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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\grk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
gurken
Annotation Symbol
CG17610
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001137
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
gurken (grk) encodes a TGFα family signaling ligand that activates the intracellular MAP kinase pathway via the the product of Egfr. The asymmetrical localization of grk mRNA is key for its function during oogenesis, to establish anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes in the egg and embryo. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:8,431,086..8,433,598 [-]
Recombination map
2-32
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Gene Group (FlyBase)
EGFR AGONISTS -
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) agonists are secreted ligands that activate the Egfr receptor tyrosine kinase.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Critical for defining the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes of the egg. May signal directly to dorsal follicle cells through the receptor torpedo (top). During oogenesis this signaling pathway instructs follicle cells to follow a dorsal pathway of development rather than the default ventral pathway.
(UniProt, P42287)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
grk: gurken
Maternal-effect lethal. Wild-type allele required for normal dorsoventral pattern in the egg. In mutants, the ventral regions of the chorion and the embryo are expanded at the expense of the dorsal regions. The pattern of the chorion is altered, a second micropyle and a small patch of operculum-like material often forming at the posterior pole in extremely mutant eggs; fewer cells contribute to the dorsal appendage, which is usually shifted posteriorly, but more follicle cells contribute to the main body of the chorion. In the embryo the major increase in cell mass occurs in the mesoderm as an invagination on the ventral side during early gastrulation. Analysis of mosaic females in which germ cells and sister nurse cells are of different genotype indicate that grk mutations act only in the germ line.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
TGFß homolog - EGF-R ligand - required for anterior-posterior and dorsoventral patterning of the egg and embryo - Syntaxin A1 is associated with the Golgi membrane and is required for the transportation of Grk-containing vesicles along the microtubules to their dorsal anterior destination in the oocyte
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\grk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\grk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079708
1718
295
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079313
33.3
295
5.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with cni.
(UniProt, P42287)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\grk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (19 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P49858
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
grk transcripts are localized at the oocyte posterior until oogenesis stage S7 at which point they become detectable along the entire anterior cortex of the oocyte and enriched on the presumptive dorsal side. During stage 8, accumulation along the ventral-anterior cortex decreases and by stage 9, grk transcripts are confined to the dorsal -anterior region of the oocyte.
In mid-stage oocytes, grk expression is restricted to the future dorsal-anterior corner of the oocyte overlying the oocyte nucleus.
grk mRNA is primarily enriched along the oocyte dorsal cortex at oogenesis stage S9, with less mRNA adjacent to the nuclear membrane.
Transcript as detected by in situ hybridization and injection of labeled grk RNA into cultured oocytes show that at stage 8 grk transcript is localized in an anterior ring and by stage 9 the transcript has been concentrated in the dorsoanterior region of the oocyte. A less enriched concentration of grk transcript can be detected in the ventral anterior region of the oocyte. Videomicroscopy showed that this localization occurs in a 2 step process in which the transcript first moves anteriorly and then is concentrated dorsally.
Transcript is localized in the posterior of stage 6 oocytes and relocalizes to the anterior of stage 8 oocytes. Further refinement of transcript localization to the anterodorsal corner of the oocyte is observed in stage 9-10 oocytes.
grk transcripts are first detected in region 2B of the germarium. In oogenesis stages S1-S7, transcripts are predominantly found in a crescent lining the posterior end of the oocyte. During oogenesis stages S8 and S9, transcripts become localized to the dorsal-anterior corner of the oocyte nucleus. In fs(1)K10, sqd, spir, and capu mutants, grk transcripts are no longer restricted to the dorsal side of the oocyte at later stages of oogenesis but are also abundant along the anterior margin of the oocyte. In Egfr and cni mutants, the grk transcript distribution is unaffected.
Transcripts are undetectable by northern blots in grk2B6 mutant RNA or by in situ in mutant egg chambers.
grk transcripts are detected at very low levels on northern blots in grk2, grk3, and grk4 mutants. No transcripts are detected in egg chambers of these mutants.
Transcripts are undetectable in grkHF mutant egg chambers.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
grk begins to accumulate in the anterodorsal cortex of the oocyte in close association with the oocyte nucleus at oogenesis stage S7, where it remains through late stage 9. No protein is observed on the side of the oocyte nucleus facing the center of the oocyte.
Protein is detected in the anterodorsal corner of stage 10 oocytes.
grk protein is detected starting in early oogenesis, in germarium region 2b. Like grk transcript, grk protein localizes to the oocyte in early egg chambers, and starting at stage S8, becomes localized to the future dorsal cortex of the oocyte. At stage S10-S12, the grk protein localization differs from grk transcript localization. grk protein forms an elongated anterior-posterior stripe over about half the length of the oocyte\'s dorsal midline.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{grk-MS2.12}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
oocyte | anterior

Comment: transient cortical ring

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\grk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 56 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of grk
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of grk
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
microtubule & oocyte
oocyte & microtubule (with grk1)
oocyte & microtubule (with grk2B6)
pericentriolar material & oocyte | posterior
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HNW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AIW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0IXE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with cni.
    (UniProt, P42287 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-32
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:8,431,086..8,433,598 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    29C4-29C4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k03706k03706&P{lacW}Acerk07704 and P{PZ}lmg03424
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (5)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    grk RNA is transported as particles from nurse cells to the oocyte by a Dhc64C/BicD dependent mechanism distinct from the general flow of cytoplasm from nurse cell to oocyte.
    cni is required for the transport of grk to the oocyte plasma membrane.
    Production of grk in the nurse cells is sufficient for axis determination in the Drosophila oocyte.
    In oocytes, grk RNA assembles into particles that move in two distinct steps, both requiring microtubules and Dhc64C.
    Different dorsal follicle cell fates are not determined by a grk morphogen gradient. They are specified by secondary signal amplification and refinement processes that integrate the grk signal with positive and negative feedback mechanisms generated by target genes of the Egfr pathway.
    The secretion of grk requires its transmembrane region, but is not necessary for its biological activity.
    Posterior localisation of grk mRNA in the early oocyte is essential for proper A/P axis formation.
    Post-transcriptional regulation of grk by enc is required for axis determination in Drosophila.
    grk plays a role in the development of follicular epithelium by cooperating with brn for the Egfr-dependent migration of the prefollicular cels around each nurse cell-oocyte complex. brn may help provide specificity to and/or facilitate the multiplicity of grk-Egfr functions during oogenesis.
    The distribution pattern of grk protein in wild-type ovaries and in ovaries from a number of dorsal ventral patterning mutants is analysed.
    BicD is not required for grk localisation to the periphery of the oocyte nucleus.
    grk and sax function control dpp expression in the posterior follicular epithelium during oogenesis.
    grk is required for the induction of both posterior and dorsal follicle cell fates.
    Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs are being used to identify which fragment of the grk cDNA is required for correct grk localisation.
    Mutations in grk cause a ventralized phenotype in egg and embryo. Changing grk dosage in otherwise wild type ovaries is sufficicent to alter the number of somatic follicle cells directed to the dorsal fate. The grk-Egfr signalling process plays an instructive role in oogenesis, inducing dorsal cell fates in the follicle cell epithelium and controlling the production of maternal components that will direct the embryonic dorsoventral pattern.
    grk, unlike other localized cytoplasmic determinants, is not directly responsible for the establishment of cell fates along a body axis, but restricts and orients an active axis-forming process which occurs later in the follicular epithelium or in the early embryo.
    grk behaves as a dominant partial suppressor of fs(1)K10.
    Displays epistatic interactions with sqd alleles.
    Molecular analysis of grk suggests that it is the Egfr ligand functioning in the female germline in dorsoventral patterning.
    Mutations at the grk locus cause defects in midoogenesis. Double mutant analysis indicates that rho acts upstream of Tl in dorsal-ventral axis formation, and the action of rho requires the grk-Egfr signaling pathway.
    Mutations in grk and Egfr are epistatic to mutations in capu and spir.
    Germ line mosaic analysis demonstrates that the grk gene product is required in the germline for chorion patterning and embryonic patterning.
    maternal-effect lethal. Wild-type allele required for normal dorsoventral pattern in the egg. In mutants, the ventral regions of the chorion and the embryo are expanded at the expense of the dorsal regions. The pattern of the chorion is altered, a second micropyle and a small patch of operculum-like material often forming at the posterior pole in extremely mutant eggs; fewer cells contribute to the dorsal appendage, which is usually shifted posteriorly, but more follicle cells contribute to the main body of the chorion. In the embryo the major increase in cell mass occurs in the mesoderm as an invagination on the ventral side during early gastrulation. Analysis of mosaic females in which germ cells and sister nurse cells are of different genotype indicate that grk mutations act only in the germ line.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    grk
    (Baskar et al., 2019, Chai et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, O'Hanlon et al., 2018, Vimal et al., 2018, Aguilera-Gomez and Rabouille, 2017, Dehghani and Lasko, 2017, Derrick and Weil, 2017, Goldman and Gonsalvez, 2017, Neuert et al., 2017, Osterfield et al., 2017, Tan et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2017, Davidson et al., 2016, Sanghavi et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Snee et al., 2016, Dehghani and Lasko, 2015, Austin et al., 2014, Claret et al., 2014, Fauré et al., 2014, Guilgur et al., 2014, Hayashi et al., 2014, Jia et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Sitaram et al., 2014, Tsai et al., 2014, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2014, Carter, 2013, Leibfried et al., 2013, Morais-de-Sá et al., 2013, Baffet et al., 2012, Ferguson et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, McDermott et al., 2012, Nagel et al., 2012, Simakov et al., 2012, Technau et al., 2012, Vazquez-Pianzola and Suter, 2012, Dubin-Bar et al., 2011, Fan et al., 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Joyce et al., 2011, Lynch and Roth, 2011, Serbus et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2011, Wang and Pai, 2011, Wong et al., 2011, Assaker et al., 2010, Becalska and Gavis, 2010, Duchi et al., 2010, Lan et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Besse et al., 2009, Dienstbier et al., 2009, Hamilton et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Jiang and Edgar, 2009, Kalifa et al., 2009, Krauss et al., 2009, Krauss et al., 2009, Kugler et al., 2009, McNeil et al., 2009, Navarro et al., 2009, Pizette et al., 2009, Shyu et al., 2009, Snee and Macdonald, 2009, Chang et al., 2008, Clouse et al., 2008, Duong et al., 2008, Gervais et al., 2008, Jaramillo et al., 2008, Jaramillo et al., 2008, Li et al., 2008, Meignin and Davis, 2008, Norvell et al., 2008, Tanaka and Nakamura, 2008, Technau and Roth, 2008, Tian and Deng, 2008, Chen et al., 2007, Clark et al., 2007, Delanoue et al., 2007, Dietzl et al., 2007, Galasso et al., 2007, Hackney et al., 2007, Januschke et al., 2007, Jaramillo et al., 2007, Lin et al., 2007, Lin et al., 2007, Meignin et al., 2007, Neuman-Silberberg, 2007, Pane et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Rom et al., 2007, Shravage et al., 2007, Snee et al., 2007, Stevens et al., 2007, Zimyanin et al., 2007, Atkey et al., 2006, Behm-Ansmant et al., 2006, Chen and Schupbach, 2006, Christensen and Cook, 2006.8.30, Doerflinger et al., 2006, Geng and Macdonald, 2006, Januschke et al., 2006, Lin et al., 2006, McCaffrey et al., 2006, Mukherjee et al., 2006, Poulton and Deng, 2006, Rehwinkel et al., 2006, Vogt et al., 2006, Cui et al., 2005, Jekely et al., 2005, Jordan et al., 2005, Papadia et al., 2005, Van De Bor et al., 2005, Motola and Neuman-Silberberg, 2004, Duchek and Rorth, 2001, Araujo and Bier, 2000, Gigliotti et al., 2000)
    Name Synonyms
    gurken
    (Dehghani and Lasko, 2017, Derrick and Weil, 2017, Goldman and Gonsalvez, 2017, Osterfield et al., 2017, Davidson et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Dehghani and Lasko, 2015, Austin et al., 2014, Ghosh et al., 2014, Halstead et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Soshnev et al., 2013, Zimmerman et al., 2013, Ganguly et al., 2012, Gonsalvez and Long, 2012, Hartswood et al., 2012, Jansen and Niessing, 2012, Vazquez-Pianzola and Suter, 2012, Xu and Gridley, 2012, Dubin-Bar et al., 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Serbus et al., 2011, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2011, Becalska and Gavis, 2010, Buchon et al., 2010, Doerflinger et al., 2010, Duchi et al., 2010, Gonsalvez et al., 2010, Herpers et al., 2010, Lan et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Quinones et al., 2010, Besse et al., 2009, Cáceres and Nilson, 2009, Jiang and Edgar, 2009, Kalifa et al., 2009, Kelkar and Dobberstein, 2009, Krauss et al., 2009, McNeil et al., 2009, Snee and Macdonald, 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Chang et al., 2008, Clouse et al., 2008, Gervais et al., 2008, Meignin and Davis, 2008, Norvell et al., 2008, Technau and Roth, 2008, Tian and Deng, 2008, Yakoby et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2007, Geng and MacDonald, 2007, Ho and Gavis, 2007, Jaramillo et al., 2007, Levine et al., 2007, Lin et al., 2007, Meignin et al., 2007, Peretz et al., 2007, Rom et al., 2007, Smith, 2007, Stevens et al., 2007, Wilhelm, 2007, Araujo et al., 2006, Atkey et al., 2006, Bergmann, 2006, Carneiro et al., 2006, Geng and Macdonald, 2006, Januschke et al., 2006, Linder and Lasko, 2006, Lin et al., 2006, McCaffrey et al., 2006, Mukherjee et al., 2006, Poulton and Deng, 2006, Schupbach et al., 2006, Shapiro and Anderson, 2006, Jordan et al., 2005, Papadia et al., 2005, Shav-Tal and Singer, 2005, Meinhardt, 2004, Motola and Neuman-Silberberg, 2004, Aoyagi and Wassarman, 2001, Andrenacci et al., 2000, Gigliotti et al., 2000, Neuman-Silberberg, 1993.11.23)
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