General Information
Symbol
Dmel\e
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ebony
Annotation Symbol
CG3331
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000527
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Long-chain-fatty-acid--[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase (6.2.1.20)
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase (6.2.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
Ebony links beta-alanine to biogenic amines like dopamine or histamine. It controls the amount of free biogenic amine, e.g. of dopamine in cuticle formation and of histamine in visual signal transduction of the eye. It is also involved in behavioral rhythmicity. [Date last reviewed: 2016-08-18]
Also Known As
ebony
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:21,229,839..21,237,177 [-]
Recombination map
3-71
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + an [acyl-carrier-protein] = AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] (6.2.1.20)
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA (6.2.1.3)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
BETA-ALANYL-DOPAMINE SYNTHASES -
Beta-alanyl-dopamine synthases catalyze the synthesis of beta-alanyl derivatives of biogenic amines such as dopamine, to form N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD) required for the sclerotization and pigmentation precursor in insect brown cuticles, or histamine, to form carcinine (N-beta-alanylhistamine) involved in visual system metabolism. (Adapted from FBrf0209498.)
ACYL-COA SYNTHETASES -
Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases catalyze the "activation" of fatty acids by their thioesterification to CoA. This is the initial reaction in fatty acid metabolism, allowing their participation in many fundamental anabolic and catabolic pathways. (Adapted from FBrf0237395).
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
e: ebony
Body color varies from shining black to slightly darker than wild type, depending on allele. Puparia much lighter than wild type. Classifiable throughout larva period by darkened color of spiracle sheaths (Brehme, 1941, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 27: 254-61). Viability lowered to about 80% wild type. Heterozygotes for dark alleles have slightly darker body color than normal. For interaction with other body color mutants, see Waddington (1941, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Ser. A 111: 173-80). Postulated to encode β-alanyl dopamine synthetase, a 90-kd enzyme that requires ATP and MgCl2 to catalyze the formation of N-β-alanyl dopamine from β alanine and dopamine; β alanyl dopamine absent from newly eclosed e flies (Wright, 1987, Adv. Genet. 24: 127-222); β alanine and dopamine accumulate in pupae and pharate adults, dopamine to twice normal levels, in e and e11 homozygotes; levels return to normal in older adults (Hodgetts, 1972, J. Insect Physiol. 18: 937-47; Hodgetts and Konopka, 1973, J. Insect Physiol. 19: 1211-20). Unable to utilize β alanine in tanning of puparium. Labeled β alanine or uracil injected into e pupae remains in hemocoel, not incorporated into pupal case as in +; light-colored pupa result; e/+ intermediate in these respects. Only newly emerged + adults incorporate uracil or β alanine into cuticle; e flies and older + flies do not; β alanine toxic to the latter two types (Jacobs, 1968, Biochem. Genet. 1: 267-75). Defect in tanning leads to spongey cuticle which responds to β alanine administration (Jacobs, 1980, Biochem. Genet. 18: 65-76). Phenylthiocarbamide inhibits development of e11 homozygotes more than wild type; reverse is true for inhibition by silver chloride; heterozygotes intermediate in both cases. Mixtures of the two inhibitors affect heterozygotes to a greater extent (Kroman and Parsons, 1960, Nature 186: 411-12). Electroretinograms of e flies abnormal; lamina potential reduced or absent (Hotta and Benzer, 1969, Nature 222: 354-56). Threshold for phototaxis 200-fold higher than that for wild type; high sensitivity (retinulae 1-6) optomotor threshold 500 times normal and high acuity (retinulae 7 and 8) optomotor threshold ten times normal [Heisenberg, 1972, Information Processing in the Visual Systems of Arthropods (R. Wehner, ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York, pp. 265-68]. e flies more sensitive to polarized light than wild type (Heisenberg, 1972). Abnormal distribution of uptake of 3H-GABA by the lamina ganglionaris described by Campos-Ortega (Cell Tissue Res. 147: 415-31). Reduced mating success compared to wild type (Rendel, 1951, Evolution 5: 226-30). Courtship frequently aborts owing to mismounting by male [Crossley and Zuill, 1970, Nature (London) 225: 1064-65]; relative mating success increased in dark (Kyriacou, 1981, Anim. Behav. 29: 462-71) but not according to Crossley (1970, DIS 45: 170). Courtship shows deficiency in wing vibration; low proportion of sine song and long intra-pulse interval; e/+ outsings +/+ (Kyriacou, Burnet, and Connolly, 1978, Anim. Behav. 26: 1195-1206). RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\e or the JBrowse view of Dmel\e for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084106
3142
879
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083505
98.5
879
5.55
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
879 (aa); 99 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\e using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455606
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455606
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455606
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
e transcripts are detected at all developmental stages on northern blots. An eFBtr0091350:pb-XREco/lacZ reporter construct was used to investigate expression in third instar larvae and adults. In adults, strong expression is observed in the lamina with weaker expression in the medulla. Weak staining is also observed in the central brain and thoracic ganglion. In third instar larvae, expression is observed in single cells distributed in two rows along the ventral ganglion and in restricted areas of the brain.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
e protein is observed in many regions of the adult brain, with marked expression in the optic lobes. e protein is also detected in the antennal lobes, antennal nerves, subesophageal ganglion, and possibly the mushroom bodies. Co-labelling with antibodies to repo show that e expression is restricted to some, but not all, glial cells, and is cytoplasmic. e protein is expressed in the developing trachea in embryos. At stage 14-15, e protein is transiently expressed in bands at the borders of segments in the embryonic epidermal integument. Integumentary expression is not observed prior to embryonic stage 14. In pharate adults, strong e expression is observed in the esophagus epidermis, and in the ommatidial lens cuticle.
Expression of e is seen in two cells dorsolaterally in each embryonic segment 1 to 7. e expression was detected in all larval stages where it is preferentially located at the periphery of the brain hemispheres and in cells within the hemispheres, which are arranged in a crescent-shape. In the larval ventral ganglion, e-expressing cells are arranged in two rows, one each side of the ventral nerve cord. Expression of e is seen within pharate adults in a single cell at the distal border of the medulla.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\e in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 40 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of e
Allele of e
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of e
Deletions and Duplications ( 23 )
Summary of Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
3 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
4 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
3 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919021W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915017D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W015P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0140 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-71
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:21,229,839..21,237,177 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    93C7-93D1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Atpα01164 and P{PZ}mod(mdg4)07038&P{lacW}mod(mdg4)L3101
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    93C-93D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (1,176)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (47)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: e CG3331
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).
    e protein activates β-alanine to aminoacyladenylate by an adenylation domain and covalently attaches it as a thioester to a thiolation domain in a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) related mechanism. In a second reaction, biogenic amines act as external nucleophiles on β-alanyl-S-panthetheine-e, thereby releasing in a fast reaction the dipeptide (peptidoamine). e is therefore defined as a β-alanyl-biogenic amine synthetase.
    e regulates the conjugation of histamine to β-alanyl histamine.
    y and e expression together appear to determine the pattern and intensity of melanisation.
    Shows particularly robust cycling of transcription in adult heads, as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated during three 12-point time course experiments over the course of 6 days.
    Gene is involved in pre-replication DNA photorepair.
    At temperatures ranging from 20oC to 37.5oC temperature sensitive mutants exhibit no effect on the heart rate of larvae.
    Higher Cat activity is associated with reduced life span for e mutant.
    The e phenotype is seen in progeny derived from adult fertile flies subjected to 31oC for 120 hours and in further generations.
    Phenotypic variation of the genetic components underlying oviposition behaviour is analysed using the complete diallel mating design.
    Homozygous e mutants exhibit a variety of locomotor rhythm anomalies in constant darkness and cycles of light. Eclosion rhythms are indistinguishable from wild type.
    Molecular cloning of the 93C--93D region has allowed probable identification of the ebony gene.
    Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.
    Body color varies from shining black to slightly darker than wild type, depending on allele. Puparia much lighter than wild type. Classifiable throughout larva period by darkened color of spiracle sheaths (Brehme, 1941). Viability lowered to about 80% wild type. Heterozygotes for dark alleles have slightly darker body color than normal. For interaction with other body color mutants, see Waddington (1941). Postulated to encode β-alanyl dopamine synthetase, a 90kD enzyme that requires ATP and MgCl2 to catalyze the formation of N-β-alanyl dopamine from β alanine and dopamine; β alanyl dopamine absent from newly eclosed e flies (Wright, 1987); β alanine and dopamine accumulate in pupae and pharate adults, dopamine to twice normal levels, in e and e11 homozygotes; levels return to normal in older adults (Hodgetts, 1972; Hodgetts and Konopka, 1973). Unable to utilize β alanine in tanning of puparium. Labeled β alanine or uracil injected into e pupae remains in hemocoel, not incorporated into pupal case as in +; light-colored pupa result; e/+ intermediate in these respects. Only newly emerged + adults incorporate uracil or β alanine into cuticle; e flies and older + flies do not; β alanine toxic to the latter two types (Jacobs, 1968). Defect in tanning leads to spongey cuticle which responds to β alanine administration (Jacobs, 1980). Phenylthiocarbamide inhibits development of e11 homozygotes more than wild type; reverse is true for inhibition by silver chloride; heterozygotes intermediate in both cases. Mixtures of the two inhibitors affect heterozygotes to a greater extent (Kroman and Parsons, 1960). Electroretinograms of e flies abnormal; lamina potential reduced or absent (Hotta and Benzer, 1969). Threshold for phototaxis 200-fold higher than that for wild type; high sensitivity (retinulae 1-6) optomotor threshold 500 times normal and high acuity (retinulae 7 and 8) optomotor threshold ten times normal [Heisenberg, 1972). e flies more sensitive to polarized light than wild type (Heisenberg, 1972). Abnormal distribution of uptake of 3H-GABA by the lamina ganglionaris described (Campos-Ortega, 1974). Reduced mating success compared to wild type (Rendel, 1951). Courtship frequently aborts owing to mismounting by male (Crossley and Zuill, 1971); relative mating success increased in dark (Kyriacou, 1981) but not according to Crossley (1970). Courtship shows deficiency in wing vibration; low proportion of sine song and long intrapulse interval; e/+ outsings +/+ (Kyriacou, Burnet and Connolly, 1978).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    E. M. Wallace, 15th Feb. 1912.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    N-βgr;-alanyl-dopamine synthetase
    NBAD-synthase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (293)