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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ecd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ecdysoneless
Annotation Symbol
CG5714
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000543
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
ecdysoneless (ecd) encodes a protein that physically interacts with several components of the U5 snRPN pre-mRNA splicing complex. Its loss result in intron retention within spok, accounting for ecdysone deficiency of some ecd mutants. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
l(3)ecd, ecd1, ecd-1, l(3)62Db
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:2,263,581..2,265,857 [-]
Recombination map
3-2
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the ECD family. (Q9W032)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required in both the follicle cells and the germline for oocyte development.
(UniProt, Q9W032)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ecd: ecdysone
Temperature-sensitive recessive lethal. At 29, the nine-fold increase in β-ecdysone content during embryogenesis occurs normally in ecd homozygotes. Accompanied by normal increases in dopa-decarboxylase and dopamine acetyltransferase activity (Marsh and Wright, 1980, Dev. Biol. 80: 379-87). The four-fold increase during the first larval instar is reduced to 40% of normal; the additional twelve-fold increase normally occurring at pupariation eliminated. Embryonic development of ecd at 29 normal, but first larval molt delayed and death usually occurs by end of second instar; shift down to 20 at mid second instar produces full yield of adult progeny. Larvae shifted from 20 to 29 midway through third instar fail to pupate and survive as larvae for up to 3 weeks; ring gland, salivary glands, and brain of nonpupariating larvae are smaller than wild type; such ring glands cultured in vitro secrete ecdysone at lower than normal levels. Effects of 29 on third instar reversible by ecdysone feeding or by shift down to 20 within 3-5 days of shift up; after that imaginal disks cannot differentiate; ecd imaginal disks develop normally at 29 when implanted in a wild-type host. A heat pulse during larval development results in cell death with consequent abnormalities in emerging adults. At 29, third instar larvae exhibit abnormally low dopadecarboxylase activity (Kraminsky, Clark, Estelle, Gietz, Sage, O'Connor, and Hodgetts, 1980, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 4175-79); Marsh and Wright) and high urate oxidase activity (Krase and Friedman, 1979, Genetics 91: s62-63); ecdysone feeding effects normal levels. Transfer to restrictive conditions at the beginning of the pupal stage leads to death as pharate adults and to the elimination of mechanosensory chaetae; Non-sensory chaetae and other sensilla not affected. Chaetae loss is autonomous as seen in homozygous clones produced by somatic exchange and in ecd discs passed through metamorphosis in wild type hosts under restrictive conditions (Sliter, 1989, Development, 106: 347-54). Sensitivity to restrictive temperature disappears in 24 hour pupae. ecd fails to block midpupal increase in ecdysone titer (Marsh and Wright). Shifting newly emerged ecd adults to 29 results in drastically reduced ecdysone titers and sterilizes both males and females; reversible by shift back to 20; temperature-sensitive periods and therefore the times that ecdysone is required for embryonic development, chorion formation, and vitellogenesis are 1-2 days before oviposition, 24 hr prior to oviposition, and prior to stage 7, respectively (Audit-Lamour and Bussin, 1981, J. Insect Physiol. 27: 829-37).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
physically interacts with several components of the U5 snRPN pre-mRNA splicing complex - mutants disrupt production of the steroid hormone ecdysone causing developmental and reproductive defects - loss of function results in intron retention within , accounting for ecdysone deficiency in mutants
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ecd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ecd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072903
2204
684
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072781
77.9
684
4.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
Antibody raised to amino acids 270-429
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ecd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Prp8; FB:FBgn0033688
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CG12320; FB:FBgn0038590
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000316625
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ecd transcript expression is present at all developmental stages. ecd transcripts become more abundant in third instar larvae, with strongest expression observed in egg-laying adult females.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ring gland

Comment: high level of expression

central nervous system

Comment: moderate level of expression

eye-antennal disc

Comment: high level of expression

wing disc

Comment: high level of expression

ovary

Comment: high level of expression

testis

Comment: high level of expression

egg chamber

Comment: high level of expression

nurse cell

Comment: high level of expression

testis | apical

Comment: apical end of testis

western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: reference states 12-14 hr AEL

organism

Comment: reference states 0-2 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ecd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 9 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ecd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ecd
Deletions and Duplications ( 154 )
Disrupted in
Not disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
macrochaeta & adult thorax
macrochaeta & adult thorax | conditional ts
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190428 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503UM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05D8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02A8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G081H )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-2
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:2,263,581..2,265,857 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    62D4-62D4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}slsrL182 and P{PZ}Spn06911
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    msn maps less than 1cM from ecd.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (62)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal antibody
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: ecd CG5714
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    The ecdysone pathway is required for proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursors of lamellocytes and crystal cells.
    ecd is required for progression of the morphogenetic furrow in the eye imaginal disc.
    Analysis of the incorporation of <up>3H</up>C, <up>3H</up>25C and <up>3H</up>7d25C into ecdysteroids by the larval ring glands and adult ovaries to help understand the basis of lack of normal ecdysteroidogenesis in mutants of ecd.
    An investigation of the relationship between transcription, puffing and hormone regulation of intermoult puff was analysed using ecd1 mutant embryos.
    A temperature sensitive ecdysdone deficient mutation provides a useful tool for examining hormonal control (hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone) of specific gene-enzyme systems during development.
    The prepupal peak of Argk gene product activity is regulated by the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone.
    Recessive lethal mutations in this complementation group were identified by failure to complement the recessive lethality of Df(3L)R-R2.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 29 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0035324
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (148)