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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\fz
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
frizzled
Annotation Symbol
CG17697
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001085
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
frizzled (fz) encodes the founding member of the Fz family of receptors for Wnt ligands. It is part of Wnt signaling and planar cell polarity pathways. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
Fz1, Dfz1, Frizzled 1, frz, DFz
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:14,274,343..14,368,639 [+]
Recombination map
3-42
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor Fz/Smo family. (P18537)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
FRIZZLED-TYPE RECEPTORS -
The frizzled gene family belong to Class F GPCRs. Frizzled GPCRs are characterized by a large N-terminal extracellular domain containing a cysteine-rich ligand-binding domain. The frizzled genes were first identified in Drosophila. Frizzled proteins are receptors for secreted Wnt proteins, as well as other ligands, and also play a critical role in the regulation of cell polarity. Frizzleds function in three distinct signaling pathways - the planar cell polarity pathway, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and the Wnt/calcium pathway. (Adapted from FBrf0222139).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Receptor for Wnt proteins. Most of frizzled receptors are coupled to the beta-catenin canonical signaling pathway, which leads to the activation of disheveled proteins, inhibition of GSK-3 kinase, nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and activation of Wnt target genes. A second signaling pathway involving PKC and calcium fluxes has been seen for some family members, but it is not yet clear if it represents a distinct pathway or if it can be integrated in the canonical pathway, as PKC seems to be required for Wnt-mediated inactivation of GSK-3 kinase. Both pathways seem to involve interactions with G-proteins. Required to coordinate the cytoskeletons of epidermal cells to produce a parallel array of cuticular hairs and bristles.
(UniProt, P18537)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
fz: frizzled
thumb
fz: frizzled
From Bridges and Brehme, 1944, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 552: 85.
Hairs on thorax directed irregularly toward midline. Thoracic bristles also inturned and often wavy. Postverticals may turn outward. Hairs on wing edge and feet nearly erect; trichomes on wings of flies carrying weaker alleles tend to form swirls rather than lying parallel to one another and pointing distally; stronger alleles can cause random orientation of trichomes. Polarity of chaetae deranged in characteristic ways on wings, notum, halteres, legs, tergites, and sternites; fz M+ clones in M/+ wings cause derangement of polarity in M/+ cells surrounding clone (Gubb and Garcia-Bellido, 1982, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 68: 37-57). In a wild-type background clones of wing cells homozygous for fz alleles that cause eye roughening, but not of those without effect on eye texture, cause adjacent normal trichomes in regions distal, anterior, and posterior, but not proximal to the clone, to orient toward the clone rather than distally as they normally do; no effect on trichomes on opposite surface of the wing (Vinson and Adler, 1987, Nature 329: 549-51). Wing may be reduced. A low level of doubling of trichomes and splitting of chaetae observed. Sex combs may be irregular. Most alleles cause eyes to be rough. Two weak alleles, fz24 and fz34 and two neomorphic alleles, fz13 and fz20, have normal eye textures. Extra leg joints tend to form as mirror-image duplications proximal to the normal joints on tarsal segments one to four. Also polarities of bristles, hairs, and bracts on legs abnormal (Held, Duarte, and Derakhshanian, 1986, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 145-57). RK2.
fz13
A neomorphic allele causing severe disruption of trichome orientation in the costal wing cell, a region little affected by most alleles; phenotype of homozygote more severe than that of hemizygote. Also unlike other alleles, homozygous clones of fz13 cells in the wing do not affect orientation of trichomes in surrounding normal cells. A third notable feature of fz13 is that it is without effect on eye texture.
fz20
Like fu13.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transmembrane - 7 pass - frizzled family - receptor for Wingless - tissue polarity gene - a part of Wnt signaling and planar cell polarity pathways
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\fz or the JBrowse view of Dmel\fz for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Stop-codon suppression (UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Transposon inserted in intron
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075743
3817
581
FBtr0330102
3817
612
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.0, >4.0 (northern blot)
4.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075485
64.8
581
8.22
FBpp0303135
68.0
612
7.95
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
60, 42 (kD observed)
62, 60 (kD observed)
62, 60 (kD observed); 62 (kD predicted)
581, 415 (aa)
Comments
Experiments with heat shock driven transgenes demonstrate that the shorter 415aa form of the fz protein is unable to rescue fz mutations. No endogenous protein of this size was detected.
Experiments with heat shock driven transgenes demonstrate that only the longer 581aa form of the fz protein shows any activity and rescues fz mutations. Overexpression results in two distinct tissue polarity phenotypes.
The fz protein contains and odd number of transmembrane domains and is glycosylated.
One of a couple of protein products.
The 415aa fz protein is essentially a carboxy-terminal truncated class I fz protein. It contains the seven transmembrane domains and is also likely to be an integral membrane protein.
The fz protein has 7 putative transmembrane domains.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with ATP6AP2.
(UniProt, P18537)
Domain
Lys-Thr-X-X-X-Trp motif interacts with the PDZ domain of Dvl (Disheveled) family members and is involved in the activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. The FZ domain is involved in binding with Wnt ligands.
(UniProt, P18537)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\fz using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (34 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000139394
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000139394
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (28 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (27 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:wg; FB:FBgn0284084
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fz2; FB:FBgn0016797
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ck; FB:FBgn0000317
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sqh; FB:FBgn0003514
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rho1; FB:FBgn0014020
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rok; FB:FBgn0026181
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:zip; FB:FBgn0265434
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000139394
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000139394
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with endosome
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000139394
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
epithelium of wing

Comment: reference states 18h APF

epithelium of wing

Comment: reference states 28h APF

western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
fz protein is detected at low abundance in samples from wing discs, other imaginal discs, and CNS and appears as a doublet.
fz protein is apically located within pupal wing cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with endosome
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\fz in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 104 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 150 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of fz
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of fz
Deletions and Duplications ( 27 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
axon & dorsal cluster neuron
external sensory organ precursor cell I & centrosome (with fz30)
external sensory organ precursor cell I & centrosome (with fz37)
external sensory organ precursor cell I & spindle (with fz30)
external sensory organ precursor cell I & spindle (with fz37)
eye (with fz15)
eye (with fz21)
eye (with fz23)
eye (with fz30)
lens (with fz15)
lens (with fz30)
macrochaeta & adult abdomen | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous
macrochaeta & eye
mesothoracic tergum & sensory mother cell & spindle (with fz30)
mesothoracic tergum & sensory mother cell & spindle (with fz37)
microchaeta & adult abdomen | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous
microchaeta & adult thorax | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous
sensory mother cell & spindle, with Scer\GAL4ap-md52
spindle & external sensory organ precursor cell I (with fz30)
spindle & external sensory organ precursor cell I (with fz37)
tarsal segment 1 & joint
trichome & abdominal tergite
trichome & adult abdomen, with Scer\GAL4hh-Gal4
trichome & adult abdomen | somatic clone
trichome & adult abdomen | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous
trichome & pleural membrane
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E, fz15
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E, fzUAS.cSa
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4hh-Gal4
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4hh-Gal4, fz21
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4hh-Gal4, fzUAS.cSa
trichome & pleural membrane, with Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC, fz15
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC, fzUAS.cSa
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC, fz15
trichome & pleural membrane | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC, fzUAS.cSa
wing & macrochaeta
wing & microchaeta
wing & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
wing & microchaeta | distal
wing & microchaeta | distal, with Scer\GAL4Dll-md23
wing hair & 1st posterior cell, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
 
4 of 15
No
Yes
 
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (18)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
 
11 of 13
No
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
 
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (21)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (26)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919043M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502Z7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0EHP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0EGU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0N5M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    enhanceable
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with ATP6AP2.
    (UniProt, P18537 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-42
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:14,274,343..14,368,639 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    70D4-70D5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)70Da02402&P{PZ}btl00208 and P{PZ}Mpcp00564
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    70D4-70D7
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (44)
    Genomic Clones (43)
    cDNA Clones (147)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    monoclonal, polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: fz CG3646
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: fz CG3646 CG17697
    Additional comments
    Most alleles fit into a hypomorphic to amorphic series with many hemizygotes displaying a more severe phenotype than homozygotes.
    Other Comments
    Mutations in fz influence the arrangement of ommatidia at the micro-scale but have no effect on the ommatidium nano-scale structure.
    fz is required for normal salivary gland migration in the embryo. It is required in the second phase of salivary gland migration, as the gland moves posteriorly within the embryo.
    Clonal analysis indicates that the ds/ft system and the stan/fz system act independently to confer planar cell polarity in the adult abdomen; each system confers and propagates polarity and can do so in the absence of the other.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.
    fz is transported to the distal sides of developing wing blade cells during pupal stages by transport in microtubules associated endosomes.
    Molecular analyses suggest that the cysteine-rich domain of fz recruits wg, and bound wg interacts with the membrane portion of the receptor to initiate signalling. RNAi knockdown experiments show that fz and wg also require the receptor Arr1 to initiate arm signalling.
    The wg morphogen gradient appears to be established by the cooperative action of fz and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan receptors.
    Vang acts together with fz and stan to mediate apicolateral recruitment of planar polarity proteins including dsh and pk.
    The Vang/pk complex appears to modulate fz/dsh activity, resulting in a symmetry-breaking step during polarity signalling.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    The fz feedback loop, acting to propagate polarity from cell to cell, is sufficient to align planar polarity of cells in the wing.
    in and fy are needed in cells receiving and responding to a fz dependent intercellular signal. Genetic analysis is not consistent with fz-like class of genes fz, pk, Vang, stan and dsh acting simply as positive or negative regulators of in and fy.
    Mutations in fz-like class of genes fz, pk, Vang, stan and dsh act as strong enhancers of weak in or fy phenotypes. In the wing as in the abdomen in and fy are epistatic to fz as double mutants resemble in and fy and not fz. fz and Vang show complementary domineering nonautonomy in the wing and abdomen. The domineering nonautonomy in the abdomen of fz clones is not blocked by cells also being mutant for in. In the eye fz is epistatic to in and fy. In terms of the wing eversion phenotype of fz, in and fy appear to be epistatic to fz.
    fz play an important role in the regulation planar polarity in the compound eye.
    fz participates in the pIIa vs pIIb fate decision in the external sensory organ lineage.
    Area matching Drosophila Frizzled gene Acc. No. X54648.
    the asymmetric localisation of fz in adult wing cells may be an instructive cue in the determination of cell polarity.
    fz and fz2 function as redundant receptors for wg during embryonic development.
    Mutant embryos lacking maternal fz, zygotic fz and zygotic fz2 show defects in the epidermis, CNS, heart and midgut that are indistinguishable from the defects observed for wg mutants.
    fz and fz2 are required during embryogenesis to maintain epidermal en and wg expression.
    fz and fz2 are functionally redundant and act as the primary receptors for wg protein.
    wg signal transduction is abolished in virtually all cells lacking both fz and fz2 in embryos as well as in imaginal discs.
    fz appears to function in the wg pathway to pattern sensory organs.
    Wing cells appear acquire proximo-distal polarity by way of the fz-dependant boundary localisation of stan.
    Mutations in ds cause a tissue polarity phenotype in the wing by altering the direction of fz signaling.
    fz and fz2 play a partially redundant role in wg signalling during neurogenesis.
    dsh functions in both fz and fz2 signalling, but distinct dsh protein domains feature in the two pathways.
    fz-mediated signalling provides polarity information to pI, specifying the orientation of mitotic spindles. The orientations of the pIIa and pIIb divisions are independent of fz signalling and are instead defined by the axis of the previous pI division.
    fz and fz2 function redundantly, downstream of wg and upstream of sgg, in the wg signalling pathway in the establishment of segment polarity in the embryo.
    The Vang gene product is essential for fz signalling.
    fz2 and not fz acts in the wg signalling pathway for wing margin development.
    A single dominant negative form of fz or fz2 can block more than one type of Wnt signalling pathway implying that truncated proteins of the Fz family lose some aspect of signaling specificity.
    Cells can assess the level of fz protein on neighbouring cells and use this as a source of polarity information.
    Mutants do not exhibit defects in the denticle belt of hairs of the larvae.
    Genetic interactions indicate that Rho1 has a role in signalling mediated by fz.
    Planar polarity phenotypes of loss of function and overexpression of fz in the developing eye is studied, the phenotype is almost identical to loss of function or overexpression of dsh, or overexpression of sgg. Overexpression of fz in the developing eye has a potent polarizing effect on the retinal epithelium.
    Cell nonautonomous fz alleles are associated with mutations that alter amino acids in all regions of the encoded protein. The four cell autonomous mutations fall in a proline residue in the presumptive first cytoplasmic loop of the protein. Comparison of fz with Dvir\fz revealed that the protein is unusually well conserved: in the putative cytoplasmic domains the two proteins are identical.
    dsh function is required for endogenous fz activity. fz activity is directly proportional to dsh gene dosage.
    Loss of fz function affects the rotation and breaking of symmetry of photoreceptor cell preclusters. Clonal analysis reveals that fz acts non-autonomously. Mitotic clones affect the polarity of neighboring wild-type ommatidia distal, but not proximal to the equatorial midline, suggesting that fz might mediate a signal in the developing eye transmitted bidirectionally from the equator to the opposite poles.
    The function of fz is required in the establishment of mirror-image symmetry about the equatorial midline in the compound eye.
    Mutant phenotype suggests fz is required for the correct rotational direction, the precise 90o turn and the correct asymmetry arrangement of R3 and R4 cells. fz is not required for the synchronous movement of photoreceptor cells within individual clusters since photoreceptor cells in each fz mutant ommatidium still rotate as a unit. Mosaic analysis demonstrates fz has non-autonomous effects on eye development. Double mutant analysis suggests that nmo and fz functional synergistically in directing ommatidial rotation.
    A cold sensitive allele of fz has been isolated and study of the mutant argues that fz has a regulatory function in specifying where the prehair forms, but has no role in the actual morphogenesis of the prehair.
    Comparisons between fz and in alleles reveals that at equivalent fractions of the wing showing abnormal polarity, in mutant wings have many fold more multiple hair cells than fz mutant wings.
    The longer, more abundant form of the two mRNA variants transcribed from fz encodes both the cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions of fz that have been revealed in mosaic experiments.
    Western blot analysis of fz protein accumulation in wing discs and pupal wings demonstrates fz is expressed in all regions of the epidermis before, during and after the fz cold sensitive period and prehair morphogenesis. fz function is not required for normal fz expression and mutations in other tissue polarity genes does not alter the amount or size of fz protein.
    fz protein is an integral membrane protein with an odd number of transmembrane domains. Immunostaining of pupal wings reveals that the fz protein is evenly distributed across the wing and concentrates in the apical region of the pupal wing cells.
    Two similar proteins identified in rat.
    Cloning and characterisation of the fz locus has shown that this locus is very large (over 90kb) and probably encodes an integral membrane protein.
    Hairs on thorax directed irregularly toward midline. Thoracic bristles also inturned and often wavy. Postverticals may turn outward. Hairs on wing edge and feet nearly erect; trichomes on wings of flies carrying weaker alleles tend to form swirls rather than lying parallel to one another and pointing distally; stronger alleles can cause random orientation of trichomes. Polarity of chaetae deranged in characteristic ways on wings, notum, halteres, legs, tergites and sternites; fz M+ clones in M/+ wings cause derangement of polarity in M/+ cells surrounding clone (Gubb and Garcia-Bellido, 1982). In a wild-type background clones of wing cells homozygous for fz alleles that cause eye roughening, but not of those without effect on eye texture, cause adjacent normal trichomes in regions distal, anterior and posterior, but not proximal to the clone, to orient toward the clone rather than distally as they normally do; no effect on trichomes on opposite surface of the wing (Vinson and Adler, 1987). Wing may be reduced. A low level of doubling of trichomes and splitting of chaetae observed. Sex combs may be irregular. Most alleles cause eyes to be rough Extra leg joints tend to form as mirror-image duplications proximal to the normal joints on tarsal segments one to four. Also polarities of bristles, hairs, and bracts on legs abnormal (Held, Duarte and Derakhshanian, 1986).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Bridges, 18th Feb. 1938.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 90 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    fz
    (Meltzer et al., 2019, Strutt et al., 2019, Billmann et al., 2018, Garrido-Jimenez et al., 2018, Katanaev et al., 2018, Kim et al., 2018, Li-Kroeger et al., 2018, Ripp et al., 2018, Banerjee et al., 2017, Ewen-Campen et al., 2017, Tian et al., 2017, Wang et al., 2017, Aigouy and Le Bivic, 2016, Carbone et al., 2016, Carvajal-Gonzalez et al., 2016, Cate et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Dollar et al., 2016, Duun Rohde et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Gomez et al., 2016, Kelly et al., 2016, Kim et al., 2016, Kockel et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Mottier-Pavie et al., 2016, Strutt et al., 2016, Vega-Macaya et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Besson et al., 2015, Duff et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Gombos et al., 2015, Hsu et al., 2015, Kallsen et al., 2015, Morozova et al., 2015, Yang and Mlodzik, 2015, Yasunaga et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Kerr et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Abley et al., 2013, Brown et al., 2013, Chin and Mlodzik, 2013, Harbison et al., 2013, Hazelwood and Hancock, 2013, Hermle et al., 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Lawrence and Casal, 2013, Lin and Katanaev, 2013, Marcinkevicius and Zallen, 2013, Pancratov et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sharma and McNeill, 2013, Shen et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Wu et al., 2013, Brittle et al., 2012, Capilla et al., 2012, Gault et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kuroda et al., 2012, Muñoz-Soriano et al., 2012, Strutt et al., 2012, Tan et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Carreira et al., 2011, Cernilogar et al., 2011, Cho and Fischer, 2011, Cho et al., 2011, Goodrich and Strutt, 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Kryuchkov et al., 2011, Matsubara et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Olguín et al., 2011, Olguín et al., 2011, Shimizu et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Vincent et al., 2011, Zhu, 2011, Cordero and Cagan, 2010, Franke et al., 2010, Harumoto et al., 2010, Hermle et al., 2010, Ho et al., 2010, Li et al., 2010, Lu et al., 2010, Pataki et al., 2010, Repiso et al., 2010, Sinenko et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Blanco et al., 2009, Burak and Shraiman, 2009, Chung et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Gomes et al., 2009, Hazelett et al., 2009, Piddini and Vincent, 2009, Seugnet et al., 2009, Simons et al., 2009, Sinenko et al., 2009, Steinel and Whitington, 2009, Yan et al., 2009, Zhu, 2009, Carrera et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Doyle et al., 2008, Fabre et al., 2008, Fiehler and Wolff, 2008, Holloway et al., 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Strutt and Strutt, 2008, Strutt and Warrington, 2008, Todi et al., 2008, Weber et al., 2008, Wu and Mlodzik, 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Yan et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Bastock and Strutt, 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Bhat, 2007, Chung et al., 2007, DasGupta et al., 2007, Fiehler and Wolff, 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Harris and Beckendorf, 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Lawrence et al., 2007, Madder and Strutt, 2007, Rawls et al., 2007, Silver et al., 2007, Strutt and Strutt, 2007, Tyler et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Bartscherer et al., 2006, Casal et al., 2006, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2006, Edwards et al., 2006, Gordon and Nusse, 2006, Jaiswal et al., 2006, Le Garrec et al., 2006, Ma et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Price et al., 2006, Ren et al., 2006, Rives et al., 2006, Sato et al., 2006, Seto and Bellen, 2006, Shimada et al., 2006, Strutt et al., 2006, Walters et al., 2006, Cabernard and Affolter, 2005, Classen et al., 2005, DasGupta et al., 2005, David et al., 2005, Furlong, 2005, Jenny et al., 2005, Lim et al., 2005, Lipatov et al., 2005, Strutt and Strutt, 2005, Fanto and McNeill, 2004, Huang and Klein, 2004, Lawrence et al., 2004, He and Adler, 2002, Strutt, 2001, Winter et al., 2001, Goo et al., 1999)
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0036418
    • FBgn0036420
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
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    References (797)