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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\emc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
extra macrochaetae
Annotation Symbol
CG1007
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000575
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
l(3)05592, ms(3)61CD, Ach, extramacrochaete, gov
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:749,400..753,492 [+]
Recombination map
3-0.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Participates in sensory organ patterning by antagonizing the neurogenic activity of the Achaete-scute complex (AS-C). It lacks a basic DNA-binding domain but is able to form heterodimers with other HLH proteins, thereby inhibiting DNA binding. May sequester proneural proteins in complexes inefficient for DNA interaction. EMC also affects vein differentiation. Inhibits the activity of AS-C proteins by forming an non-DNA binding heterodimer.
(UniProt, P18491)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
emc: extra machrochaetae (H.M. Ellis)
Hypomorphic alleles, or amorphic alleles when heterozygous with a hypomorphic allele, cause formation of extra macrochaetae. Severely hypomorphic combinations also cause formation of extra microchaetae. Amorphic alleles when homozygous result in embryonic lethality. Amorphic alleles when heterozygous with a normal third chromosome result in the appearance of ectopic chaetae in the occipital and premandibular regions. Extra chaetae in emc mutant flies appear on the head and notum (weak alleles) as well as on the wing blade, pleura, post-scutellum, tergites and legs in more severe allelic combinations. In severely hypomorphic allelic combinations extra campaniform sensilla occasionally appear on the wing blade. Reduction of wild-type emc function also causes the presence of extra bits of wing vein. A dominant emc allele (emcD) causes a reduction in the number of macrochaetae on the head and notum. emcD is homozygous viable; emcD homozygotes are more mutant than emcD/+ individuals. The L4 and L5 wing veins are shortened in emcD homozygotes but only rarely in emcD/+ heterozygotes. The insufficiency produced by emc can be titrated by altering the dosage of ASC; increased function of ASC produced by gain-of-function mutations (Hw) can be titrated by altering the dosage of emc+.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - HLH non basic - antagonist of proneural genes - the Notch pathway is required in combination with Emc to define the proneural cluster which gives rise to the sensory organ precursor cell
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\emc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\emc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072578
2049
199
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.5 (northern blot)
4.1, 2.3, 1.85, 1.7 (northern blot)
2.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072477
22.0
199
4.78
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
199 (aa); 22 (kD predicted)
Comments
Heterodimers between the da protein and either the ac, sc, or l(1)sc proteins were found to bind specifically to E box consensus sequences in the ac promoter region in vitro. The three heterodimers had differing affinities for the E boxes acE1-acE3 and none bound to acE4. This binding was inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by the emc protein. emc did not inhibit sequence specific DNA-binding by the mouse CREB transcription factor showing that it is not a general antagonist of DNA binding.
emc protein contains the dimerization domain of other helix-loop-helix proteins but lacks the basic region thought to be important for DNA binding. It is thought to form heterodimers with other bHLH proteins and interfere with their activity.
emc contains a helix-loop-helix region but lacks the basic domain thought to be important for DNA-binding. It is thought to sequester proneural proteins in complexes inefficient for DNA interaction.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterodimer with other HLH proteins.
(UniProt, P18491)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\emc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (30 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:da; FB:FBgn0267821
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ac; FB:FBgn0000022
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:l(1)sc; FB:FBgn0002561
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:sc; FB:FBgn0004170
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:net; FB:FBgn0002931
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:px; FB:FBgn0003175
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:bs; FB:FBgn0004101
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919548
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

posterior ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
emc expression is reduced in the region of the morphogenetic furrow but is otherwise uniform in eye discs from third instar larvae.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
eye disc

Comment: absent from the morphogenetic furrow

Additional Descriptive Data
emc protein expression is absent from the morphogenetic furrow but is otherwise relatively uniform in eye discs from third instar larvae.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}emcP5c
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}emcS009426
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}emcS020310
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}emcS058701
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}emcS097709a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lwB}emc4218
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}emc03970
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}emc04322
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\emc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 93 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of emc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of emc
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
denticle row 1 & abdominal 1 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 1 & abdominal 2 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 1 & abdominal 3 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 1 & abdominal 4 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 1 & abdominal 5 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 1 & abdominal 6 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 1 & abdominal 7 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 1 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 2 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 3 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 4 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 5 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 6 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 2 & abdominal 7 ventral denticle belt
macrochaeta & thorax
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta
microchaeta & mesothoracic tergum | supernumerary
scutellum & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HN6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150F3G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0N5S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0NER )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G11W4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Heterodimer with other HLH proteins.
    (UniProt, P18491 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-0.5
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:749,400..753,492 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    61C9-61C9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0596705967 and P{PZ}l(3)0264002640
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    61D-61D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    61C-61D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    3-0.0
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (31)
    Genomic Clones (7)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (206)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: emc CG1007
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: emc ms(3)61CD
      Additional comments
      FlyBase curator comment: "EP3087" overexpression phenotype stated to be due to its effect on emc but orientation of the P{EP} element suggests otherwise.
      Other Comments
      emc acts as a downstream component of N, at least in wing margin formation and vein differentiation.
      emc is required during development of the imaginal wing discs in both cell proliferation and cell differentiation processes.
      Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
      The consensus Rbp9 binding site, UUUXUUUU, is present in two copies in the 3' untranslated region of emc mRNA. UV crosslinking demonstrates a specific interaction between the two, and Northern analysis revealed that Rbp9 functions as a regulator of mRNA stability.
      Mutations show strong interactions with high and low selection lines, abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers are affected. Results suggest emc is a candidate for bristle number quantitative trait loci (QTL) in natural populations or is in the same genetic pathway.
      Five additional alleles have been derived by Δ2-3 mobilization of P{lArB} during an analysis of quantitative trait loci effects on bristle number.
      emc and h are expressed ahead of the morphogenetic furrow, emc has only a minor function in normal eye development. In emc- h- clones the morphogenetic furrow and differentiated eye field advance up to eight ommatidial rows ahead of adjacent wild type tissue. Results indicate that the morphogenetic furrow and neuronal differentiation are negatively regulated by a combination of anteriorly expressed HLH regulatory proteins, emc and h function together to regulate timing of furrow progression and photoreceptor development.
      Clonal analysis demonstrates the emc gene participates in the control of cell proliferation within inter-vein regions in the wing. Similar effects are seen in the haltere and the leg. Behaviour of emc cells indicates that proliferation is locally controlled within intervein sectors, cells proliferate according to their genetic activity along preferential positions in the wing morphogenetic landscape and cell proliferation in the wing is integrated by 'accommodation' between mutant and wild-type cells.
      emc forms heterodimers with the ac, sc, l(1)sc, and da products. emc inhibits DNA-binding of ac, sc and l(1)sc/da heterodimers and da homodimers. emc is a repressor of sc function whose action may take place post-transcriptionally.
      emc is required for a variety of developmental processes occurring in derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers.
      emc transcript is maternally contributed and distribution of emc transcripts during embryonic development is determined. emc function is required for normal midgut and Malpighian tubule development. Results suggest that negative regulation by emc may be a common feature of developmental processes involving da the AS-C and possibly other helix-loop-helix proteins.
      Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, tissue overgrowth in mitotic recombination clones.
      Postmeiotic differentiation defect.
      emc down regulates the ac promoter. Modified emc can interfere with the binding of proneural proteins to an ac E-box.
      emc contributes to sensory organ positioning in the wing disc.
      Maternal effect on viability of flies heterozygous for dpn1 and carrying a duplication for sc described: if mother is emcML/+ or emc1/emc1 their viability is <1%, whereas if mother is emc+ their viability is ~40%.
      Direct, positive transcriptional autoregulation by the ac protein and cross-regulation by sc are essential for high level expression of the ac promoter in the proneural cluster. These auto- and cross-regulatory activities are antagonized in a dose-dependent manner by the emc gene product, whose expression pattern in wing discs is complementary to that of the proneural genes.
      Negatively regulates sc expression, probably by interfering with activators of the gene.
      A synergistic interaction is observed between E(spl) and emc alleles with regard to the ectopic posterior macrochaetae. emc+ exerts its function by repressing ASC functions and consequently modifying the time and place where sensory organ mother cells are singularized. The NAx-1, NAx-M2 and NAx-M3 alleles reduce the phenotype of emc alleles.
      Negative regulator that suppresses sensory neurogenesis by selectively repressing ac and sc gene expression in different spatial domains and at different developmental stages.
      Lack-of-function alleles of emc exaggerate Hw phenotypes in both ectopic and normal positions.
      DNA sequence analysis reveals four E box binding sites, for the binding of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of da or AS-C proteins, in the first 877 bp of the ac upstream region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the emc protein can specifically antagonise DNA binding of the da/AS-C complexes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, h and E(spl) proteins fail to exhibit this inhibitory effect.
      Mutations in emc cause extra longitudinal or transverse veins with plexated vein phenotypes. Px, px, net, dsr and emc belong to the same synergistic group and act synergistically against kn, fu and shf.
      emc has been cloned and characterised.
      emc encodes a protein with a helix-loop-helix domain, but lacks a basic region (which is presumably important for DNA binding).
      Px, net, dsr, px and emc loci belong to the plexus phenotypic group within the 'excess-of-vein' mutant class. Extra veins occur parallel to and between normal veins that connect to each other by crossveins, forming plexi. Plexi are distal. Proximal regions shift to the margin leaving a central area devoid of veins. Sensilla and chaetae appear shifted. Combinations of mutations produce superadditive phenotypes.
      A negative regulator of ac and sc transcription.
      Genetic mosaic analysis demonstrates that emc is involved in cell to cell interaction process and patterning of the wing veins.
      h and emc code for repressors that interact with the ac and sc region of the achaete-scute complex respectively.
      emc and sc mutants were used to study how different levels of sc expression affect the pattern of chaetae.
      Hypomorphic alleles, or amorphic alleles when heterozygous with a hypomorphic allele, cause formation of extra macrochaetae. Severely hypomorphic combinations also cause formation of extra microchaetae. Amorphic alleles when homozygous result in embryonic lethality. Amorphic alleles when heterozygous with a normal third chromosome result in the appearance of ectopic chaetae in the occipital and premandibular regions. Extra chaetae in emc mutant flies appear on the head and notum (weak alleles) as well as on the wing blade, pleura, post-scutellum, tergites and legs in more severe allelic combinations. In severely hypomorphic allelic combinations extra campaniform sensilla occasionally appear on the wing blade. Reduction of wild-type emc function also causes the presence of extra bits of wing vein. A dominant emc allele (emcD) causes a reduction in the number of macrochaetae on the head and notum. emcD is homozygous viable; emcD homozygotes are more mutant than emcD/+ individuals. The L4 and L5 wing veins are shortened in emcD homozygotes but only rarely in emcD/+ heterozygotes. The insufficiency produced by emc can be titrated by altering the dosage of ASC; increased function of ASC produced by gain-of-function mutations (Hw) can be titrated by altering the dosage of emc+.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 116 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      l(3)04322
      l(3)j4E11
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010839
      • FBgn0010869
      • FBgn0011251
      • FBgn0011371
      • FBgn0013464
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (331)