BMP, TGF-β, shv, TGF-beta, shortvein
Gene model reviewed during 5.42
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Heterodimers of scw/dpp are the active subunit, dpp/dpp homodimers elicit a basal response and scw/scw homodimers alone are ineffective in specifying a dorsal pattern. Component of a complex composed of dpp, sog and tsg.
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In the stage 10 invaginated hindgut, dpp expression disappears from most of the dorsal domain, except in narrow lateral regions, but persists in the ventral domain.
In addtion to expression anterior to and close to the A/P boundary of third instar wing discs, dpp expression is observed in a proximal region of the posterior compartment. Similar expression is observed in the haltere disc. Expression in both cases begins in the mid-third-instar larval stage. From the fate map, this region gives rise to proximal adult wing structures including the alula and axillary cord.
dpp transcripts are strongly expressed in the spiracular chambers, spiracular branches, and dorsal trunk branches of the tracheal system. Expression is seen in the spiracular chamber form embryonic stage 13 and appears in the spriacular branch and dorsal trunk branches at stage 14. At stage 17, dpp is absent from the spriacular chamber but persists throughout the length of the dorsal trunk branches.
dpp transcript is expressed at lower levels in the haltere disc than in the wing disc.
Transcript is detected in 12 cell widths at the A/P boundary in third instar wing discs. However, expression is excluded from the D/V boundary that will form the wing margin.
dpp is expressed in the dorsal region of the embryo corresponding to the presumptive dorsal ectoderm.
The dpp transcript is expressed along the anterior-posterior boundary of the wing disc.
In wing and leg imaginal discs, sog transcript is expressed in stripes parallel to the dpp stripe along the compartment border. dpp expression along the A/P border disappears in early prepupae. In late prepupae (6-9 hr AP) dpp is expressed in stripes corresponding to vein primordia. dpp expression in vein primordia reappears in 18-20 hr pupae, and expression continues to be restricted to vein primordia in 25-30 hr pupae. Double labeling experiments with sog and dpp transcripts show that sog and dpp are expressed in a strictly complementary pattern in most of the pupal wing, with the exception of the L5 vein, where there is a one-cell-wide gap between sog and dpp expressing cells.
dpp transcripts are expressed along the anterior-posterior boundary in the central region of the wing disc, and approximately along the anterior-posterior boundary in the leg disc. In the eye-antennal disc, expression is detected in the medial regions and along the morphogenetic forrow. Transcripts are detecting in the larval brain in two lateral and two medial spots. Higher levels of staining are detected in the male genital discs than in the female, and the transcripts are also distributed approximately along the anterior-posterior boundary. dpp expression was also detected in late embryonic stages with high levels of transcripts detected in the cephalic and thoracic segments at stage 11 and 13, and in the embryonic brain at stage 13.
dpp is expressed in two stripes in the visceral mesoderm, the posterior of which coincides with Ubx expression in parasegment 7. dpp transcripts are undetectable in parasegment 7 in Ubx mutant embryos. The domain of dpp expression in the visceral mesoderm is expanded posteriorly in abd-A mutants.
The dpp transcript expression pattern was analyzed in imaginal discs from early third instar larvae through prepupae. Expression is detected in the ventral wing pouch region of the wing disc in early third instar larvae, and in a stripe along the center of the wing disc, as well as low levels along the posterior edge, in late third instar discs. Leg disc expression is first detected as a stripe limited to the medial region of the disc, and then expands into a discontinuous stripe across the entire disc. In the eye-imaginal disc, expression is detected in the periphery of the eye region and laterally in the antennal region. This expression is maintained through late third instar, and additonal expression is detected medially in the antennal region and along the morphogenetic forrow in the eye region. During imaginal disc eversion continued expression of dpp transcripts in detected. In addition to the expression pattern observed during larval devlopment, expression is detected in an anterior stripe in the wing disc, and the dpp transcript expression pattern is resolved into a band along the proximo-distal axis of the appendages.
By the end of germband shortening, dpp RNA is detected at six distinct sites along the gut tube. The sites of expression in the foregut are within the anlage of the pharynx and the esophagus. The midgut sites are within the anlage of the gastric caeca, and the 2nd and 3rd midgut constrictions, the latter being very weak. dpp RNA is also detected in the ectoderm of the hindgut. Embryos with mutations in the shv region of dpp lack midgut expression and have reduced foregut expression, though the early embryo expression pattern is normal. abd-A mutations cause expansion of the domain of dpp expression in the visceral mesoderm to include the entire posterior midgut.
dpp protein was detected in the extracellular lumenal space between the peripodial and columnar epithelium in leg, wing and eye discs of third instar larvae. In addition dpp protein is expressed intracellularly in the known dpp expression domains including an asymetrically distributed anterior/posterior gradient originating at the A/P boundary in wing discs, with a shallower gradient and wider gradient in the anterior compartment. dpp protein was also detected in the morphogenetic furrow of the eye disc.
dpp and Ubx proteins are expressed in overlapping domains in the visceral mesoderm in parasegment 7. The dpp domain extends further anteriorly by half a parasegment. dpp protein is nearly absent in the visceral mesoderm in Ubx6.28 embryos. In a background where Ubx is ectopically expressed all over the embryo, dpp protein is ectopically expressed in the visceral mesoderm from the anterior end of the midgut to PS 7. In embryos lacking abd-A, the Ubx and dpp expression domains extend to the posterior end of the visceral mesoderm. Mutations that remove both Ubx and abd-A cause a novel dpp expression pattern. Embryos that lack genomic copies of Ubx and abd-A but have ectopic Ubx expression from a hs-Ubx construct have ectopic dpp expression throughout the entire visceral mesoderm.
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