General Information
Symbol
Dmel\exd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
extradenticle
Annotation Symbol
CG8933
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000611
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
extradenticle (exd) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is imported to the nuclueus upon binding the product of hth. The protein complex hth-exd are Hox cofactors but also have additional Hox-independent functions such as in antennal development, proximal appendages patterning, and cell division promotion of the undifferentiated eye field. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Also Known As
Dpbx, lincRNA.S9404
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,992,468..15,996,509 [+]
Recombination map
1-52
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the TALE/PBX homeobox family. (P40427)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
TALE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
TALE homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These proteins are characterized by an atypical homeodomain that possesses a three amino acid insertion in the first loop. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:18797923).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Transcription factor which acts with the selector homeodomain proteins altering the regulation of downstream target genes such as wingless (wg), teashirt (tsh) and decapentaplegic (dpp), thus affecting segmental identity. Delimits the eye field and prevent inappropriate eye development. Required for proper localization of chordotonal organs within the peripheral nervous system.
(UniProt, P40427)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
exd: extradenticle
Homozygous lethal; meso- and metathoracic segments resemble prothorax; first abdominal like posterior abdominal segments. In combination with Pc-like mutants shows abdominal transformations.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\exd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\exd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074135
2386
376
FBtr0074137
2347
376
FBtr0333322
2930
376
FBtr0333323
2883
376
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.4, 2.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073940
41.7
376
7.00
FBpp0073942
41.7
376
7.00
FBpp0305514
41.7
376
7.00
FBpp0305515
41.7
376
7.00
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

376 aa isoforms: exd-PA, exd-PB, exd-PD, exd-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
376 (aa); 41.7 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Ubx and hth.
(UniProt, P40427)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\exd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (25 terms)
Molecular Function (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:hth; FB:FBgn0001235
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:lab; FB:FBgn0002522
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dpp; FB:FBgn0000490
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:hth; FB:FBgn0001235
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:O46339
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P83949
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
exd is expressed at all stages of development. exd transcripts are present at high levels in early embryos except in the pole cells. Levels decline at gastrulation and then rise during germ band extension. From stage 12 on, transcript levels are modulated with high levels in head and thoracic regions and declining levels in abdominal regions. Levels are moderate in abdominal segments 1 and 2, lower in segments 3 and 4, and lowest in segments 5 and 6. Abdominal segments 7-9 have levels intermeditiate between those of segments 4 and 5. Expression is also observed in the CNS, visceral mesoderm, and somatic mesoderm.
exd transcript levels are greatly reduced in the exd2 mutant.
exd transcript levels are greatly reduced in the exd1 mutant.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\exd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 52 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of exd
Allele of exd
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of exd
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
macrochaeta & scutum
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta | ectopic | somatic clone
scutellum & chaeta | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (21)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BIB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915076R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0MI0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0MTY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G10TD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Ubx and hth.
    (UniProt, P40427 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-52
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:15,992,468..15,996,509 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    14A5-14A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Gβ13FEP1071 and P{EP}EP1458&P{EP}EP1522
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    14A-14A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (335)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: exd CG8933
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: exd anon- EST:fe1H3
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    exd is required for salivary gland formation.
    exd mutants show patterning defects in the primary axonal scaffolds of the developing embryonic brain.
    The exd gene product's function is balanced by the activities of its NES and NLS. The hth protein alters this balance in favor of the NLS.
    The exd gene encodes a product that includes an NLS (nuclear localization signal), an NES (nuclear export signal) and a region required for hth-mediated nuclear localization. The hth gene product is required to overcome the influence of the exd NES (nuclear export signal), possibly by inducing a conformational change in the exd product. The exd and hth gene products interact in the cytoplasm.
    The subcellular location of exd gene product and its mammalian counterpart Hsap\PBX1 depends on nuclear export and import signals and is modulated by association with hth protein or its mammalian counterpart Hsap\PKNOX1.
    exd encodes a specificity cofactor for the trunk Hox genes. The control of exd subcellular localization is a mechanism to regulate Hox activity during development.
    Scr negatively regulates hth, which is required for the nuclear localization of the exd gene product.
    exd activity is required for the apparent stability of the hth protein.
    Subcellular localisation of exd is regulated by the BX-C genes and each BX-C gene can prevent or reduce nuclear translocation of exd to different extents. Ubx and abd-A require exd activity for their maintenance and functions.
    exd and hth are antennal-determining genes. hth is an antennal selector gene and Antp promotes leg development by repressing hth and consequently nuclear exd.
    exd function and dpp/wg signalling are antagonistic and divide the leg into two mutually exclusive domains. In the proximal domain exd activity prevents cells from responding to dpp and wg. In the distal domain, exd function is suppressed by the dpp/wg response gene Dll, which prevents the nuclear transport of exd. The division of the limb into two antagonistic domains, as defined by exd function and hh signaling, may be a general feature of limb development.
    hth acts upstream of exd and is required and sufficient for nuclear localisation of exd protein. hth and exd are both negative regulators of eye development.
    exd protein localised to the nucleus is proposed to suppress tarsus development and activate arista development. In the mesodermal adepithelial cells of the leg imaginal discs, Scr protein is proposed to be required for the synthesis of a tarsus-inducer that when secreted acts on the ectoderm cells inhibiting nuclear accumulation of exd protein, such that tarsus determination is no longer suppressed and arista determination is no longer activated.
    Loss of exd activity is epistatic to loss of pb activity or loss of pb and Scr activity.
    Normal ph-p and ph-d expression depends on exd expression in vivo.
    The nucleocytoplasmic localisation of exd protein is highly regulated throughout development.
    exd function is required for the autoactivation phase of Dfd expression in the posterior head. A minimal Dfd response element is regulated directly by the combination of Dfd and exd without the need for a specialised heterodimer-binding site for the two proteins.
    hth is necessary for the nuclear localisation of exd protein.
    Although exd product affects wing development the presence of exd fails to modify the wing to haltere transformation caused by ectopic expression of either Ubx or abd-A.
    Protein-DNA interactions are important for forming the lab-exd-DNA complex. Data suggests a model in which lab and exd bind DNA as a heterodimer in a head-to-tail orientation.
    A 20bp oligonucleotide from the 5' region of Mmus\Hoxb1, a homolog of lab, is sufficient to direct an expression pattern in Drosophila very similar to endogenous lab. This expression requires lab abd exd function. In vitro DNA binding studies reveal that lab requires exd to bind DNA with high affinity.
    Clonal analysis establishes a precise boundary for exd requirement along the proximal-distal axis of the leg at the proximal femur; exd is required in proximal, not in distal leg. exd and Dll are required in near complementary domains along the leg, with the exception of the trochanter and proximal femur where both gene functions are needed. exd is expressed in a normal pattern in the absence of hh function.
    Both dpp and wg are required for the nuclear localization of exd protein in the endoderm. Ectopic expression of dpp and wg expands the domain of nuclear exd. The nuclear import of exd product correlates with the transcription of an exd-dependent reporter gene in the endoderm.
    Two trypotophan residues within the en EH2 domain are required for cooperativity with the exd gene product.
    Mosaic analysis reveals that exd is cell autonomously required and critically involved in adult morphogenesis, not only in the homeotic function, but also in several other developmental processes.
    The physical association of exd protein with Ubx protein and other HOM proteins is studied using a yeast two-hybrid system. Highly selective interactions exist between exd and certain isoforms of Ubx and with the abd-A protein.
    exd is critically involved in adult morphogenesis, not only in the homeotic function, but also in several other developmental processes. In some regions of the adult exd mutant clones exhibit homeotic transformations similar to those produced by known homeotic mutations at Ubx, lab, ss or Antp. In other regions the lack of exd causes novel homeotic transformations producing ectopic eyes and legs. exd is also required for functions not normally associated with homeosis, such as the maintenance of the dorso-ventral pattern in the abdomen, the specification of subpatterns in adult appendages or the arrangement of bristles in the mesonotum and genitalia.
    In vitro DNA binding studies indicate that Dfd product affinity for the 120bp Dfd epidermal element is markedly enhanced when exd protein is added to the binding reaction.
    Virtually all of the P{r4/lacZ} expression in Drosophila depends on the same three conserved sequence elements involved in regulating expression in the mouse and lab expression. Expression in the head and the visceral mesoderm requires exd function.
    Uniform expression of exd+ suppresses the phenotype of exd null mutations. exd mosaics survive to adult stages but with reduced viability, exd does play an essential role in the development of adult structures. Loss of exd in the adult abdomen and in the head leads to homeotic transformations.
    Ubx protein directly regulates dpp expression. At least one other activity, possibly exd, is required in conjunction with Ubx for PS7-specific activation.
    Cooperative interactions between Ubx protein and exd protein selectively increase the affinity of Ubx but not Antp for a particular DNA target.
    exd is required for the appropriate regulation of at least some of the selector homeodomain proteins downstream target genes.
    The exd protein raises the DNA binding specificity of Ubx and abd-A protein, but not that of Abd-B. The exd protein modulates the DNA binding activity of en to a different site. While a region N-terminal of the exd homeodomain is required for Ubx and abd-A cooperativity, en requires a domain C-terminal of the exd homeobox.
    Isolated from a Drosophila adult cDNA library, using a fragment containing the human pbx1 homeobox as a probe, under low stringency conditions.
    An exd cDNA has been cloned and sequenced, and its expression pattern has been analysed.
    Mutations in exd cause homeotic transformations in both the embryo and the adult. The exd gene product acts with the selector homeodomain proteins as a DNA binding transcription factor, thereby altering their regulation of downstream target genes.
    exd alters segmental identity without altering the pattern of expression of homeotic genes. It may act by altering the target specificity of these genes.
    exd mutants display mesothoracic and metathoracic segments like the prothorax, first abdominal segment is like the posterior abdomen.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Pbx1
    anon-EST:fe1H3
    l(1)IV
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010248
    • FBgn0025242
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (370)