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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Drop
Annotation Symbol
CG1897
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000492
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Drop (Dr) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor involved in patterning of the neuroectoderm and wing disc, specification of myoblasts and neuroblasts, proper development of muscle, neuronal and glial cells, male genital disc, and regulation of glucose metabolism. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

msh, muscle segment homeobox, muscle specific homeobox, msh1, Dr/msh

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:29,556,386..29,565,244 [+]
Recombination map

3-99

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:29556386..29565244
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (22 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678062
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678062
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:7392
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in brain development
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in brain development
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678062
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678062
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678062
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Msh homeobox family. (Q03372)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NK-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
NK-like (NKL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. NKL transcription factors are homeobox genes closely related to Hox-like genes, a number of which are found in the NK cluster. Many of the NKL members contain an Engrailed Homology 1 (EH1) motif. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:22094586).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Plays a key role in the specification of proneural and promuscular cluster formation. Required for the specification of dorsal and lateral muscle progenitor cells.
(UniProt, Q03372)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Dr: Drop
Heterozygotes have extremely reduced numbers of facets, 1-10 in the case of Dr1 and DrA; ~30 facets coalesce to give shiny, dark red appearance in DrMio; five to seven rhabdomeres per ommatidium section; some rhabdomeres fuse. Developing eye disc reduced in size; morphogenetic furrow uneven; few clusters of presumptive photoreceptor cells; arrangement disturbed; microvillar caps blurred and diffuse(Renfranz and Benzer, 1989, Dev. Biol. 136: 411-29).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - homeodomain - confers cell fate on the dorsal (lateral-most) column of neuroblasts during ventral cord development - patterning of the wing disc, specification of myoblasts, proper development of muscle, neuronal and glial cells, male genital disc, and regulation of glucose metabolism

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085441
2552
515
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084807
54.2
515
8.58
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

437 (aa); 48 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Neurectodermal expression of msh begins in embryonic stage 5 as discontinuous patches in several segments that later extend and merge to form stripes the length of the embryo. The msh-expression domain corresponds roughly to the dorsal half of the neurectoderm. From this region, 4 S1 neuroblasts of the lateral column delaminate and strong msh expression is seen in only one of these. This expression is transient and disappears by stage 9. At stage 10, expression is seen in many dorsal S3-S5 neuroblasts and in their putative neurectodermal proneural clusters. Expression is also seen in some of their immediate progeny. All are from the dorsal half of the neurogenic ectoderm but not all neuroblasts in this region express msh.

msh transcripts are detected at all stages tested except 0-2hr embryos on northern blots. The highest levels of expression are seen in embryos. A detailed description of the spatial pattern of expression in the embryo is given. In summary, expression is first observed at the cellular blastoderm stage in the lateral ectoderm and evolves into a pattern of eight stripes. The lateral expression prefigures the appearance of lateral proneural clusters of the CNS. During the first wave of neuroblast segregation, expression is restricted to delaminating neuroblasts (1 in 4 lateral neuroblasts per hemisegment express msh) and is excluded from ectodermal cells. Subsequent waves of neuroblast segregation are also preceded by msh expression in cell clusters in the the lateral neurectoderm. msh is also expressed in sensory organ precursors of the PNS. Three additional sites of msh in the embryonic ectoderm include the precursors to the stomatogastric neurons, the region that will give rise to neurons of the brain and optic lobes, and the salivary gland placodes. msh expression is seen in dorsal mesodermal cells that will give rise to dorsal body wall muscles and ventral-lateral mesodermal cells that will give rise to fat body. In wing discs, msh is expressed in a highly restricted pattern. Highest expression occurs in three patches of cells in the prospective dorsal hinge region, two of which include proneural clusters. Areas of weaker expression include a row of cells that will develop into sensilla of the anterior wing margin.

msh transcripts are detected at all stages tested except third instar larvae on northern blots. A peak of expression occurs in 8-12hr embryos. By in situ hybridization, transcripts are first detected at stage 5 of embryogenesis in a bilateral series of segmentally repeated bands of dorsal lateral ectodermal cells. At around stage 8, this is replaced with a transient ventral lateral band of msh expression extending along most of the germ band. In stage 10, expression is seen in segmentally repeated clusters of neuroblasts in the thoracic and abdominal segments. By stage 12, in addition to strong expression in segregated neuroblasts, expression is seen in clusters of mesodermal cells. By stage 13, expression is primarily in the CNS and in the developing somatic musculature (corresponding mostly to the developing dorsal and lateral somatic body wall muscles). Expression is also seen in the foregut, hindgut, and fat body.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Dr protein is expressed in the male genital discs of third instar larvae. Expression is localized to a medial domain on the ventral surface of the A9 primordium encompassing the bnl-expressing cells but extending laterally and posteriorly; and (2) a subset of the btl-expressing cells that are adjacent to those expressing bnl.

At embryonic stage 15, Dr expression is seen in specific cell clusters in each brain neuromere. Protcerebral Dr expression begins at stage 12 and continues through embryogenesis. A domain of expression is observed in the deutocerebrum consisting of about 30 cells, which are mainly located near and within the protocerbral-deuterocerebral boundary. Another expression domain is located in the tritocerebrum distributed along the entire neuromere. Dr expression is also observed in cells closely associated with the preoral commissure and cervical as well as longitudinal axon tracts. Expression is also observed in specific cell clusters at the mediolateral margin of each individual neuromere in the posterior brain and ventral nerve cord. Expression is also observed in cell bodies associated with the paired longitudinal connectives, resembling longitudinal glial cells.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - d4-8; deuterocerebrum - d2-13

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Dr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 51 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dr
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dr
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (23)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
0  
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (18)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (18)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (25)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (11)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DKC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150FM8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0G61 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07EP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0P1V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 5 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-99

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:29,556,386..29,565,244 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    99B3-99B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0674306743 and P{PZ}ncd05884
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    99B1-99B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99B-99B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (169)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (15)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: msh CG1897

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: ltt msh

      Source for merge of: Dr msh

      Additional comments

      "Dlw" mutations may be regulatory mutants of the Dr gene; "Dr" gain-of-function mutants contain lesions in the same region as "Dlw" mutants (several kb upstream of the transcription start site), DrΔ68 is lethal in combination with Dlw1, Dlw3 or Dlw4 and the level of Dr mRNA is reduced throughout the wing pouch in Dlw1 mutants (which may account for the loss of function characteristics seen in homozygous Dlw1 mutant clones).

      Other Comments

      Cross-repressive interactions between the "identity genes" lbe, lbl, Dr and eve are essential for the specification of cardiac and muscular fates in the developing embryo.

      Dr is both necessary and sufficient to confer dorsal fate in wing development and acts downstream of ap.

      The Dr mutants are cis-regulatory alleles of stg, as well as alleles of Dr.

      "Dr" mutants are always double hits in two genes, one of which is "stg".

      Dr is expressed in the dorsal and lateral domains of muscle progenitors and is required for the specification of the progenitor cells. Ectopic expression of Dr in the entire mesoderm inhibits the proper development of the normally Dr-negative muscle progenitors in the dorsolateral domain. Results suggest Dr plays a role in regional specification of muscle progenitors/founders.

      Ectopic expression of Dr in the entire neuroectoderm severely disrupts the development of the midline and ventral neuroblasts.

      Dr is required for the correct development of dorsal neuroblasts in the embryo.

      Expression of Dr in the neuroectoderm prefigures the formation of proneural clusters. Dr expression also prefigures invagination centres of the stomatogastric nervous system. Dr is regulated by the dorsoventral patterning genes Egfr and dpp in early embryos. Ectodermal and mesodermal Dr expression depend on wg and hh.

      Normal expression and the effects of ectopic expression of Dr gene suggest a role in differentiation and patterning of embryonic muscles.

      Genetic analysis of the Dr locus suggests it defines a novel regulator of stg.

      Genetic analysis of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and irradiation induced revertants reveal that the Dr mutations define two loci: Dr, defined by Dr1 and DrMio and Wedge, defined by Wedge1. Interactions between Dr revertant alleles and stg demonstrate they are separate loci.

      Dr has a role during embryogenesis. Clonal analysis of lethal revertant alleles suggest Dr has a role in eye development, required by the developing photoreceptor cells.

      The Dr homeobox sequence has been used as a probe to isolate a homologous mouse gene, called Hox-7.

      The DNA sequences of the homeobox region of 11 Drosophila genes, including Dr, have been compared.

      Heterozygotes have extremely reduced numbers of facets, 1-10 in the case of Dr1 and DrA; about 30 facets coalesce to give shiny, dark red appearance in DrMio; five to seven rhabdomeres per ommatidium section; some rhabdomeres fuse. Developing eye disc reduced in size; morphogenetic furrow uneven; few clusters of presumptive photoreceptor cells; arrangement disturbed; microvillar caps blurred and diffuse (Renfranz and Benzer, 1989).

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      'Lottchen' is the name of twins in the book 'Das doppelte Lottchen' by Erich Kaestner.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      l(3)FA30
      ltt
      msh
      (Otsuki and Brand, 2020, Lacin et al., 2019, Otsuki and Brand, 2019, Steinmetz et al., 2019, Li et al., 2017, Lusk et al., 2017, Reichert, 2017, Jussen et al., 2016, Levario et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Bier and De Robertis, 2015, Chen et al., 2015, Kim et al., 2015, Esteves et al., 2014, Jussen and Urbach, 2014, Ibrahim et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2012, Lynch and Roth, 2011, Moses et al., 2011, Becam et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Seibert and Urbach, 2010, Seibert et al., 2009, Von Ohlen and Moses, 2009, Von Ohlen et al., 2009, Becam and Milán, 2008, Kim et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Seibert et al., 2008, Bonds et al., 2007, de Navascués and Modolell, 2007, Seibert et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Urbach, 2007, Von Ohlen et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Cande et al., 2006, Chanut, 2006, Maurange et al., 2006, Mizutani et al., 2006, Sprecher and Hirth, 2006, Urbach et al., 2006, Levine and Davidson, 2005, Mizutani et al., 2005, Pueyo and Couso, 2005, Ramos and Robert, 2005, Sprecher et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Villa-Cuesta and Modolell, 2005, Kosman et al., 2004, Urbach and Technau, 2004, Villa-Cuesta and Modolell, 2004, Cowden and Levine, 2003, Koizumi et al., 2003, Mizutani et al., 2003, Skeath and Thor, 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, Bruno and Abdelhay, 2002, Buescher et al., 2002, Edenfeld et al., 2002, Jagla et al., 2002, Oh et al., 2002, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2002, Ashraf and Ip, 2001, Milan et al., 2001, Popovici et al., 2001, Weiss et al., 2001, Cornell and Von Ohlen, 2000, Coulier et al., 2000, Jurata et al., 2000, Lu et al., 2000, Scott, 2000, von Ohlen and Doe, 2000, Arendt and Nubler-Jung, 1999, Chan and Jan, 1999, Chitnis, 1999, Frasch, 1999, Galliot et al., 1999, Hughes and Salinas, 1999, Jagla et al., 1999, Jazwinska et al., 1999, Paululat et al., 1999, Skeath, 1999, Doe et al., 1998, Kerszberg and Changeux, 1998, McDonald et al., 1998, Nose et al., 1998, Olson and Klein, 1998, Siddiqi, 1998, Udolph et al., 1998, Weiss et al., 1998, Yagi et al., 1998, Yin and Frasch, 1998, Bier, 1997, Buescher and Chia, 1997, Isshiki et al., 1997, D'Alessio and Frasch, 1996, Buescher and Chia, 1995, Davidson, 1995, Lord et al., 1995, Lord et al., 1995, Gehring et al., 1994, Jagla et al., 1993, Walldorf and Gehring, 1992, Walldorf et al., 1992, Holland, 1991, Tokunaga-Furukubo et al., 1991, Walldorf et al., 1991, Bodmer et al., 1990, Dohrmann et al., 1990, Robert et al., 1989)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0002849
      • FBgn0015510
      • FBgn0020528
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (268)