m9/m10, m9/10, m9, E(spl)m9/m10, l(3)gro
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
GC splice donor site postulated
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
4.4, 3.3 (northern blot)
Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.
Ubiquitinated by XIAP/BIRC4.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\gro using the Feature Mapper tool.
The distribution of embryonic gro transcripts was compared in D. melanogaster and D. hydei. The patterns of embryonic gene activity were found to be nearly indistinguishable.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\gro in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for gro protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene has been transfected into Kc cells.
dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of gro results in dorsal overextension of primary dendrites and a reduction in lateral branching.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: increased or polarized (uneven) accumulation of F-actin.
Area matching Drosophila EST AA540693. This EST forms a 1450bp contig with ESTs AA441321, AA440080 and AA392794.
Transcription complexes containing gro may associate with the amino terminus of His3 and these interactions may be propogated along the chromosomes due to the ability of gro to participate in higher order structures.
The WRPW motif (the repressor domain) maps to the carboxy terminal of h-related proteins and is both necessary and sufficient to form protein-protein interactions with gro. gro is able to repress transcription when directly bound to DNA in the absence of binding to h-related proteins.
Clones mutant for E(spl)-C bHLH-encoding genes or for gro display bristle hyperplasia. The E(spl)-C genes participate in the N signalling pathway. E(spl)-C mutants are epistatic over a gain of function mutant of N and ac-sc mutants are epistatic over E(spl)-C mutants.
The intracellular distribution and phosphorylation state of gro protein has been analysed.
The bristle loss phenotype of H mutants can be suppressed by deleting components of the E(spl)-complex. The degree of suppression depends on both the number and identity of E(spl)-complex transcription units removed.
gro is crucial for transcriptional repression in several independent developmental pathways and is involved in establishing the terminal embryonic pattern.
Arrangement and sequence of E(spl)-complex genes in D.melanogaster and D.hydei revealed that the E(spl)-gene, and the structure of complex are highly conserved, suggesting that each individual gene, as well as the organization of the complex, is of functional importance.
gro is a neurogenic gene showing prominant maternal expression and is the only gene of the E(spl)-complex essential for viability. E(spl)-complex genes act as a functional unit composed of redundant genes which can partially substitute for each other. Eight E(spl)-region genes are required for the development of neurectodermal cells: HLHmδ, HLHmβ, HLHmγ, HLHm3, HLHm5, HLHm7, E(spl) and gro.