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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ft
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
fat
Annotation Symbol
CG3352
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001075
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
fat (ft) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a large cadherin family transmembrane protein. It functions in the Hippo signaling pathway (as a receptor) and the Dachsous-Fat planar cell polarity pathway (as a transmembrane component). [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
l(2)k07918, l(2)ft, l(2)79/18, CT11259, l(2)gd-1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:4,198,404..4,221,796 [-]
Recombination map
2-11
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CADHERINS -
The cadherin superfamily represent a diverse group of transmembrane receptors which mediate cell-cell adhesion. Cadherins are defined by the presence of cadherin domains, typically organised in tandem repeats, which mediate calcium-dependent homophilic interactions between cadherin molecules. (Adapted from FBrf0146675).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in regulation of planar cell polarity in the compound eye where it is required for correct specification of the R3 and R4 photoreceptor cells by regulating Fz activity in the R3/R4 precursor cells (PubMed:11893338). This is likely to occur through creation of an ft gradient so that the equatorial R3/R4 precursor cell has a higher level of ft function than its polar neighbor (PubMed:15548581). Also required for planar cell polarity of wing hairs (PubMed:12540853, PubMed:15240556). Mediates heterophilic cell adhesion in vitro and is required to stabilize ds on the cell surface (PubMed:15240556). Involved in regulation of eye imaginal disk size (PubMed:23667559). Upstream component of the Hippo pathway where it is likely to act as a cell surface receptor involved in regulation of tissue size and is required for the localization and stability of ex (PubMed:16996265). Probably acts as a cell surface receptor for ds (PubMed:20434335). Ft-mito: Regulates mitochondrial electron transport chain integrity and promotes oxidative phosphorylation.
(UniProt, P33450)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ft: fat
Viable alleles characterized using ft1. Abdomen short and fat. Thorax broad. Wings short and broad with crossveins much closer together than normal. Scutellum shortened; scutellar bristles far apart. Viability good. Second- and third-instar larvae, particularly when there is little yeast in the food, show vacuoles in cytoplasm of salivary gland cells. Two waves of vacuole formation; vacuoles may be membrane-bound lipoprotein bodies (Chandhuri, 1969, DIS 44: 118). Tip of X disfigured, possibly as a result of several small puffs intermingled with hard, non-puffed bands. In about 1% of larvae, salivary glands distally expanded and crooked [Slizynski, 1964, Cytologia (Tokyo), 29: 330-36 (fig.)]. Lethal alleles characterized in study of ft8 (formerly fd = floppy disc) by Bryant et al.. ft8 classified as an amorphic mutation based on the similarity in lethal phenotype of ft8/ft8 and ft8/Df(2L)M25A-11. Larvae characterized by imaginal-disc hyperplasia such that mutant discs are much larger and more convoluted than wild type; the disc remains a single epithelial layer but in the highly convoluted proximal regions, of the wing disc at least, the columnar cells give way to cuboidal epithelial cells, which are deficient in cytoskeletal elements. Pupariation is delayed 3.2 days in mutants and the discs contain 122,000 cells at the end of nine days compared to 50,000 cells in wild type discs, which attain full growth at 5 days. Disc phenotype autonomous in transplants into adult hosts. Occasional mutant pupae reach the pharate-adult stage so that adult structures can be studied. Abdomens normal; eyes often swollen and may be split into two parts; extra head bristles; distal parts of antennae and legs may be missing; wings often fail to evaginate. Legs most severely affected; joints short and thick; missing tarsal joints and claws and tarsal fusions; increased bristle densities with deviant chaetal polarities; frequent outgrowths and ingrowths of cuticle; the latter giving rise to cuticle bound vesicles within the legs.
G: Gull
thumb
G: Gull
From Mohr, 1929, Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 50: 113-200.
Wings large, held out from sides at 45-90 angle, curved downward, and somewhat pointed. Vein L1 thickened; crossveins closer together, sometimes broken. Thoracic and vertical bristles duplicated in majority of flies. G/ft has exaggerated ft phenotype. Partially inhibited by ds/+ and much inhibited by ds/ds. Homozygous lethal. RK2.
Grv: Gull-reverted
Does not show G phenotype. Allelic to ft but does not exaggerate ft. Lethal in combination with G. RK2.
l(2)gd2
Lethal shortly after pupation; imaginal discs two to four times normal size. Usually display abnormal shapes and folding patterns; occasionally appear normal. Metamorphosed fragments in normal larval hosts exhibit hair patterns; occasional single bristles seen; often only naked cuticle forms.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
cadherin domain transmembrane receptor that negatively controls cell proliferation - also functions in planar polarity - Fat functions in the Hippo signaling pathway and the Dachsous-Fat planar cell polarity pathway
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ft or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ft for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077478
16852
5147
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
15-20 Kb (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077167
564.8
5147
4.69
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
5147 (aa); 560 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Domain
The extracellular domain is required for correct subcellular localization and for cell adhesion. The intracellular domain is sufficient for viability, growth control and planar cell polarity.
(UniProt, P33450)
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Fbxl7 (PubMed:25107277). Ft-mito interacts with NADH dehydrogenase subunit ND-24 and with ATP synthase subunit ATPsynC (PubMed:25215488).
(UniProt, P33450)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated by fj on Ser/Thr of cadherin domains (PubMed:18635802). Phosphorylation by fj enhances binding to ds (PubMed:20434335). Phosphorylated in the cytoplasmic domain in a dco-dependent manner which is promoted by ds (PubMed:19574458). Proteolytically cleaved to yield stably associated N- and C-terminal fragments (PubMed:19574458). The C-terminal fragment is processed further to release a 68 kDa mitochondrial fragment, Ft-mito (PubMed:25215488).
(UniProt, P33450)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ft using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (42 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ds; FB:FBgn0284247
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dlish; FB:FBgn0034264
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24292
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002555229
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002771523
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (35 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (34 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fz; FB:FBgn0001085
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:wts; FB:FBgn0011739
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24292
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:RpL36; FB:FBgn0002579
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002555229
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
ft transcripts are first detected at stage 7 of embryogenesis in the surface ectoderm and in some ectodermal derivatives. Later they are seen in the pharyngeal region of the foregut and in the hindgut. In larvae, ft transcripts are expressed in a small set of neurons in the optic lobes and uniformly in all imaginal discs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ft protein is expressed strongly both in larval and pupal stages at the borders or the secondary and tertiary pigment cells, the bristle cells, and the four cone cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ft in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 40 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 94 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ft
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ft
Deletions and Duplications ( 37 )
Not disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
mesothoracic tergum & chaeta | somatic clone
trichome & abdominal tergite | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous, with Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL
wing & chaeta
wing & chaeta | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919000C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150009 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0008 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0007 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G000B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (12)
6 of 10
5 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
enhanceable
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
enhanceable
suppressible
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Fbxl7 (PubMed:25107277). Ft-mito interacts with NADH dehydrogenase subunit ND-24 and with ATP synthase subunit ATPsynC (PubMed:25215488).
(UniProt, P33450 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-11
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:4,198,404..4,221,796 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
24D8-24D8
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}edk01102 and P{PZ}tutl01085
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
24D-24D
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
2-10.4 (Jurgens).
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (28)
Genomic Clones (25)
cDNA Clones (3)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Cells lacking ft spend roughly equal proportions of time in the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle as wild-type cells
      ft modulates sav/wts/hpo pathway activity by functioning upstream of sav, wts, hpo, and ex.
      Clonal analysis indicates that the ds/ft system and the stan/fz system act independently to confer planar cell polarity in the adult abdomen; each system confers and propagates polarity and can do so in the absence of the other.
      The extracellular domain of the ft product is not required for its activity in growth, planar cell polarity and proximodistal wing patterning.
      ft is a general growth regulator and is required to restrict the rate of cell proliferation and the size of adult structures. ft is required for cell proliferation arrest of uncommitted precursor cells.
      ft regulates wts phosphorylation and yki activity.
      Gradients of fj and ds expression appear to provide partially redundant positional information essential for specifying the polarisation axis in the eye. The fidelity of planar cell polarity in the eye appears to result from the combined action of the fj and ds gradients acting through ft.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      ft gene product mediated signalling provides a directional cue that orients the action of the fz dependent alignment mechanism in control of planar cell polarity in the wing.
      ds and ft gene products maintain each other's localization in neighbouring cells.
      The Cadherins ft regulates dorsal ventral signalling in the eye. ft may convey dorsal ventral positional information to developing ommatidia to create the dorsal ventral midline.
      ft play an important role in the regulation planar polarity in the compound eye.
      The ft gene negatively controls cell proliferation in a cell autonomous manner. This control is affected by the activity of signalling pathways especially that of the Egfr pathway.
      Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
      Tumor suppressor genes act in combination to control cell proliferation. Tissue hyperplasia can be associated with ectopic expression of genes involved in pattern formation. The enhancement of leg disc duplication in l(2)gd1 mutants by ft is mediated by dpp.
      Some of the proteins of apico-lateral junctions are required both for apico-basal cell polarity and for the signalling mechanisms controlling cell proliferation, whereas others are required more specifically in cell-cell signalling.
      The phenotypes of, and genetic interactions between ds and ft are consistent with a model in which cell proliferation and morphogenesis of imaginal structures depends on the coupled equilibria between homo- and heterophilic interactions of the ds and ft cadherin proteins.
      Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, with imaginal disc overgrowth.
      Endocrine mechanisms responsible for the prolongation of larval life in ft mutants were investigated: results suggest that delayed pupariation is caused by the overgrown imaginal discs inhibiting the production or release of ecdysteroids from the endocrine system.
      Genetic and developmental characteristics of the imaginal disc overgrowth mutant have been determined. Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, with imaginal disc overgrowth.
      Cys poor regions of the proteins encoded by sli and ft are homologous with the laminin A-type modules of the crb protein.The laminin A-type modules of these proteins may participate in the interactions that control morphogenesis.
      Mutant alleles display a range of phenotypes that disrupt imaginal disc development in a way that would be expected from defects in cell adhesion. Clones of cells homozygous for recessive lethal mutations show hyperplastic autonomous overgrowth, large patches of mutant tissue protrude from body surface, surrounding tissue is unaffected.
      Mutants at ft exhibit hyperplastic overgrowth.
      Located in the cytological interval 24D5-24D7 by deficiency mapping.
      Viable alleles characterized using ft1. Abdomen short and fat. Thorax broad. Wings short and broad with crossveins much closer together than normal. Scutellum shortened; scutellar bristles far apart. Viability good. Second- and third instar larvae, particularly when there is little yeast in the food, show vacuoles in cytoplasm of salivary gland cells. Two waves of vacuole formation; vacuoles may be membrane-bound lipoprotein bodies (Chandhuri, 1969). Lethal alleles characterized in study of ft8 (formerly fd = floppy disc) by Bryant, Huettner, Held, Ryerse and Szidonya (1988). ft8 classified as an amorphic mutation based on the similarity in lethal phenotype of ft8/ft8 and ft8/Df(2L)M24F11. Larvae characterized by imaginal-disc hyperplasia such that mutant discs are much larger and more convoluted than wild type; the disc remains a single epithelial layer but in the highly convoluted proximal regions, of the wing disc at least, the columnar cells give way to cuboidal epithelial cells, which are deficient in cytoskeletal elements. Pupariation is delayed 3.2 days in mutants and the discs contain 122,000 cells at the end of nine days compared to 50,000 cells in wild type discs, which attain full growth at 5 days. Disc phenotype autonomous in transplants into adult hosts. Occasional mutant pupae reach the pharate-adult stage so that adult structures can be studied. Abdomens normal; eyes often swollen and may be split into two parts; extra head bristles; distal parts of antennae and legs may be missing; wings often fail to evaginate. Legs most severely affected; joints short and thick; missing tarsal joints and claws and tarsal fusions; increased bristle densities with deviant chaetal polarities; frequent outgrowths and ingrowths of cuticle; the latter giving rise to cuticle bound vesicles within the legs.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Mohr, 15th Feb. 1920.
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      ft
      (Bangi et al., 2019, Wang et al., 2019, Daniel et al., 2018, Gene Disruption Project members, 2018-, Gou et al., 2018, Levis, 2018.8.30, Mangione and Martín-Blanco, 2018, Yu and Pan, 2018, Hermle et al., 2017, Matakatsu et al., 2017, Montes and Morata, 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Gomez et al., 2016, Misra and Irvine, 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Di Cara et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Enomoto et al., 2015, Gaspar et al., 2015, Hariharan, 2015, Hosono et al., 2015, Keder et al., 2015, Kwon et al., 2015, Su, 2015, Wittkorn et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Bossuyt et al., 2014, Ikmi et al., 2014, Sing et al., 2014, Tipping and Perrimon, 2014, Degoutin et al., 2013, Hazelwood and Hancock, 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Lawrence and Casal, 2013, Repiso et al., 2013, Sharma and McNeill, 2013, Southall et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Zhao et al., 2013, Brittle et al., 2012, Hafezi et al., 2012, Matakatsu and Blair, 2012, Nagaraj et al., 2012, Sagner et al., 2012, Singh and Mlodzik, 2012, Bao et al., 2011, Chung et al., 2011, Gambis et al., 2011, Goodrich and Strutt, 2011, Grusche et al., 2011, Hogan et al., 2011, Kawamori et al., 2011, Napoletano et al., 2011, Olguín et al., 2011, Poon et al., 2011, Reddy and Irvine, 2011, Schrider et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Brittle et al., 2010, Harumoto et al., 2010, Ho et al., 2010, Milton et al., 2010, Ren et al., 2010, Robinson et al., 2010, Swaminathan et al., 2010, Terriente-Félix et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Zecca and Struhl, 2010, Ziosi et al., 2010, Chung et al., 2009, Genevet et al., 2009, Hamaratoglu et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Mathew et al., 2009, Zhu, 2009, Baena-Lopez et al., 2008, Goulev et al., 2008, Matakatsu and Blair, 2008, Oh and Irvine, 2008, Sun et al., 2008, Terriente Felix and de Celis, 2008.1.16, Yu et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Feng and Irvine, 2007, Lawrence et al., 2007, Meignin et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Tyler and Baker, 2007, Tyler et al., 2007, Bennett and Harvey, 2006, Casal et al., 2006, Cho et al., 2006, Jaiswal et al., 2006, Matakatsu and Blair, 2006, Silva, 2006, Willecke et al., 2006, Lim et al., 2005, Strutt and Strutt, 2005, Fanto and McNeill, 2004, Grifoni et al., 2004, Hernandez et al., 2004, Fanto et al., 2003)
      l(2)24Da
      l(2)fd
      l(2)gd-1
      l(2)gd-l
      l(2)gd2
      Name Synonyms
      fat
      (Misra and Irvine, 2019, Richardson and Portela, 2018, Gomez et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Dent et al., 2015, Kwon et al., 2015, Okumura et al., 2015, Bosch et al., 2014, Sing et al., 2014, Harvey et al., 2013, Huang et al., 2013, Pan et al., 2013, Repiso et al., 2013, Ambegaonkar et al., 2012, Bosveld et al., 2012, Bosveld et al., 2012, Nagaraj et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Weng et al., 2012, Gambis et al., 2011, Hogan et al., 2011, Mao et al., 2011, Rauskolb et al., 2011, Reddy and Irvine, 2011, Biehs et al., 2010, Brittle et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Ho et al., 2010, Milton et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Robinson et al., 2010, Terriente-Félix et al., 2010, Zecca and Struhl, 2010, Feng and Irvine, 2009, Li et al., 2009, Mao et al., 2009, Sopko et al., 2009, Zhu, 2009, Fung et al., 2008, Jukam and Claude, 2008, Oh and Irvine, 2008, Rogulja et al., 2008, Sun et al., 2008, Yu et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Feng and Irvine, 2007, Jukam and Desplan, 2007, Lawrence et al., 2007, Meignin et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Tyler and Baker, 2007, Tyler et al., 2007, Bennett and Harvey, 2006, Cho et al., 2006, Hariharan, 2006, Maitra et al., 2006, Mao et al., 2006, Matakatsu and Blair, 2006, Silva et al., 2006, Willecke et al., 2006, Strutt and Strutt, 2005, Brody and Cravchik, 2000, Hynes and Zhao, 2000, Hynes and Zhao, 2000, Wu and Maniatis, 2000, Saget et al., 1998, Szabad, 1998, Woods et al., 1997, Watson et al., 1994, Woods and Bryant, 1993, Szabad et al., 1991, Bryant et al., 1988)
      floppy-discs
      giant discs 2
      giant-discs-1
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0002120
      • FBgn0014266
      Datasets (1)
      Study focus (1)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      Interaction map generated by purification of Hippo pathway factors, with identification of copurifying proteins by mass spectrometry.
      References (431)