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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\egl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
egalitarian
Annotation Symbol
CG4051
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000562
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
egalitarian (egl) encodes an RNA binding protein that links specific mRNAs to the minus end-directed microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein-1. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,734,904..23,746,829 [-]
Recombination map

2-104

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:23734904..23746829
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
egl: egalitarian (T. Schupbach)
Female sterile. Defect in cell fate detectable in anterior germarium. In contrast to wild-type, in all egl alleles all sixteen cells per cyst enter pachytene; subsequently all sixteen revert to nurse-cell morphology and behavior (Carpenter). Egg chambers increase in volume along the ovariole, but do not take up yolk. No chorion is formed. BicD/+ females simultaneously heterozygous for egl1 or egl2 fail to form double-abdomen embryos (Mohler and Wieschaus, 1986, Genetics 112: 803-22).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

RNA binding protein - participates along with BicaudalD in transport of mRNA during oogenesis - salivary gland morphogenesis

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\egl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\egl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0114586
4428
1004
FBtr0343272
3885
1004
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0113078
112.1
1004
7.29
FBpp0309937
112.1
1004
7.29
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1004 aa isoforms: egl-PB, egl-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

874 (aa); 125 (kD observed); 98 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\egl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002562
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data

egl RNA is enriched in single cells when the 16-cell cyst forms in region 2A of the germarium. Between stages S2 and S7, egl RNA is concentrated at the posterior cortex of the oocyte. As the oocyte starts to accumulate yolk, egl transcripts localize to an anterior ring at the nurse cell-oocyte boundary. By stage S10, they are distributed evenly throughout the oocyte and persist in the oocyte until early embryogenesis.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The BicD and egl proteins, as previously described for the orb protein, accumulate in the presumptive oocyte following fusome disassembly in germarium region 2a during oocyte specification and are relocalized to the posterior of the oocyte between germarium regions 2b and 3 during oocyte polarization.

egl protein is first detected in the germarium and is evenly distributed in the newly formed 16-cell cyst. By stage S1 of oogenesis, it localizes to a single cell, the future oocyte. From stages S2 to S7 egl protein is enriched at the posterior cortex of the oocyte, wherever the oocyte abuts the follicle cells. At stage S8, it shifts to the anterior cortex in a ring around the margin of the oocyte where the oocyte, nurse cells, and follicle cells meet. Staining is particularly pronounced around the oocyte nucleus. No protein is detec ed in the oocyte after stage S10. egl protein distribution in oocytes closely resembles the distribution of the minus end of microtubules. It was shown that disrupting microtubule organization abolishes egl protein localization. In addition, egl protein and BcD protein were found to have identical distributions during all stages of oogenesis. Localization of egl protein depends on BicD protein and vice versa.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\egl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 21 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 14 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of egl
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of egl
Deletions and Duplications ( 16 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
embryonic neuroblast & spindle (with egl1)
embryonic neuroblast & spindle (with egl3e)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919021H )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915014U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02Z7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03OZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05N8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-104

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:23,734,904..23,746,829 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    59F7-59F7
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}apt03041 and P{EP}eglEP938
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    59F6-59F8
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-105

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (56)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: egl CG4051

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Despite lacking a canonical RNA-binding motif, egl protein directly recognises active mRNA localisation elements.

      egl promotes the initiation of rapid minus-end directed movement of mRNAs along microtubules.

      egl mediates the apical localisation of insc mRNA in embryonic neuroblasts.

      ctp interacts with egl through a ctp interaction domain near the C terminus of egl and a well established binding motif in ctp.

      par-1 appears to act on the cytoskeleton to affect polarisation within the oocyte in conjunction with BicD, egl and dynein.

      All of the cells in the female germline cyst form synaptonemal complex in egl mutants.

      BicD exists as a multimeric protein complex consisting of egl and at least two BicD monomers.

      egl protein colocalises with BicD protein to the oocyte in three stages that correlate with the stepwise polarization of the oocyte. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that both proteins are part of a protein complex. Results propose that the egl-BicD protein complex links microtubule polarity and RNA transport.

      Oocyte determination requires egl function in the germ line, but not in the surrounding follicle cells. During early oogenesis the egl-BicD protein complex is required to transport factors promoting oocyte differentiation; during later stages the complex directs the sorting of RNA molecules required for anterior-posterior and dorsoventral patterning of the embryo.

      The egl locus is responsible for two functions in cell fate choice in oogenesis: early on it is necessary for inhibition of meiotic entry in the "obligate" pro-nurse cells; later it is necessary for meiotic maintenance in the "winning" pro-oocyte. Both roles can be attributed to a single function by invoking gradients through the early cyst; the egl+ function appears to be required for the normal function of these gradients.

      egl mutants have disrupted microtubule cytoskeletons and fail to differentiate an oocyte.

      Recessive mutations at egl and BicD, and microtubule assembly inhibitors, disrupt the formation and maintenance of the single polarized microtubule cytoskeleton that connects the oocyte to the 15 nurse cells at the time the oocyte is determined.

      Alleles of egl and BicD were used to show that the differentiation of an oocyte is required for maintainance but not establishment of follicle polarity.

      In egl mutant ovaries the cell which would normally develop as an oocyte instead forms a 16th nurse cell. egl acts as a dominant suppressor of BicD.

      egl is required for oogenesis and the determination of polarity within the embryo.

      The egl locus affects early oogenesis: mutations cause the production of few, defective germ cells.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (192)