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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\E(z)
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Enhancer of zeste
Annotation Symbol
CG6502
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000629
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (2.1.1.43)
Gene Snapshot
Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) encodes the catalytic component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methyltransferase that methylates histone H3 lysine27. Together with PRC1, PRC2 silences developmental genes to determine specific differentiated cell identities. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Also Known As
EZ, pco, l(3)1902, Su(z)301, polycombeotic
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:10,634,575..10,638,130 [-]
Recombination map
3-33
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the class V-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. Histone-lysine methyltransferase family. EZ subfamily. (P42124)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-lysine-[histone] = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone] (2.1.1.43)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (CORE SUBUNITS) -
The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a Polycomb group complex. PRC2 catalyzes the trimethylation of K27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) which serves to recruit PRC1. (Adapted from FBrf0188105).
SET DOMAIN LYSINE METHYLTRANSFERASES -
SET domain lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) catalyze the addition of methyl groups to lysine residues. SET domain KMTs possess a domain that was original characterized in the D.mel KMTs Su(var)3-9, E(z) and trx. (Adapted from FBrf0216343).
SANT-MYB DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION REGULATORS -
The SANT-MYB domain transcription regulators are essentially part of chromatin remodelling complexes and co-repressors. The SANT domain shows similarity with DNA-binding helix-turn-helix of Myb domain, and are involved in protein-protein interactions in the chromatin complexes. (Adapted from PMID:15040448).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. Catalytic subunit of the Esc/E(z) complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-27' of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. While PcG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development, this protein is specifically required during the first 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish the repressed state. The Esc/E(z) complex is necessary but not sufficient for the repression of homeotic target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required.
(UniProt, P42124)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
E(z): Enhancer of zeste
Locus named after original gain-of-function allele E(z)1 (Kalisch and Rasmuson); subsequently designated polycombeotic (pco) (by Phillips and Shearn) based on phenotype of lethal homozygotes. Loss of function alleles recovered as (a) recessive lethal mutations (b) reversions of E(z)1 and (c) reversions of the antimorphic allele, E(z)59. Reduction of E(z)+ activity leads to suppression of the z eye color, whereas gain-of-function alleles are dominant enhancers of zeste eye color [i.e., z w+/Y; E(z)1/+ males have brownish eyes as do z w+/z+ w+; E(z)1/+ females]. E(z)59 an antimorphic allele, is a dominant suppressor of z [i.e. z w+; E(z)59/+ females have orange eyes]. Hemizygosity for E(z)+ produces a very mild suppression of the z eye color. No effects on eye color in z+ or za backgrounds, and effects on eye color not specific to a particular w allele. Reduction of E(z)+ activity also allows ectopic expression of the segment identity genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax gene complexes, resulting in homeotic transformations. This latter effect defines E(z) as a Polycomb-group locus. E(z)61 displays temperature-sensititive suppression of z eye color and homeotic phenotypes. At 22, z wis/Y; E(z)61/Df(3L)E(z)-males have orange eyes and no homeotic transformations. At 29, such males have wild-type red eyes and die as pharate adults with strong homeotic transformations of the mesothoracic and metathoracic legs toward the prothoracic state. Embryos produced by E(z)61 homozygous females at 29C die with homeotic transformations of most segments toward the eighth abdominal segment. Even two copies of paternally contributed E(z)+ does not rescue viability of these embryos. Complete lack of zygotically produced E(z)+ results in early pupal lethality and small imaginal disks. Larval brain squashes from individuals homozygous for an amorphic allele reveal a very low mitotic index; metaphase chromosomes irregularly condensed and fragmented (Gatti and Baker, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 438-53).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - polycomb group with trithorax homology - chromatin associated - catalytic component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methyltransferase that methylates histone H3 lysine27 -together with PRC1, PRC2 silences developmental genes to determine specific differentiated cell identities
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\E(z) or the JBrowse view of Dmel\E(z) for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076279
2650
760
FBtr0273338
2464
760
FBtr0334067
2479
765
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.3, 2.5 (northern blot)
2.5 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076008
86.9
760
6.29
FBpp0271846
86.9
760
6.29
FBpp0306192
87.5
765
6.37
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

760 aa isoforms: E(z)-PA, E(z)-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
89 (kD observed)
760 (aa); 87 (kD predicted)
Comments
E(z) protein was found to bind to 44 identified sites along the polytene chromosomes.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, and possibly pho. The Esc/E(z) complex may also associate with Pcl and Rpd3 during early embryogenesis. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.
(UniProt, P42124)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\E(z) using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (21 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P41046
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24459
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:M9PF84
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Abundant E(z) protein is observed in male germline stem cells, gonialblasts, spermatogonia, and very early spermatocytes. Protein levels drop abruptly in spermatocytes in early G2 of meiotic prophase.
E(z) protein is uniformly distributed in embryos. It is ubiquitously distributed in larvae at lower levels.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\E(z) in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 103 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of E(z)
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of E(z)
Deletions and Duplications ( 8 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dendrite & dorsal multidendritic neuron ddaC | somatic clone
larval brain & mitosis & nuclear chromosome
mesothoracic leg & sex comb | ectopic
metaphase & condensed chromosome & embryo
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
12 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902Z7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501L1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02FH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02CX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G09L0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, and possibly pho. The Esc/E(z) complex may also associate with Pcl and Rpd3 during early embryogenesis. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.
    (UniProt, P42124 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-33
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:10,634,575..10,638,130 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    67E5-67E5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L0539L0539&P{PZ}Dhh1rL562 and P{PZ}simj01814
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    67E3-67E4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    3-34.25 +/- 0.5
    3-30.9 +/- 0.7
    3-34.0
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Genetic map position contradicts cytological map position.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (36)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: E(z) CG6502
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: l(3)ds12 l(3)SG17
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for E(z) protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
    E(z) is required for normal neuroblast proliferation in postembryonic central nervous system development.
    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of E(z) causes an increase in branch number and an expansion of the receptive field of class I neurons. RNAi also causes defects in muscle, defects in dendrite morphogenesis and reproducible defects in da dendrite development.
    E(z) is a Polycomb group protein.
    esc protein, together with that of E(z), is present in a 600kD complex that is distinct from complexes containing other PcG proteins. The complex also includes the Rpd3 and Caf1 proteins.
    Evidence of physical interaction between esc and E(z) in vitro and in vivo and coimmunoprecipitation in vivo suggests the proteins are direct partners in Pc-G mediated repression and this relationship has been evolutionarily conserved.
    The gene products of esc and E(z) bind directly to each other and co-localize at multiple chromosomal sites.
    E(z) protein is ubiquitously distributed in embryonic and larval nuclei and binds many of the same polytene chromosome nuclei as other Pc-G proteins. Lack of E(z) protein activity disrupts chromosome binding by trx protein.
    Although E(z) has been classified as a member of the Polycomb group of genes, it can also be classified as a member of the trithorax group. The requirement for E(z) activity as either a trithorax group or Polycomb group gene depends on the homeotic selector gene locus as well as on spatial and temporal cues.
    In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Genetic interactions have been demonstrated between esc, Asx, E(Pc), Pcl, E(z) and sxc. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model. Duplications of E(z) enhance homeotic phenotypes of esc mutants.
    Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
    E(z) activity is required for expression in the imaginal discs of Antp, Ubx, Scr and en. E(z) mutations exhibit interallelic non-complementation with ash1 mutations.
    E(z) mutations can express phenotypes characteristic of mutations in the trx-group of genes. Loss of function for E(z) during early development results in homeotic gene expression defects reminiscent of a trx-group mutation, while loss later in development results in gene expression defects characteristic of a Pc-group mutation.
    The effect of mutations in the E(z) locus on mutagenesis in the y2ns scme double superunstable system has been analysed.
    The intensity of trx binding to larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes is strongly decreased in larvae carrying mutations in E(z).
    A screen for suppressors of nos mutations identified alleles of E(z). E(z) is a negative transcriptional regulator of kni and gt and is required to maintain their expression domain initiated by the maternal hb gradient. A small region of the kni promoter mediates regulation by E(z) and hb. Imprinting at the chromatin level may underlie the determination of anteroposterior polarity in the early embryo.
    Molecular analysis of the E(z) gene.
    The association of the Psc and Su(z)2 proteins with the chromosomes is dependent on the presence of active E(z) protein.
    The bithorax complex genes are regulated by the Pc group of genes, acting via 'Pc group response elements' (PREs), that can work even when removed from the normal bithorax complex context. The Pc group products apparently provide stable memory or imprinting of boundaries which are specified by gap and pair-rule regulators.
    Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.
    Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic E(z) product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.
    Reduction of E(z)+ activity suppresses the z1 eye colour. Maternally and zygotically produced E(z)+ activity is required to correctly regulate the segment identity genes during embryonic and imaginal development.
    E(z) locus is involved in the suppression of the z1 eye colour and is also associated with homeotic transformations.
    Locus named after original gain-of-function allele E(z)1 (Kalisch and Rasmuson, 1974); subsequently designated polycombeotic (pco) (by Phillips and Shearn, 1980) based on phenotype of lethal homozygotes. Loss of function alleles recovered as (a) recessive lethal mutations (b) reversions of E(z)1 and (c) reversions of the antimorphic allele, E(z)59. Reduction of E(z)+ activity leads to suppression of the z eye color, whereas gain-of-function alleles are dominant enhancers of zeste eye color <up>i.e., z w+/Y; E(z)1/+ males have brownish eyes as do z w+/z+ w+; E(z)1/+ females</up>. E(z)59 an antimorphic allele, is a dominant suppressor of z <up>i.e. z w+; E(z)59/+ females have orange eyes</up>. Hemizygosity for E(z)+ produces a very mild suppression of the z eye color. No effects on eye color in z+ or za backgrounds and effects on eye color not specific to a particular w allele. Reduction of E(z)+ activity also allows ectopic expression of the segment identity genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax gene complexes, resulting in homeotic transformations. This latter effect defines E(z) as a Polycomb-group locus. E(z)61 displays temperature-sensitive suppression of z eye color and homeotic phenotypes. At 22oC, z wis/Y; Hemizygous E(z)61 males have orange eyes and no homeotic transformations. At 29oC, such males have wild-type red eyes and die as pharate adults with strong homeotic transformations of the mesothoracic and metathoracic legs toward the prothoracic state. Embryos produced by E(z)61 homozygous females at 29oC die with homeotic transformations of most segments toward the eighth abdominal segment. Even two copies of paternally contributed E(z)+ does not rescue viability of these embryos. Complete lack of zygotically produced E(z)+ results in early pupal lethality and small imaginal discs. Larval brain squashes from individuals homozygous for an amorphic allele reveal a very low mitotic index; metaphase chromosomes irregularly condensed and fragmented (Gatti and Baker, 1989).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (26)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    E(z)
    (Berlandi et al., 2019, Leatham-Jensen et al., 2019, Moskalev et al., 2019, Parey and Crombach, 2019, Sneppen and Ringrose, 2019, Alhaj Abed et al., 2018, Cho et al., 2018, Dasari et al., 2018, Davis and Rebay, 2018, Kennerdell et al., 2018, Lv et al., 2018, Ma et al., 2018, Nishioka et al., 2018, Ogiyama et al., 2018, Rojas-Ríos and Simonelig, 2018, Sadasivam and Huang, 2018, Song et al., 2018, Zhu et al., 2018, Feng et al., 2017, Kang et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Lomaev et al., 2017, Sharma et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Zhang et al., 2017, Du et al., 2016, Kahn et al., 2016, Li et al., 2016, Lv et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Peng et al., 2016, Piunti and Shilatifard, 2016, Shih et al., 2016, Xia et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Cesarini et al., 2015, Dequéant et al., 2015, Dietz et al., 2015, Ghasemi et al., 2015, Kang et al., 2015, Lee et al., 2015, McKay et al., 2015, model organism Encyclopedia of Regulatory Network (modERN) Project, 2015-, Yung et al., 2015, Comoglio and Paro, 2014, Gambetta and Müller, 2014, Gonzalez et al., 2014, Herz et al., 2014, Kim et al., 2014, McElroy et al., 2014, Ost et al., 2014, Rhee et al., 2014, Slattery et al., 2014, Stern et al., 2014, Yan et al., 2014, Aloia et al., 2013, Bengani et al., 2013, Debruhl et al., 2013, Di Croce and Helin, 2013, Iovino et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Lo Sardo et al., 2013, Mason-Suares et al., 2013, Mulero et al., 2013, Pengelly et al., 2013, Rai et al., 2013, Smith et al., 2013, Vasanthi et al., 2013, Cuddapah et al., 2012, Feller et al., 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Herz et al., 2012, Lanzuolo and Orlando, 2012, Matzat et al., 2012, McEachern, 2012, Petruk et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Sakoparnig et al., 2012, Stepanik and Harte, 2012, Stern et al., 2012, Takács et al., 2012, Yuan et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Anderson et al., 2011, Cavalli, 2011, Chen et al., 2011, Islam et al., 2011, Katsuyama and Paro, 2011, Kirilly et al., 2011, Nowak et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Rodriguez-Jato et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Gandille et al., 2010, Gan et al., 2010, Gan et al., 2010, Herz et al., 2010, Lee et al., 2010, Saj et al., 2010, Siebold et al., 2010, Wilkinson et al., 2010, Chen and Rasmuson-Lestander, 2009, Classen et al., 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Khan et al., 2009, Phalke et al., 2009, Tie et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Fanti et al., 2008, Fujioka et al., 2008, Joshi et al., 2008, Matyunina et al., 2008, Savla et al., 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Bello et al., 2007, de Ayala Alonso et al., 2007, Goodliffe et al., 2007, Mishra et al., 2007, Nekrasov et al., 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Ringrose and Paro, 2007, Schuettengruber et al., 2007, Simmons et al., 2007, Klymenko et al., 2006, Maeda and Karch, 2006, Muller and Kassis, 2006, Papp and Muller, 2006, Parrish et al., 2006, Talbert and Henikoff, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Andreyeva et al., 2005, Brown et al., 2005, Dillon et al., 2005, Kalmykova et al., 2005, Ketel et al., 2005, Lam et al., 2005, Nekrasov et al., 2005, Ali and Bender, 2004, Breiling et al., 2004, Marin, 2003, Huang et al., 2002, Joanis and Lloyd, 2002, Wicker-Thomas and Jallon, 2000)
    l(3)B12
    l(3)SG17
    l(3)ds12
    pco/E(z)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004710
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • transgene_used
    Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (482)