Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Est-6
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Esterase 6
Annotation Symbol
CG6917
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000592
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

Est6, Est, Est-D

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:12,188,818..12,190,705 [+]
Recombination map

3-38

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:12188818..12190705
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in courtship behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in mating
traceable author statement
involved_in ovulation
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
NOT involved_in sperm competition
traceable author statement
involved_in sperm storage
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000168732
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family. (P08171)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CARBOXYLESTERASES -
OTHER CARBOXYLESTERASES are carboxylesterases that do not fall into any other major carboxylesterase group.
S9 NON-PEPTIDASE HOMOLOGS -
S9 non-peptidase homologs are similar in amino acid sequence to S9 serine peptidases but lack one or more of the expected catalytic residues. (Adapted from FBrf0239469.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transferred from the ejaculatory bulbs of males to the female genitals upon copulation, plays an important role in the reproductive biology.
(UniProt, P08171)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Est-6: Esterase 6
The structural gene for the nonspecific carboxylesterase, [EST-6 (EC 3.1.1.1)]. One of the ten positively migrating esterases demonstrable with α-naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue BB after starch gel electrophoresis of homogenates. Molecular weight determinations on purified enzyme indicate that the active enzyme is a 62,000 to 65,000 dalton glycoprotein monomer (Mane, Tepper, and Richmond, 1983, Biochem. Genet. 21: 1019-40). Substrate specificities to different esters explored by Danford and Beardmore (1979). Specific EST-6 activity during development shows a prominant transient peak during second larval instar and shows a male-specific rise in activity beginning 36-48 hr after eclosion; males reach level double that of females (Sheehan, Richmond, and Cochrane, 1979, Insect Biochem. 9: 443-50); similar high levels found in male-like triploid intersexes (Aronshtam and Kuzin, 1974, Zh. Obsch. 35: 926-33) and X/X;tra/tra (Johnson, 1964, Genetics 50: 259). High concentrations of EST-6 found in ejaculatory duct; at mating, male level depleted and female level enhanced; transfer of activity from male to Est-60 female detected early during copulation, prior to the transfer of sperm, indicating that EST-6 is a component of seminal fluid (Richmond, Gilbert, Sheehan, Gromko, and Butterworth, 1980, Science 207: 1483-85). Enzyme levels in flies carrying different X chromosomes from natural populations in combination with constant autosomal complement vary suggesting X-linked modifiers (Tepper, Richmond, and Terry, 1981, Genetics 97: s103). In D. melanogaster X D. simulans hybrid males that carry a D. melanogaster X chromosome, the level of the D. melanogaster enzyme is reduced compared to that of the D. simulans enzyme; hybrid females have equivalent activities of the two enzymes (Korchkin, Aronshtam, and Matveeva, 1974, Biochem. Genet. 12: 9-24). Electrophoretic mobility reduced modestly from 1.10 to 1.08 for Est-6F and from 1.0 to 0.98 for Est-6S by m(Est-6) on the third chromosome (Cochrane and Richmond, 1979, Biochem. Genet. 17: 167-83).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Est-6 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076003
1712
544
FBtr0333383
1837
544
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.83, 1.68 (unknown)

1.83, 1.68 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075735
61.1
544
5.57
FBpp0305575
61.1
544
5.57
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

544 aa isoforms: Est-6-PA, Est-6-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

548 (aa); 59.4 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Monomer.

(UniProt, P08171)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Est-6 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Est-6 transcripts are detected in all developmental stages, but are expressed at very high levels in adult males.

Both Est-6 transcripts have similar developmental profiles, although the shorter one is present at lower levels. Expression is high in adult males.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Est-6 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 65 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Est-6
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Est-6
Deletions and Duplications ( 14 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1  
3 of 15
No
No
1  
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1  
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (33)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (37)
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
No
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (22)
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (21)
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (47)
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905G3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150318 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02T5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (36)
7 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Monomer.
    (UniProt, P08171 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-38

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:12,188,818..12,190,705 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    69A1-69A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}rols08232&P{lacW}l(3)j2D3j2D3 and P{PZ}l(3)0508805088
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    69A1-69A3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    69A-69A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    69A1-69A1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Mapping based on 334 recombinants between h and th.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (12)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (27)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Est-6 CG6917

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    Allelic variation in Est-6 is expressed in electrophoretic mobility (complicated by heterogeneity for m(Est-6) on chromosome 3), thermal stability and level of activity. The same alleles have been designated differently by different authors. The allele records attempt to define the equivalences. Some use electrophoretic mobility relative to that of Est-6S = 1.00 in designating alleles. Relative mobility estimates vary within and among gels; also relations between mobilities on starch and acrylamide are nonlinear; consequently, similar but not identical estimates may not represent real differences.

    Other Comments

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    Upstream regions of Est-6 (1,150bp) and Dpse\Est-5B (5,100bp and 1,224bp) genes confer different expression patterns on a reporter gene. Common sites of expression are the third antennal segment, maxillary palps and adult salivary glands. Deletion analysis reveals the genes have a different organisation of regulatory elements that control expression in conserved tissue locations. Results suggest that the conservation of the expression pattern of genes that evolved from a common ancestor is not necessarily accompanied by an evolutionary preservation of the corresponding cis-regulatory elements.

    Ancestral activities in the haemolymph and ejaculatory bulb are directed by conserved sequences close to the transcription initiation site. The more recently acquired site of activity, the anterior ejaculatory duct, is directed by more distal sequences lying both 5' and 3' of the coding region. The 3' sequences appear to lie within the transcription unit of the adjacent Est-P gene.

    The effects of mutations of the four N-linked glycosylation sites is investigated. the effects of the mutation on aspects of Est-6 biochemistry and reproductive biology.

    Chromosome homologies of Muller's element D (J chromosome in the Paleartic species and XR chromosome arm in Nearctic species) and of element E (O chromosome in the Paleartic species and 2 chromosome in Nearctic species) have been confirmed by single copy probes in the species of the obscura group and in D.melanogaster.

    Substantial heritable variation for larval and pupal Est-6 activity is detected among 17 third chromosome isoallelic lines extracted from a single natural population. Weak correlations between larval and pupal activity and between larval and adult female activity are found, with effectively negligible associations between larval and adult male activities and between pupal and either adult measure. There is a largely independent genetic control of variation in the four measures. A comparison of the nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the activity variation likewise indicates distinct genetic bases for the variation in the four measures.

    Esterase-6 has been identified, on the basis of a partial N-terminal sequence, as one of the proteins recognised by anti-Horse Radish Peroxidase antibodies.

    Patterns of Est-6 expression are broadly similar in D.melanogaster, D.simulans and D.mauritiana. The major differences are in newly eclosed female activities and in 5 day adults. The genetic basis of the observed quantitative differences between Dsim\Est-6, Dmau\Est-6 and Est-6 is assayed using germ line transformation and analysis reveals interspecific differences are due to cis- and trans-inherited factors contained within the transferred DNA.

    Flies show a positive correlation between male reproductive activity and the activity of Est-6 in the male reproductive system.

    Deletion mutant Ecol\lacZ fusions generated in vitro allow definition of four independently acting Est-6 regulatory regions in the 1132bp 5' to the translation initiation codon. These regions are responsible for expression in the ejaculatory duct, salivary glands, ejaculatory bulb and respiratory system, antennae and maxillary palps.

    Site directed in vitro mutagenesis of position 187 suggests the residue interacts directly with the substrate alkyl group and this interaction is fully realised in the transition state.

    Pattern of allele frequency has been studied for seven loci, Aph-3, Est-6, Adh, Fdh, Aldox-1, Gpdh and Mdh1, in wild Indian populations of D.melanogaster : the allelic frequency patterns do not agree with those from temperate region populations.

    Extent of genetic variation at esterase-encoding loci in D.melanogaster, D.takahashii, D.nepalensis, D.malerkotliana, D.bipectinata and D.ananassae has been studied: all loci depict Fast/Slow migration on starch gel diallele variation patterns.

    The sequences of the Dpse\Est-5A, Dpse\Est-5B and Dpse\Est-5C genes, and the D.melanogaster Est-6 and Est-P genes have been compared.

    Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.

    No difference in allele fixed in lines selected over 700 generations for high (negative) and low (positive) geotaxis.

    Protein product identified as EST6 isozyme.

    Tests of natural selection on Est-6 alleles demonstrate that a temperature- dependent heterozygote advantage may contribute to maintenance of the Est-6 polymorphism: heterozygotes of each sex produced more progeny at 18oC than 25oC.

    Est-6 expression has been studied.

    The Est-6 and Est-P genes, which are arranged as a tandem repeat, have been cloned and sequenced.

    Male derived Est-6 is initially transferred into the females reproductive tract but is translocated within minutes of the beginning of mating into the haemolymph. Seminal-fluid Est-6 is detected by Western blot analysis in mated female haemolymph for as long as 4 days after mating. Results suggest that the enzyme remains in females for a period long enough to account for many of its behavioural and physiological effects.

    Allelic frequencies have been determined between European and African populations. African populations show a greater genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles found. Within each geographic group there is a homogeneity of allele frequencies.

    The structural gene for the nonspecific carboxylesterase, (EST-6). One of the ten positively migrating esterases demonstrable with α-naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue BB after starch gel electrophoresis of homogenates. Molecular weight determinations on purified enzyme indicate that the active enzyme is a 62,000 to 65,000 dalton glycoprotein monomer (Mane et al., 1983). Substrate specificities to different esters explored by Danford and Beardmore (1979). Specific EST-6 activity during development shows a prominent transient peak during second larval instar and shows a male-specific rise in activity beginning 36-48 hr after eclosion; males reach level double that of females (Sheehan, Richmond and Cochrane, 1979); similar high levels found in male-like triploid intersexes (Aronshtam and Kuzin, 1974) and X/X;tra/tra (Johnson, 1964). High concentrations of EST-6 found in ejaculatory duct; at mating, male level depleted and female level enhanced; transfer of activity from male to Est-60 female detected early during copulation, prior to the transfer of sperm, indicating that EST-6 is a component of seminal fluid (Richmond, Gilbert, Sheehan et al., 1980). Enzyme levels in flies carrying different X chromosomes from natural populations in combination with constant autosomal complement vary suggesting X-linked modifiers (Tepper et al., 1981). In D.melanogaster X D.simulans hybrid males that carry a D.melanogaster X chromosome, the level of the D.melanogaster enzyme is reduced compared to that of the D.simulans enzyme; hybrid females have equivalent activities of the two enzymes (Korochkin et al., 1974). Electrophoretic mobility reduced modestly from 1.10 to 1.08 for Est-6F and from 1.0 to 0.98 for Est-6S by m(Est-6) on the third chromosome (Cochrane and Richmond, 1979a).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Wright, Aug. 1961.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 263 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0017620
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (269)