General Information
Symbol
Dmel\fl(2)d
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
female lethal d
Annotation Symbol
CG6315
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000662
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
v(2)k16105
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:13,819,624..13,824,553 [-]
Recombination map
2-68
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the fl(2)d family. (Q9Y091)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
M6A METHYLTRANSFERASE COMPLEX -
The m6A methyltransferase complex is a nuclear, multi-component enzyme involved in mediating N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in mRNAs. This modification modulates mRNA processing and activity. (Adapted from FBrf0234210 and FBrf0234211).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Associated component of the WMM complex, a complex that mediates N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of mRNAs, a modification that plays a role in the efficiency of mRNA splicing and is required for sex determination (PubMed:27919077). Required for sex determination and dosage compensation via Sxl alternative splicing: m6A methylation acts as a key regulator of Sxl pre-mRNA and promotes female-specific alternative splicing of Sxl, which determines female physiognomy (PubMed:1695150, PubMed:27919077). M6A methylation is also required for neuronal functions (PubMed:27919077). Required for proper inclusion of regulated exons in Ubx transcripts, leading to isoforms Ia/b and IIa/b (PubMed:10101174).
(UniProt, Q9Y091)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\fl(2)d or the JBrowse view of Dmel\fl(2)d for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087647
2567
536
FBtr0087648
2248
412
FBtr0304696
2435
412
FBtr0304697
2485
412
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.5 (northern blot); 2.2 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086773
59.3
536
5.87
FBpp0086774
45.1
412
5.05
FBpp0293239
45.1
412
5.05
FBpp0293240
45.1
412
5.05
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

412 aa isoforms: fl(2)d-PB, fl(2)d-PC, fl(2)d-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
539, 412 (aa); 80 (kD observed); 59 (kD predicted)
Comments
The protein contains stretches of histidine (H) and glutamine (Q) residues, which may account for the discrepancy between the predicted and observed sizes of the protein.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the WMM complex, a N6-methyltransferase complex composed of a catalytic subcomplex, named MAC, and of an associated subcomplex, named MACOM (PubMed:27919077, PubMed:28675155, PubMed:29535189, PubMed:29555755). The MAC subcomplex is composed of Ime4/Mettl3 and Mettl14 (PubMed:29535189, PubMed:29555755). The MACOM subcomplex is composed of fl(2)d, Flacc/Xio, Hakai, vir, and, in some cases of nito (PubMed:27919077, PubMed:28675155, PubMed:29535189, PubMed:29555755). Interacts with vir and msk (PubMed:12444081). Part of a complex containing fl(2)d, Sxl and vir (PubMed:12444081).
(UniProt, Q9Y091)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\fl(2)d using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (11 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q7KIF8
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9W1R5
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:so; FB:FBgn0003460
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sxl; FB:FBgn0264270
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000390848
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000390848
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000390848
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Similar amounts of the protein are detected in both sexes.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\fl(2)d in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190B8F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150D82 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0FYB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0FYD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0PNP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the WMM complex, a N6-methyltransferase complex composed of a catalytic subcomplex, named MAC, and of an associated subcomplex, named MACOM (PubMed:27919077, PubMed:28675155, PubMed:29535189, PubMed:29555755). The MAC subcomplex is composed of Ime4/Mettl3 and Mettl14 (PubMed:29535189, PubMed:29555755). The MACOM subcomplex is composed of fl(2)d, Flacc/Xio, Hakai, vir, and, in some cases of nito (PubMed:27919077, PubMed:28675155, PubMed:29535189, PubMed:29555755). Interacts with vir and msk (PubMed:12444081). Part of a complex containing fl(2)d, Sxl and vir (PubMed:12444081).
    (UniProt, Q9Y091 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-68
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:13,819,624..13,824,553 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    50C6-50C6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)03105k16702&P{lacW}fl(2)dk16105 and P{lacW}shotk03010
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    50C-50C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    50C4-50C5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    2-70.08 +/- 0.43
    2-70.1
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (20)
    Genomic Clones (17)
    cDNA Clones (188)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: fl(2)d v(2)k16105
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) down-regulates a distinct splice isoform(s) of this gene.
      vir and fl(2)d are required for inclusion of mI and mII microexons in Ubx mRNAs.
      fl(2)d function is necessary for the female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA, but not for the female-specific splicing of dsx pre-mRNA.
      Analysis of fl(2)d mutants suggests the gene has two functions; a female-specific function involving in the splicing of Sxl RNA and a non-sex-specific function.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 54 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (101)