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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\MsrA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Methionine sulfoxide reductase A
Annotation Symbol
CG7266
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000565
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Peptide-methionine (S)-S-oxide reductase (1.8.4.11)
Gene Snapshot
Ecdysone-induced protein 28/29kD (Eip71CD) encodes a methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase involved in the response to oxidative stress. It contributes to determination of adult lifespan and neuron projection. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Eip28/29, Eip71CD, Ecdysone-induced protein 28/29kD

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:15,511,052..15,513,202 [+]
Recombination map

3-43

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:15511052..15513202
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000019085
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000019085
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000019085
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002569
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000019085
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the MsrA Met sulfoxide reductase family. (P08761)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
(1) Peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = peptide-L- methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin (1.8.4.11)
(2) L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = L-methionine (S)-S- oxide + thioredoxin (1.8.4.11)
Predictions / Assertions
(1) Peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = peptide-L- methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin (1.8.4.11)
(2) L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = L-methionine (S)-S- oxide + thioredoxin (1.8.4.11)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SULFUR OXIDOREDUCTASES, DISULFIDE AS ACCEPTOR -
Sulfur oxidoreductases with disulfide as acceptor, include dehydrogenases that oxidize sulfur-containing group with the reduction of disulfide.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Has an important function as a repair enzyme for proteins that have been inactivated by oxidation. Catalyzes the reversible oxidation-reduction of methionine sulfoxide in proteins to methionine.
(UniProt, P08761)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Eip71CD
The structural gene for 28 and 29 kilodalton (as determined by gel mobility) polypeptides (EIP28, EIP29) whose concentration in Kc cells increases detectably beginning at 30-60 min and reaches a maximum at 4-6 hr following ecdysteroid administration (Savakis, Demetri, and Cherbas, 1980, Cell 22: 665-74). Each protein exists in three isoforms with different pI's, possibly owing to acetylation.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\MsrA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075553
980
246
FBtr0075554
968
242
FBtr0075552
1090
82
FBtr0303531
932
239
FBtr0330176
1056
245
FBtr0330177
980
261
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075308
27.7
246
5.81
FBpp0075309
27.1
242
5.33
FBpp0075307
8.9
82
8.49
FBpp0292565
27.2
239
6.51
FBpp0303209
27.7
245
6.09
FBpp0303210
29.4
261
6.51
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Conjugated to URM1, a ubiquitin-like protein.

(UniProt, P08761)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\MsrA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

Additional Descriptive Data

Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.

Extensive RNA blot and in situ analyses were carried out. Peaks of Eip71CD expression occur at 9-12hr of embryogenesis, at the first and second instar larval molts, in mid third instar, at pupation, and in young adults. In situ hybridization shows high levels of Eip71CD transcripts in pharynx, salivary glands, anterior spiracle, epidermis, and fat body at the start of third instar, probably as a consequence of the late 2nd instar larval ecdysone peak. Expression in the proventriculus, lymph glands, and hemocytes rises sharply at metamorphosis, probably as a result of induction by the premetamorphic ecdysone peak. Transcript disappearance from the anterior spiracle, epidermis, and fat body is concurrent with the premetamorphic ecdysone peak.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\MsrA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 9 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of MsrA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of MsrA
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DCG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508MR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0A8C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0A4C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0MD8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-43

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:15,511,052..15,513,202 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    71D3-71D4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}cp309s2172&P{lacW}l(3)j2A2j2A2 and P{EP}Tfb2EP572
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    71C3-71D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (60)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: MsrA Eip71CD

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    Renamed 'Eip71CD' to 'MsrA' to reflect usage in the fly literature and the wider field.

    Other Comments

    RNase protection studies show that the 3' end of mex1 is located approximately 4kb downstream of Eip71CD, with the two genes convergently transcribed.

    The gdl transcribed region overlaps the Eip71CD transcribed region.

    Eip71CD has been cloned and sequenced.

    Each protein exists in three isoforms with different pI's, possibly owing to acetylation.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 68 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Name Synonyms
    Ecdysone-induced protein 28/29kD
    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A
    Methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase
    methionine reductase A
    methionine sulfoxide reductase A
    methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0026825
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (118)