg, 2008, Neuser et al., 2008, Ogden et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Asztalos et al., 2007, Balling et al., 2007, Curtis et al., 2007, Huang et al., 2007, Jensen et al., 2007, Martin et al., 2007, Shadan, 2007, Tinette et al., 2007, Tong et al., 2007, van Swinderen, 2007, van Swinderen, 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Xia and Tully, 2007, Yamazaki et al., 2007, Zhou et al., 2007, Guo and Zhong, 2006, Reaume and Sokolowski, 2006, Burnette et al., 2005, Honjo and Furukubo-Tokunaga, 2005, Davis, 2004, Hou et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Aravamudan and Broadie, 2003, Devaud et al., 2003, Dubnau et al., 2003, Hall, 2003, Hall, 2002, Rohrbough and Broadie, 2002, Hendricks et al., 2001, Kamyshev et al., 2000, Wu et al., 2000, Barth and Heisenberg, 1997, Chen, 1993.7.22, Chen, 1993.7.22, Duerr and Quinn, 1982)
            phosphodiesterase
            Secondary FlyBase IDs
            • FBgn0024972
            • FBgn0029653
            • FBgn0029654
            • FBgn0029655
            • FBgn0052498
            Datasets (0)
            Study focus (0)
            Experimental Role
            Project
            Project Type
            Title
            References (505)