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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\gro
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
groucho
Annotation Symbol
CG8384
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001139
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
groucho (gro) encodes a global developmental co-repressor in conjunction with manifold DNA-binding repressor partner proteins, which tether it to target promoters. It functions downstream of key signaling pathways such as Wg/Wnt and Dpp/TGF-beta. Notably, phosphorylation of the product of gro in response to MAPK activation weakens its repressor capacity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

m9/m10, m9/10, m9, E(spl)m9/m10, l(3)gro

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:26,041,736..26,049,911 [+]
Recombination map

3-89

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:26041736..26049911
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (19 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9UJU2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9UJU2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:kni; FB:FBgn0001320
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P91943
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q01196-1
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q01196-2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q13761
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P14003
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:elB; FB:FBgn0004858
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:cic; FB:FBgn0262582
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:retn; FB:FBgn0004795
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m7-HLH; FB:FBgn0002633
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:hkb; FB:FBgn0261434
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m7-HLH; FB:FBgn0002633
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:pan; FB:FBgn0085432
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dl; FB:FBgn0260632
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:HGTX; FB:FBgn0040318
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m7-HLH; FB:FBgn0002633
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:so; FB:FBgn0003460
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:pan; FB:FBgn0085432
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Myc; FB:FBgn0262656
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:tor; FB:FBgn0003733
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the WD repeat Groucho/TLE family. (P16371)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Negative regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased cytosolic retention of the NF-κB proteins dl or Dif and/or repression of target gene transcription. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
FGFR Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
EGFR Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcriptional corepressor that regulates transcription when recruited to specific target DNA by hairy-related bHLH proteins. Maternally required for neurogenesis; in the segregation of the neuroectoderm. Directly or indirectly interacts with Notch and Delta.
(UniProt, P16371)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
E(spl)2
Homozygotes have clumps of extra bristles above each eye which give impression of bushy eyebrows; also extra bristles on the humerus. Top of head tends to be malformed; ocelli often enlarged and run together. In selected stocks, penetrance approaches 100%, but is low in unselected stocks. Concluded to be an allele of E(spl) on the basis of the visible phenotype of heterozygotes with lethal presumed point mutations at E(spl); however, it does not cause neural hypertrophy and is wild type in combination with E(spl)1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - WD40 domain - E(spl) complex - partners transcriptional repressors by functioning as a co-repressor

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\gro for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

GC splice donor site postulated

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084963
2988
719
FBtr0084962
2969
719
FBtr0084965
2887
719
FBtr0084964
2908
719
FBtr0084966
3002
730
FBtr0302951
2975
719
FBtr0302952
2996
728
FBtr0305047
3951
709
FBtr0337057
3918
698
FBtr0339900
3975
717
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.4, 3.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084337
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0084336
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0084339
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0084338
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0089115
80.2
730
7.17
FBpp0292077
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0292078
80.0
728
7.17
FBpp0293584
77.9
709
8.03
FBpp0307986
76.6
698
8.02
FBpp0308932
78.7
717
7.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

719 aa isoforms: gro-PA, gro-PB, gro-PC, gro-PD, gro-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.

(UniProt, P16371)
Post Translational Modification

Ubiquitinated by XIAP/BIRC4.

(UniProt, P16371)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\gro using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 2-6 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

The distribution of embryonic gro transcripts was compared in D. melanogaster and D. hydei. The patterns of embryonic gene activity were found to be nearly indistinguishable.

gro transcripts are expressed at high levels in 2-6 hr embryos, and in adult females. In situ hybridization shows that gro transcripts are ubiquitous in the embryo, and persist until late stage 11.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

gro protein has strong expression in all follicle cells in the germarium, and more weakly in germ cells and escort cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\gro in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 66 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 48 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of gro
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of gro
Deletions and Duplications ( 36 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult head & microchaeta
eye photoreceptor cell & eye-antennal disc, with Scer\GAL4ey.PH
macrochaeta & abdominal tergite
macrochaeta & head
macrochaeta & scutum
macrochaeta & thorax
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-C253
microchaeta & abdominal tergite
microchaeta & head
microchaeta & scutum
microchaeta & thorax
sense organ & wing
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
3  
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1  
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903NX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915020G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03SO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03PU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G181Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.
    (UniProt, P16371 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Negative regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased cytosolic retention of the NF-κB proteins dl or Dif and/or repression of target gene transcription. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
    FGFR Core Components -
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
    EGFR Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
    Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-89

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:26,041,736..26,049,911 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    96F10-96F10
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rQ197rQ197 and P{lacW}scribj7B3
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    96F10-96F11
    96F11-96F14
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (145)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: gro BEST:LD15161 BEST:GM01575

    Source for merge of: gro BcDNA:LD33829

    Source for merge of: gro anon-WO0118547.385

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of gro BcDNA:LD33829 was sequence comparison ( date:990717 ).

    Source for merge of gro anon-WO0118547.385 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for gro protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene has been transfected into Kc cells.

    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of gro results in dorsal overextension of primary dendrites and a reduction in lateral branching.

    gro forms a junction between signalling pathways, enabling Egfr signalling to antagonize transcriptional output by N.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: increased or polarized (uneven) accumulation of F-actin.

    gro mediates a ci-independant mechanism of hh repression in the anterior wing pouch.

    Area matching Drosophila EST AA540693. This EST forms a 1450bp contig with ESTs AA441321, AA440080 and AA392794.

    The brk co-repressors gro and CtBP are alternately used for repressing some dpp-responsive genes, whereas for repressing other, distinct, target genes they are not required.

    gro and H control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern.

    gro and H both act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina.

    gro and Rpd3 appear to form a complex in vivo and interact directly via the glycine/proline rich (GP) domain.

    gro mediated repression requires Rpd3 function.

    tin protein interacts directly with the gro corepressor protein, for which the homeodomain is required.

    gro protein mediates repressor activity of the hkb protein.

    CtBP and gro repressors mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression, and the two proteins can inhibit one another when both bind the same repressor.

    The products of the gro and pan genes interact to repress wg signalling activity.

    run protein interacts with gro protein to repress transcription.

    Shows no genetic interaction with sdk.

    Transcription complexes containing gro may associate with the amino terminus of His3 and these interactions may be propogated along the chromosomes due to the ability of gro to participate in higher order structures.

    A screen to isolate mutations that cause dominant enhancement of wing vein phenotypes associated with Egfr recovered mutations in gro.

    The WRPW motif (the repressor domain) maps to the carboxy terminal of h-related proteins and is both necessary and sufficient to form protein-protein interactions with gro. gro is able to repress transcription when directly bound to DNA in the absence of binding to h-related proteins.

    Clones mutant for E(spl)-C bHLH-encoding genes or for gro display bristle hyperplasia. The E(spl)-C genes participate in the N signalling pathway. E(spl)-C mutants are epistatic over a gain of function mutant of N and ac-sc mutants are epistatic over E(spl)-C mutants.

    Expression in Schneider cells demonstrates HLHm5 and E(spl) mediate transcriptional repression of an ac Ecol\CAT reporter gene, gro potentiates this effect.

    The intracellular distribution and phosphorylation state of gro protein has been analysed.

    E(spl) and gro form a highly interconnected interacting network involved in transcriptional regulation.

    The bristle loss phenotype of H mutants can be suppressed by deleting components of the E(spl)-complex. The degree of suppression depends on both the number and identity of E(spl)-complex transcription units removed.

    gro is crucial for transcriptional repression in several independent developmental pathways and is involved in establishing the terminal embryonic pattern.

    gro and hh regulate en expression in the anterior compartment of the wing.

    gro is required maternally for neurogenesis, segmentation and sex determination and acts as a transcriptional corepressor recruited to specific target promoters by h-related bHLH proteins.

    Arrangement and sequence of E(spl)-complex genes in D.melanogaster and D.hydei revealed that the E(spl)-gene, and the structure of complex are highly conserved, suggesting that each individual gene, as well as the organization of the complex, is of functional importance.

    Individuals homozygous for Bpt1 and gro exhibit no Bpt1 phenotype.

    gro is a neurogenic gene showing prominant maternal expression and is the only gene of the E(spl)-complex essential for viability. E(spl)-complex genes act as a functional unit composed of redundant genes which can partially substitute for each other. Eight E(spl)-region genes are required for the development of neurectodermal cells: HLHmδ, HLHmβ, HLHmγ, HLHm3, HLHm5, HLHm7, E(spl) and gro.

    gro allelic combinations show weak to intermediate neurogenic phenotypes.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 93 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BEST:GM01575
    BEST:LD15161
    BcDNA.LD33829
    BcDNA:LD33829
    En-spl
    anon-WO0118547.385
    gro
    (Nair et al., 2020, Couturier et al., 2019, Guo et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Davis and Rebay, 2018, Salazar and Yamamoto, 2018, Webber et al., 2018, Liu and Jin, 2017, Majot and Bidwai, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, van Tienen et al., 2017, Bivik et al., 2016, Johnston et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Golubyatnikov et al., 2015, Kiparaki et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Dewald et al., 2014, Rhee et al., 2014, Wurmbach and Preiss, 2014, Atkins et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Kwon et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Upadhyai and Campbell, 2013, Chen and Verheyen, 2012, Domanitskaya and Schüpbach, 2012, Formaz-Preston et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Marbach et al., 2012, Spokony and White, 2012.5.22, Technau et al., 2012, Turki-Judeh and Courey, 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Helman et al., 2011, Pérez et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Bardin et al., 2010, Walrad et al., 2010, Aerts et al., 2009, Babaoglan et al., 2009, Benítez et al., 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Cai and Laughon, 2009, Chanet et al., 2009, Christensen et al., 2009.2.28, Dworkin et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Payankaulam and Arnosti, 2009, Salzer and Kumar, 2009, Stöbe et al., 2009, Zhai et al., 2009, Ziv et al., 2009, Bhutkar et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, de Wit et al., 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Haussmann et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Kaspar et al., 2008, Lu et al., 2008, Mieszczanek et al., 2008, Protzer et al., 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008, Bejarano et al., 2007, Chao et al., 2007, Crews, 2007.1.6, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Liotta et al., 2007, Nagel et al., 2007, Orian et al., 2007, Payankaulam and Arnosti, 2007, Fang et al., 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, Jiang and Crews, 2006, Koelzer and Klein, 2006, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2006, Shirangi et al., 2006, Wehn and Campbell, 2006, Choi et al., 2005, Goldstein et al., 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Schlatter and Maier, 2005, Gim et al., 2001, Lawrence et al., 2000)
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0019999
    • FBgn0020008
    • FBgn0023439
    • FBgn0043006
    • FBgn0043009
    • FBgn0062049
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • transgene_used
    Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
    References (511)