General Information
Symbol
Dmel\gro
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
groucho
Annotation Symbol
CG8384
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001139
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Groucho (Gro) is a global developmental co-repressor in conjunction with manifold DNA-binding repressor partner proteins, which tether it to target promoters. Groucho functions downstream of key signaling pathways such as Wg/Wnt and Dpp/TGF-beta. Notably, phosphorylation of Gro in response to MAPK activation weakens its repressor capacity. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
m9/m10, m9/10, Groucho, m9, E(spl)m9/m10
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:26,041,736..26,049,911 [+]
Recombination map
3-89
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the WD repeat Groucho/TLE family. (P16371)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
Effectors Negatively Regulated by Torso Signaling Pathway -
Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Torso signaling pathway.
Effectors Negatively Regulated by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling pathway.
Effectors Negatively Regulated by Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor signaling pathway.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Transcriptional corepressor that regulates transcription when recruited to specific target DNA by hairy-related bHLH proteins. Maternally required for neurogenesis; in the segregation of the neuroectoderm. Directly or indirectly interacts with Notch and Delta.
(UniProt, P16371)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
E(spl)2
Homozygotes have clumps of extra bristles above each eye which give impression of bushy eyebrows; also extra bristles on the humerus. Top of head tends to be malformed; ocelli often enlarged and run together. In selected stocks, penetrance approaches 100%, but is low in unselected stocks. Concluded to be an allele of E(spl) on the basis of the visible phenotype of heterozygotes with lethal presumed point mutations at E(spl); however, it does not cause neural hypertrophy and is wild type in combination with E(spl)1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\gro or the JBrowse view of Dmel\gro for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
GC splice donor site postulated
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084963
2988
719
FBtr0084962
2969
719
FBtr0084965
2887
719
FBtr0084964
2908
719
FBtr0084966
3002
730
FBtr0302951
2975
719
FBtr0302952
2996
728
FBtr0305047
3951
709
FBtr0337057
3918
698
FBtr0339900
3975
717
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.4, 3.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084337
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0084336
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0084339
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0084338
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0089115
80.2
730
7.17
FBpp0292077
78.9
719
7.13
FBpp0292078
80.0
728
7.17
FBpp0293584
77.9
709
8.03
FBpp0307986
76.6
698
8.02
FBpp0308932
78.7
717
7.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

719 aa isoforms: gro-PA, gro-PB, gro-PC, gro-PD, gro-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.
(UniProt, P16371)
Post Translational Modification
Ubiquitinated by XIAP/BIRC4.
(UniProt, P16371)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\gro using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9UJU2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9UJU2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:kni; FB:FBgn0001320
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Myc; FB:FBgn0262656
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P91943
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q01196-1
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q01196-2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q13761
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P14003
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:elB; FB:FBgn0004858
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:cic; FB:FBgn0262582
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:retn; FB:FBgn0004795
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m7-HLH; FB:FBgn0002633
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:hkb; FB:FBgn0261434
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m7-HLH; FB:FBgn0002633
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dl; FB:FBgn0260632
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:HGTX; FB:FBgn0040318
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m7-HLH; FB:FBgn0002633
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:so; FB:FBgn0003460
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850324
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 2-6 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
The distribution of embryonic gro transcripts was compared in D. melanogaster and D. hydei. The patterns of embryonic gene activity were found to be nearly indistinguishable.
gro transcripts are expressed at high levels in 2-6 hr embryos, and in adult females. In situ hybridization shows that gro transcripts are ubiquitous in the embryo, and persist until late stage 11.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\gro in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 66 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of gro
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
            Other relevant insertions
            miscellaneous insertions
            Name
            Expression Data
            Transgenic Constructs ( 44 )
            For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
            Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of gro
            Allele of gro
            Mutagen
            Associated Transgenic Construct
            Stocks
            Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of gro
            Deletions and Duplications ( 36 )
            Summary of Phenotypes
            For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
            Lethality
            Allele
            Sterility
            Allele
            Other Phenotypes
            Allele
            Phenotype manifest in
            Allele
            adult head & microchaeta
            eye photoreceptor cell & eye-antennal disc, with Scer\GAL4ey.PH
            macrochaeta & abdominal tergite
            macrochaeta & head
            macrochaeta & scutum
            macrochaeta & thorax
            mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-C253
            microchaeta & abdominal tergite
            microchaeta & head
            microchaeta & scutum
            microchaeta & thorax
            sense organ & wing
            Orthologs
            Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
            Species\Gene Symbol
            Score
            Best Score
            Best Reverse Score
            Alignment
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            12 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            12 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            11 of 15
            No
            Yes
             
            11 of 15
            No
            Yes
            5 of 15
            No
            Yes
            4 of 15
            No
            Yes
            Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (7)
            Species\Gene Symbol
            Score
            Best Score
            Best Reverse Score
            Alignment
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            11 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            11 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            10 of 15
            No
            Yes
            9 of 15
            No
            Yes
            5 of 15
            No
            Yes
            4 of 15
            No
            Yes
            2 of 15
            No
            Yes
            Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
            10 of 13
            Yes
            Yes
            8 of 13
            No
            Yes
            8 of 13
            No
            Yes
            6 of 13
            No
            Yes
            4 of 13
            No
            Yes
            3 of 13
            No
            Yes
            1 of 13
            No
            Yes
            Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
            7 of 12
            Yes
            Yes
            6 of 12
            No
            Yes
            6 of 12
            No
            Yes
            3 of 12
            No
            Yes
            Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
            13 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            12 of 15
            No
            Yes
            11 of 15
            No
            Yes
            10 of 15
            No
            Yes
            4 of 15
            No
            Yes
            4 of 15
            No
            Yes
            3 of 15
            No
            Yes
            Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
            10 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            1 of 15
            No
            No
            Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
            1 of 9
            Yes
            Yes
            Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
            1 of 15
            Yes
            No
            Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
            No orthologs reported.
            Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903NX )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            AAA Syntenic Ortholog
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Drosophila melanogaster
            fruit fly
            Drosophila suzukii
            Spotted wing Drosophila
            Drosophila simulans
            Drosophila sechellia
            Drosophila erecta
            Drosophila yakuba
            Drosophila ananassae
            Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
            Drosophila persimilis
            Drosophila willistoni
            Drosophila virilis
            Drosophila mojavensis
            Drosophila grimshawi
            Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915020G )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Musca domestica
            House fly
            Glossina morsitans
            Tsetse fly
            Lucilia cuprina
            Australian sheep blowfly
            Mayetiola destructor
            Hessian fly
            Mayetiola destructor
            Hessian fly
            Aedes aegypti
            Yellow fever mosquito
            Aedes aegypti
            Yellow fever mosquito
            Anopheles darlingi
            American malaria mosquito
            Anopheles darlingi
            American malaria mosquito
            Anopheles gambiae
            Malaria mosquito
            Anopheles gambiae
            Malaria mosquito
            Culex quinquefasciatus
            Southern house mosquito
            Culex quinquefasciatus
            Southern house mosquito
            Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03SO )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Bombyx mori
            Silkmoth
            Danaus plexippus
            Monarch butterfly
            Danaus plexippus
            Monarch butterfly
            Heliconius melpomene
            Postman butterfly
            Heliconius melpomene
            Postman butterfly
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis mellifera
            Western honey bee
            Apis mellifera
            Western honey bee
            Apis mellifera
            Western honey bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus terrestris
            Buff-tailed bumblebee
            Bombus terrestris
            Buff-tailed bumblebee
            Bombus terrestris
            Buff-tailed bumblebee
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Megachile rotundata
            Alfalfa leafcutting bee
            Megachile rotundata
            Alfalfa leafcutting bee
            Megachile rotundata
            Alfalfa leafcutting bee
            Nasonia vitripennis
            Parasitic wasp
            Nasonia vitripennis
            Parasitic wasp
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Tribolium castaneum
            Red flour beetle
            Tribolium castaneum
            Red flour beetle
            Pediculus humanus
            Human body louse
            Pediculus humanus
            Human body louse
            Rhodnius prolixus
            Kissing bug
            Rhodnius prolixus
            Kissing bug
            Cimex lectularius
            Bed bug
            Cimex lectularius
            Bed bug
            Cimex lectularius
            Bed bug
            Cimex lectularius
            Bed bug
            Acyrthosiphon pisum
            Pea aphid
            Zootermopsis nevadensis
            Nevada dampwood termite
            Zootermopsis nevadensis
            Nevada dampwood termite
            Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03PU )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Strigamia maritima
            European centipede
            Ixodes scapularis
            Black-legged tick
            Ixodes scapularis
            Black-legged tick
            Stegodyphus mimosarum
            African social velvet spider
            Stegodyphus mimosarum
            African social velvet spider
            Tetranychus urticae
            Two-spotted spider mite
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G181Y )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
            Purple sea urchin
            Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
            Purple sea urchin
            Ciona intestinalis
            Vase tunicate
            Ciona intestinalis
            Vase tunicate
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Human Disease Model Data
            FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
              Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
              Download
              Models ( 0 )
              Allele
              Disease
              Evidence
              References
              Interactions ( 0 )
              Allele
              Disease
              Interaction
              References
              Comments ( 0 )
               
              Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
              Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
              Functional Complementation Data
              Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
              Interactions
              Summary of Physical Interactions
              esyN Network Diagram
              Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
              Select Layout:
              Legend:
              Protein
              RNA
              Selected Interactor(s)
              Interactions Browser

              Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
              protein-protein
              Interacting group
              Assay
              References
              RNA-protein
              Interacting group
              Assay
              References
              Summary of Genetic Interactions
              esyN Network Diagram
              esyN Network Key:
              Suppression
              Enhancement

              Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
              Starting gene(s)
              Interaction type
              Interacting gene(s)
              Reference
              Starting gene(s)
              Interaction type
              Interacting gene(s)
              Reference
              External Data
              Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
              Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.
              (UniProt, P16371 )
              Linkouts
              BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
              DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
              InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
              Pathways
              Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
              Effectors Negatively Regulated by Torso Signaling Pathway -
              Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Torso signaling pathway.
              Effectors Negatively Regulated by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
              Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling pathway.
              Effectors Negatively Regulated by Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
              Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor signaling pathway.
              External Data
              Linkouts
              KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
              SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
              Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
              Chromosome (arm)
              3R
              Recombination map
              3-89
              Cytogenetic map
              Sequence location
              3R:26,041,736..26,049,911 [+]
              FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
              Cytogenetic map
              Evidence for location
              96F10-96F10
              Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rQ197rQ197 and P{lacW}scribj7B3
              Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
              Cytogenetic map
              Notes
              References
              96F10-96F11
              96F11-96F14
              (determined by in situ hybridisation)
              Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
              Location
              Left of (cM)
              Right of (cM)
              Notes
              Stocks and Reagents
              Stocks (16)
              Genomic Clones (25)
              cDNA Clones (145)
               

              Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

              cDNA clones, fully sequences
              BDGP DGC clones
              Other clones
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

              For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

              cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
              RNAi and Array Information
              Linkouts
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Antibody Information
              Laboratory Generated Antibodies
              Commercially Available Antibodies
               
              Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
              Other Information
              Relationship to Other Genes
              Source for database identify of
              Source for database merge of
              Source for merge of: gro BEST:LD15161 BEST:GM01575
              Source for merge of: gro BcDNA:LD33829
              Source for merge of: gro anon-WO0118547.385
              Additional comments
              Source for merge of gro BcDNA:LD33829 was sequence comparison ( date:990717 ).
              Source for merge of gro anon-WO0118547.385 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
              Other Comments
              DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for gro protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
              dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene has been transfected into Kc cells.
              dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of gro results in dorsal overextension of primary dendrites and a reduction in lateral branching.
              gro forms a junction between signalling pathways, enabling Egfr signalling to antagonize transcriptional output by N.
              dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
              RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: increased or polarized (uneven) accumulation of F-actin.
              gro mediates a ci-independant mechanism of hh repression in the anterior wing pouch.
              Area matching Drosophila EST AA540693. This EST forms a 1450bp contig with ESTs AA441321, AA440080 and AA392794.
              The brk co-repressors gro and CtBP are alternately used for repressing some dpp-responsive genes, whereas for repressing other, distinct, target genes they are not required.
              gro and H control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern.
              gro and H both act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina.
              gro and Rpd3 appear to form a complex in vivo and interact directly via the glycine/proline rich (GP) domain.
              gro mediated repression requires Rpd3 function.
              tin protein interacts directly with the gro corepressor protein, for which the homeodomain is required.
              gro protein mediates repressor activity of the hkb protein.
              CtBP and gro repressors mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression, and the two proteins can inhibit one another when both bind the same repressor.
              The products of the gro and pan genes interact to repress wg signalling activity.
              run protein interacts with gro protein to repress transcription.
              Shows no genetic interaction with sdk.
              Transcription complexes containing gro may associate with the amino terminus of His3 and these interactions may be propogated along the chromosomes due to the ability of gro to participate in higher order structures.
              A screen to isolate mutations that cause dominant enhancement of wing vein phenotypes associated with Egfr recovered mutations in gro.
              The WRPW motif (the repressor domain) maps to the carboxy terminal of h-related proteins and is both necessary and sufficient to form protein-protein interactions with gro. gro is able to repress transcription when directly bound to DNA in the absence of binding to h-related proteins.
              Clones mutant for E(spl)-C bHLH-encoding genes or for gro display bristle hyperplasia. The E(spl)-C genes participate in the N signalling pathway. E(spl)-C mutants are epistatic over a gain of function mutant of N and ac-sc mutants are epistatic over E(spl)-C mutants.
              Expression in Schneider cells demonstrates HLHm5 and E(spl) mediate transcriptional repression of an ac Ecol\CAT reporter gene, gro potentiates this effect.
              The intracellular distribution and phosphorylation state of gro protein has been analysed.
              E(spl) and gro form a highly interconnected interacting network involved in transcriptional regulation.
              The bristle loss phenotype of H mutants can be suppressed by deleting components of the E(spl)-complex. The degree of suppression depends on both the number and identity of E(spl)-complex transcription units removed.
              gro is crucial for transcriptional repression in several independent developmental pathways and is involved in establishing the terminal embryonic pattern.
              gro and hh regulate en expression in the anterior compartment of the wing.
              gro is required maternally for neurogenesis, segmentation and sex determination and acts as a transcriptional corepressor recruited to specific target promoters by h-related bHLH proteins.
              Arrangement and sequence of E(spl)-complex genes in D.melanogaster and D.hydei revealed that the E(spl)-gene, and the structure of complex are highly conserved, suggesting that each individual gene, as well as the organization of the complex, is of functional importance.
              Individuals homozygous for Bpt1 and gro exhibit no Bpt1 phenotype.
              gro is a neurogenic gene showing prominant maternal expression and is the only gene of the E(spl)-complex essential for viability. E(spl)-complex genes act as a functional unit composed of redundant genes which can partially substitute for each other. Eight E(spl)-region genes are required for the development of neurectodermal cells: HLHmδ, HLHmβ, HLHmγ, HLHm3, HLHm5, HLHm7, E(spl) and gro.
              gro allelic combinations show weak to intermediate neurogenic phenotypes.
              Origin and Etymology
              Discoverer
              Etymology
              Identification
              External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 88 )
              Crossreferences
              NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
              GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
              GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
              UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              Linkouts
              BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
              DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
              DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
              Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
              FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
              FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
              Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
              Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
              FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
              Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
              Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
              InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
              KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
              modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
              SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
              Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
              Reported As
              Symbol Synonym
              BEST:GM01575
              BEST:LD15161
              BcDNA.LD33829
              BcDNA:LD33829
              En-spl
              anon-WO0118547.385
              gro
              (Davis and Rebay, 2018, Salazar and Yamamoto, 2018, Webber et al., 2018, Liu and Jin, 2017, Majot and Bidwai, 2017, van Tienen et al., 2017, Bivik et al., 2016, Johnston et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Golubyatnikov et al., 2015, Kiparaki et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Dewald et al., 2014, Rhee et al., 2014, Wurmbach and Preiss, 2014, Atkins et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Kwon et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Upadhyai and Campbell, 2013, Chen and Verheyen, 2012, Domanitskaya and Schüpbach, 2012, Formaz-Preston et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Marbach et al., 2012, Spokony and White, 2012.5.22, Technau et al., 2012, Turki-Judeh and Courey, 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Helman et al., 2011, Pérez et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Bardin et al., 2010, Walrad et al., 2010, Aerts et al., 2009, Babaoglan et al., 2009, Benítez et al., 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Cai and Laughon, 2009, Chanet et al., 2009, Christensen et al., 2009.2.28, Dworkin et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Payankaulam and Arnosti, 2009, Salzer and Kumar, 2009, Stöbe et al., 2009, Zhai et al., 2009, Ziv et al., 2009, Bhutkar et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, de Wit et al., 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Haussmann et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Kaspar et al., 2008, Lu et al., 2008, Mieszczanek et al., 2008, Protzer et al., 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008, Bejarano et al., 2007, Chao et al., 2007, Crews, 2007.1.6, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Liotta et al., 2007, Nagel et al., 2007, Orian et al., 2007, Payankaulam and Arnosti, 2007, Fang et al., 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, Jiang and Crews, 2006, Koelzer and Klein, 2006, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2006, Shirangi et al., 2006, Wehn and Campbell, 2006, Choi et al., 2005, Goldstein et al., 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Schlatter and Maier, 2005, Gim et al., 2001, Lawrence et al., 2000)
              Name Synonyms
              Secondary FlyBase IDs
              • FBgn0019999
              • FBgn0020008
              • FBgn0023439
              • FBgn0043006
              • FBgn0043009
              • FBgn0062049
              Datasets (1)
              Study focus (1)
              Experimental Role
              Project
              Project Type
              Title
              • transgene_used
              Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
              References (497)