General Information
Symbol
Dmel\h
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
hairy
Annotation Symbol
CG6494
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001168
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Hairy is a bHLH transcriptional repressor that recruits the gro corepressor to target promoters. It is a pair-rule gene that contributes to embryonic segmentation and peripheral neurogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
l(3)08247
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:8,675,759..8,679,253 [+]
Recombination map
3-26
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Pair-rule protein that regulates embryonic segmentation and adult bristle patterning. Transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription (e.g. ftz).
(UniProt, P14003)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
h: hairy
thumb
h: hairy
From Bridges and Morgan, 1923, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 327: 202.
The pair-rule gene hairy regulates the development of alternate segments in the embryo as well as the spatial expression of another pair-rule gene fushi tarazu (Holmgren, 1984; Carroll et al., 1988; Rushlow et al., 1989). A later phenotypic expression of hairy, the adult bristle pattern, is established during larval and pupal stages (Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980; Ingham et al., 1985a, 1985b). In the embryo, h mutations delete the posterior part of each odd-numbered segment, weak alleles deleting less than a whole segment and strong alleles deleting regions greater than one segment. In mutant adults, extra microchaetae are found along wing veins, L2 more so than L4 or 5, and on wing membrane; also on dorsal and ventral scutellum and top of head. Extra sensilla present on longitudinal wing veins in a gradient in which sensilla are concentrated proximally and hairs distally; intermediate structures found in the middle (Spivey and Thompson, 1984, Genetics 107: s102). Extra acrostichal row on either side of midline between dorsocentral bristles (Claxton, 1971, DIS 46: 133); also occupy thin arch of cuticle connecting ventral scutellum and pleurae. Microchaetae found on mesopleurae (mean of 13 in males and 20 in females versus none in wild type) and pteropleurae (Murphy, 1972, J. Exp. Zool. 179: 51-62). Used by Garcia-Bellido and Ferrus (1975, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 178: 337-40) to provide cuticular markers on pleurae for fate mapping. Additional hair-forming cells present in 19-hr pupa (Lees and Waddington, 1942, DIS 16: 70). Autonomous expression in clones produced prior to the last eight hr of larval life; clones produced during the last eight hr before pupation exhibit normal phenotype; attributable to perdurance of wild-type gene product (Garcia-Bellido and Merriam, 1971, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 68: 2222-26). Reduced ac+ function as in ac3 or ac3/+ suppresses h phenotype; extra doses of ac+ enhance h expression and can render h partially dominant (Sturtevant, 1969, Dev. Biol. 21: 48-61; Botas, Moscoso del Prado, and Garcia-Bellido, EMBO J. 1: 307-10). Three doses of h+ suppress Hw (Botas, et al.). h expression also enhanced by combination with rearrangements that place the ac-sc region in juxtaposition with substantial quantities of heterochromation (Green, 1960, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 46: 524-28). Interactions with sc alleles detailed by Sturtevant (1969). h2 less severe than and partially complements h1 (Sturtevant). As with ci+, expression of h+ may be altered in the direction of h by rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of the h locus (Dubinin and Sidorov, 1934, Biol. Zh. 3: 307-31; see also Jeffrey, 1979, Genetics 91: 105-25). Unlike the ci case, however, rearranged h chromosomes do not show evidence of altered gene action (Stern, 1944, DIS: 18:56).
h13
Homozygote nearly lethal but has no h phenotype. Heterozygote with h and h2 also wild type. hs/+ has extra hairs on wings, head, pleurae, halteres, and occasionally on scutellum if also heterozygous for certain X-chromosome inversions that variegate for Hw, including In(1)sc8, In(1)scS1, and In(1)y3P. Presence of y+Y also induces extra hairs. RK3.
h20
Homozygous lethal. Newly hatched larvae lack denticle belts of alternate segments; i.e. the prothoracic, metathoracic and even numbered abdominal segments; naked cuticle missing from mesothorax and odd numbered abdominal segments (a member of the pair-rule class of Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus). Pattern of persisting segments often slightly irregular.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\h or the JBrowse view of Dmel\h for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076569
2139
337
FBtr0100153
2335
337
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076296
37.0
337
10.22
FBpp0099504
37.0
337
10.22
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

337 aa isoforms: h-PA, h-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Transcription repression requires formation of a complex with a corepressor protein (Groucho). Interacts with gro (via WPRW motif) and Topors.
(UniProt, P14003)
Post Translational Modification
Ubiquitinated by Topors.
(UniProt, P14003)
Domain
Has a particular type of basic domain (presence of a helix-interrupting proline) that binds to the N-box (CACNAG), rather than the canonical E-box (CANNTG). The C-terminal WRPW motif is a transcriptional repression domain necessary for the interaction with Groucho, a transcriptional corepressor recruited to specific target DNA by Hairy-related proteins.
(UniProt, P14003)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\h using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (31 terms)
Molecular Function (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P16371
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:gro; FB:FBgn0001139
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CtBP; FB:FBgn0020496
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V8P9
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011598
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:gro; FB:FBgn0001139
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hkb; FB:FBgn0261434
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105428
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105428
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105428
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105429
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0003677
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000105427
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | restricted | ventral

Comment: broad ventral band at mid-embryo

organism | striped

Comment: 3 anterior, 1 posterior stripe

Additional Descriptive Data
Transient expression of h transcript is observed in the salivary gland placode prior to invagination in late embryos.
No changes in h expression were observed in response to ectopic eve expression in evehs.PS embryos within 30 min of the heat shock.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The h expression domain in the wing disc is situated mainly over the area of the presumptive scutal-scutellar suture. It overlaps the posterior region of high emc expression.
Expression of h protein is observed in a rising gradient anterior to the morphogenetic furrow.
The position of run protein stripes was compared to that of other segmentation genes. The h protein stripes are anterior to and complementary to the run protein stripes.
h protein stripes are first visible in embryos at cycle 14. The first stripes to appear are 1, 2, 3 and 7. Stripes 4 and 6 are fused to 3 and 7 when first detected. The seven stripes are not of equal width. The first two stripes are consistently broader than stripes 3, 5, 6, and 7, and stripe 4 is the weakest. The h stripes decay at the onset of gastrulation and germ band extension. h expression is also observed in a head patch between 80-95% egg length. h staining in the head persists through germ band elongation. By stage 9, the patch has migrated to the clypeolabrum, including the primordium of the labral tooth. h expression in the proctodeum begins at stage 9 and continues until about stage 16. At about stage 10, expression initiates in the stomodeum and in tracheal pit primordia and ceases in trachea by the onset of germ band retraction. During germ band retraction (stage 11) expression occurs throughout the mesoderm in both the somatic and visceral layers and persists until stage 14. Expression in the hindgut and anal plates begins around stage 14 and persists until stage 16.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}hL43a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βh7kb}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}hH10
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}h-540.3
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}h1J3
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GMR13B09-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\h in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 91 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of h
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    insertion of mobile activating element
    miscellaneous insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 71 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of h
    Allele of h
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of h
    GAL4 construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    reporter construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    Deletions and Duplications ( 17 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    visible (with h1)
    visible (with h26)
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    adult thorax & microchaeta | ectopic | somatic clone
    embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 1
    embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 3
    embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 5
    embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 7
    embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & mesothoracic segment
    haltere & macrochaeta
    head capsule & macrochaeta
    larval midgut & embryo & epidermis
    mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta | ectopic | conditional cs
    microchaeta & mesothoracic tergum | supernumerary
    microchaeta | ectopic & scutellum
    scutellum & macrochaeta
    wing & macrochaeta & adult
    wing & macrochaeta | somatic clone
    wing & neuron & glial cell
    wing hair & wing vein L2
    wing vein & wing sensillum | ectopic | somatic clone
    wing vein L2 & macrochaeta & adult
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
     
    8 of 15
    No
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
     
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    8 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
    7 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    6 of 13
    No
    Yes
    4 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
    6 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 12
    No
    No
    4 of 12
    No
    Yes
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (27)
    8 of 15
    Yes
    No
    7 of 15
    No
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    No
    3 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
    7 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
    1 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FO3 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B44 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0D7Z )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0D5R )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0GBN )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
      RNA-protein
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      RNA-RNA
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      protein-protein
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      enhanceable
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      suppressible
      enhanceable
      enhanceable
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Transcription repression requires formation of a complex with a corepressor protein (Groucho). Interacts with gro (via WPRW motif) and Topors.
      (UniProt, P14003 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-26
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:8,675,759..8,679,253 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      66D10-66D10
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}foij8E8 and P{PZ}SrpRβrK561&P{lacW}l(3)j5B6j5B6
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      66D10-66D12
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      66E-66E
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      66D10-66D10
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      66D15-66D15
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      66D9-66D10
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      66D-66D
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (235)
      Genomic Clones (11)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (48)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Identified as a candidate gene for hypoxia-specific selection (via an experimental evolution paradigm) that is also differentially expressed between control and hypoxia-adapted larvae.
      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for h protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_h collection report.
      Topors protein mediates h protein polyubiquitination and can lead to h protein degradation.
      The h RNA localisation signal modulates the kinetics of cytoplasmic mRNA transport.
      The regulation of h expression along the dorsal/ventral (D/V) axis of the developing leg adjacent to the anterior/posterior (A/P) compartment boundary requires input from both D/V and A/P patterning mechanisms.
      The h stripe7 (h7) enhancer mediates either Kr dependant activation or repression in different regions of the blastoderm embryo.
      Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
      The h and bcd gene products bind to conserved sequence blocks in the run 7-stripe region.
      Zygotic activation of h stripe 6 expression is preceded by activation in response to maternal cad activity, activation does not depend exclusively on the zygotic activity of kni as thought previously. cad and kni activities cooperate in a non-synergistic manner to activate h stripe 6 transcription. Absence of kni does not cause lack of h stripe 6 activation but delays the appearance of the stripe. Activation of the stripe depends on a minimal number of activator binding sites that are scattered throughout the stripe 6 element.
      Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
      The h and dl gene products continue to function as repressors in the setting up of segmentation in the absence of CtBP.
      CtBP is a protein component of h-mediated repression, identified in a yeast interaction screen. CtBP interacts specifically and directly with a small, previously uncharacterised C-terminal region of h.
      Fusion genes containing h binding sites suggest h is a silencer, which can repress upstream activators over a distance of at least 1kb. h mediates dominant repression and can silence multiple enhancers in a modular promoter.
      h stripe 7 activation requires several factors including the cad and bcd proteins.
      The WRPW motif (the repressor domain) maps to the carboxy terminal of h-related proteins and is both necessary and sufficient to form protein-protein interactions with gro. gro is able to repress transcription when directly bound to DNA in the absence of binding to h-related proteins.
      h normally acts as a promoter-bound repressor of ftz, run and odd.
      Mutations show strong interactions with high and low selection lines, abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers are affected. Results suggest h is a candidate for bristle number quantitative trait loci (QTL) in natural populations or is in the same genetic pathway.
      The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to study the zygotic lethal mutation.
      emc and h are expressed ahead of the morphogenetic furrow and are not required for photoreceptor cell determination. In emc- h- clones the morphogenetic furrow and differentiated eye field advance up to eight ommatidial rows ahead of adjacent wild type tissue. Results indicate that the morphogenetic furrow and neuronal differentiation are negatively regulated by a combination of anteriorly expressed HLH regulatory proteins, emc and h function together to regulate timing of furrow progression and photoreceptor development.
      Transcriptional repression by the h/E(spl) family of bHLH proteins involves two separable mechanisms: repression of specific transcriptional activators, such as sc, through the bHLH and orange domains and repression of other activators via interaction of the C-terminal WRPW motif with corepressors, such as the gro protein.
      A 900bp ac promoter fragment can be activated by binding of activators to three E-boxes and repressed via binding of h. The repression domain of h has mapped to a region containing the carboxyl terminus of the protein, this region is both necessary and sufficient for the repression of the ac promoter.
      run and h act on ftz with opposing effect via a common 32 bp element, the fDE1. run acts via transcriptional activation and h acts via transcriptional repression.
      Expression of stripes in the blastoderm embryo can be generated by a two-step mode which involves regulatory interactions among the primary pair-rule genes h and run. Expression of h stripes 3 and 4 is directed by a common cis-acting element that results in an initial broad band of gene expression covering three stripe equivalents. Subsequently this expression domain is split by repression in the forthcoming interstripe region, a process mediated by a separate cis-acting element that responds to run activity.
      Regulatory sequences critical for the expression of h stripes 5 and 6 have been difined. The posterior stripe boundaries are established by gap protein repressors unique to each stripe. The anterior boundaries of both stripe 5 and 6 are set by Kr. Both stripe enhancers have binding sites for Kr protein. h stripe 6 is critically dependent upon kni for activation, whereas stripe 5 requires a combination of activating proteins, gap and non-gap.
      h binds to DNA, preferably at a noncanonical site, and has a novel DNA binding activity. Mutation of a single h binding site in ac blocks h mediated repression of ac transcription in culture cells and creates ectopic sensory hair organs in vivo. Results indicate that h represses sensory organ formation by directly repressing transcription of the ac gene.
      Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.
      h is a sequence specific DNA-binding protein and transcriptional repressor. In vivo ac is a direct downstream target of h regulation. Direct repression of ac by h plays an essential role in pattern formation in the CNS.
      Ectopic ttk expression causes complete or near complete repression of ftz and significant repression of eve, odd, h and runt.
      Expression of prd depends on activation by gap gene hb, Kr, kni and gt products. Primary pair rule gene products act primarily in subsequent modulation rather than activation of prd stripes. Factors activating prd expression in the pair rule mode interact with those activating it along the dorso-ventral axis.
      The role of h in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.
      A molecular comparison of h expression and regulation in D.virilis and D.melanogaster reveals a high degree of conservation. The results of this and mutant analysis suggests that Kr and gt products establish the anterior and posterior borders of h stripe 5, respectively, through spatial repression.
      Promoter analysis of h define the requirements for expression of individual stripes during embryogenesis. The two anterior-most expression domains appear to be dispensable for head morphogenesis and embryonic viability. h can affect patterning outside its apparent stripe domains, supporting the idea that it can act as a local morphogen.
      hh acts upstream of gl, sca, h and dpp in the developing eye.
      Regulation of the h and ac expression patterns partitions the leg epidermis into striped zones that correspond to the pattern of longitudinal rows of leg bristles.
      Enhancer trap lines were used to follow the development of ectopic sensillar precursors in wings of h and Hairy-wing ac mutants: ectopic sensilla appear correlated with ectopic achaete and scute expression. Results suggest that both h and ac act to induce the formation of temporally and spatially distinct phase of sensillar development.
      Of all the HLH superfamily members, the h protein has the highest degree of similarity to the E(spl)HLH proteins.
      On basis of ectopic eve expression experiments, it has been suggested that h is an indirect target of eve: h is down-regulated as an indirect response to ectopic eve expression.
      Mutant analysis suggests that h is active in the wing in larval-adult metamorphosis with transcription pattern dependent upon position along the proximal-distal axis of polarity.
      The function of h in eye development has been studied.
      Apical localization of pair-rule transcripts restricts lateral protein diffusion allowing pair-rule proteins to define sharp boundaries and precise spatial domains.
      Mutations in zygotic pair rule gene h interact with RpII140wimp.
      h-Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have been used to delineate sequences within the h upstream region that drive individual stripe expression of h.
      Negative regulator that suppresses sensory neurogenesis by selectively repressing ac and sc gene expression in different spatial domains and at different developmental stages. Overexpression of h during pupal development has no effect on normal sense organ development. Where h expression is high ac expression is absent, h suppresses ac expression via a feedback mechanism on ac and sc activity and suppresses sensory organ formation. The interactions may involve specific dimerization reactions between different combinations of helix-loop-helix proteins.
      DNA sequence analysis reveals four E box binding sites, for the binding of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of da or AS-C proteins, in the first 877 bp of the ac upstream region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the emc protein can specifically antagonise DNA binding of the da/AS-C complexes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, h and E(spl) proteins fail to exhibit this inhibitory effect.
      prd RNA expression has been studied in h- embryos.
      The product of the h gene probably interacts with a subset of the 'pair-rule' repressor elements located in the ftz promoter.
      The regulation of striped h expression in the early embryo has been studied.
      Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that the separate cis-acting control units of the h upstream region are sufficient to drive expression of individual stripes.
      Ectopic expression of h prevents initiation of Sxl expression by interfering with X chromosome counting.
      Injection of protein synthesis inhibitors into early embryos induces expression of h mRNA in virtually all regions of the embryo.
      h protein expression has been analysed in wild-type embryos, h mutant embryos and embryos mutant for other segmentation genes.
      The development of the eve and ftz stripes in h-, run-, eve- and en- embryos demonstrates that individual cells are allocated to parasegments with respect to the anterior margins of the eve and ftz stripes.
      The structure of h transcripts and h proteins has been defined. ac could be a direct target of h.
      Genetic analysis demonstrates that h is dispensable for efficient homeotic gene expression in the visceral mesoderm.
      h protein expression has been studied.
      Pattern defects caused by inappropriate h expression are due to misregulation of ftz and other segmentation genes, h behaves as a negative regulator of ftz.
      h embryonic function is independent of the achaete-scute complex.
      h mutants display pair rule segmentation defects.
      h and emc code for repressors that interact with the ac and sc region of the achaete-scute complex, respectively.
      An increase of ac doses in h- homozygous flies produces an increase in microchaetae density on the notum and wing. Above a maximum dose more doses of ac cause a reduction in microchaetae density in the notum but increase on the wing.
      h1 shown to recombine with and lie to the right of h2 (Sturtevant; Rasmussen).
      The pair-rule gene hairy regulates the development of alternate segments in the embryo as well as the spatial expression of another pair-rule gene fushi tarazu (Holmgren, 1984; Carroll et al., 1988; Rushlow et al., 1989). A later phenotypic expression of hairy, the adult bristle pattern, is established during larval and pupal stages (Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980; Ingham, Howard and Ish-Horowicz, 1985; Ingham et al., 1985). In the embryo, h mutations delete the posterior part of each odd-numbered segment, weak alleles deleting less than a whole segment and strong alleles deleting regions greater than one segment. In mutant adults, extra microchaetae are found along wing veins, L2 more so than L4 or 5 and on wing membrane; also on dorsal and ventral scutellum and top of head. Extra sensilla present on longitudinal wing veins in a gradient in which sensilla are concentrated proximally and hairs distally; intermediate structures found in the middle (Spivey and Thompson, 1984). Extra acrostichal row on either side of midline between dorsocentral bristles (Claxton, 1971); also occupy thin arch of cuticle connecting ventral scutellum and pleurae. Microchaetae found on mesopleurae (mean of 13 in males and 20 in females versus none in wild type) and pteropleurae (Murphy, 1972). Used by Garcia-Bellido and Ferrus (1975) to provide cuticular markers on pleurae for fate mapping. Additional hair-forming cells present in 19-hr pupa (Lees and Waddington, 1942). Autonomous expression in clones produced prior to the last eight hr of larval life; clones produced during the last eight hr before pupation exhibit normal phenotype; attributable to perdurance of wild-type gene product (Garcia-Bellido and Merriam, 1971). Reduced ac+ function as in ac3 or ac3/+ suppresses h phenotype; extra doses of ac+ enhance h expression and can render h partially dominant (Sturtevant, 1969; Botas, del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, EMBO J. 1: 307-10). Three doses of h+ suppress Hw (Botas, et al.). h expression also enhanced by combination with rearrangements that place the ac-sc region in juxtaposition with substantial quantities of heterochromatin (Green, 1960). Interactions with sc alleles detailed by Sturtevant (1969). h2 less severe than and partially complements h1 (Sturtevant, 1969). As with ci+, expression of h+ may be altered in the direction of h by rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of the h locus (Dubinin and Sidorov, 1934); see also Jeffery, 1979. Unlike the ci case, however, rearranged h chromosomes do not show evidence of altered gene action (Stern, 1944).
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 77 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      h
      (Haines and Eisen, 2018, Andrioli et al., 2017, Mossman et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2017, Carrasco-Rando et al., 2016, Jha et al., 2016, Kockel et al., 2016, Duque and Sinha, 2015, Kok et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Boyle et al., 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Costa et al., 2014, DeSalvo et al., 2014, Hain et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Navarro et al., 2014, Samee and Sinha, 2014, Soundararajan and Bullock, 2014, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2014, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Dix et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Li et al., 2013, Samee and Sinha, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Spratford and Kumar, 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Zhou and Haddad, 2013, Amrute-Nayak and Bullock, 2012, Andrioli et al., 2012, Distefano et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kvon et al., 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Stern et al., 2012, Abed et al., 2011, Ellis and Carney, 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Kazemian et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Pilgram et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Schroeder et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Zhao and Haddad, 2011, Biehs et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2010, Braid et al., 2010, Duncan and Dearden, 2010, Reis et al., 2010, Ribeiro et al., 2010, Silicheva et al., 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Yassin et al., 2010, Zhan et al., 2010, Christensen et al., 2009.6.15, Dienstbier et al., 2009, Harbison et al., 2009, Leung and Eisen, 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Zhai et al., 2009, Zúñiga et al., 2009, Andrioli et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.9.29, Jennings et al., 2008, Juven-Gershon et al., 2008, Kahali et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Usui et al., 2008, Adryan et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Shroff and Orenic, 2007, Xing et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Bullock et al., 2006, Bullock et al., 2006, Claussen et al., 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Leaman et al., 2005, Peel et al., 2005, Schlatter and Maier, 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Grad et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Takahashi and Ting, 2004, Myat and Andrew, 2002, Fletcher and Thompson, 2000, Whitlock and Bourguet, 2000, Held, 1990)
      l(3)rM384
      Name Synonyms
      hairy
      (Abed et al., 2018, Hang and Gergen, 2017, Mir et al., 2017, Tokusumi et al., 2017, Young and Marcotte, 2017, Jha et al., 2016, Slaninova et al., 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Golubyatnikov et al., 2015, Hain et al., 2014, Palsson et al., 2014, Samee and Sinha, 2014, Soundararajan and Bullock, 2014, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Bai et al., 2013, Da Ros et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Dix et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Mortimer and Moberg, 2013, Zhou and Haddad, 2013, Andrioli et al., 2012, Distefano et al., 2012, Gonsalvez and Long, 2012, Jansen and Niessing, 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Stern et al., 2012, Abed et al., 2011, Harrison and Haddad, 2011, Kazemian et al., 2011, Li and Arnosti, 2011, Nien et al., 2011, San-Juán and Baonza, 2011, Schroeder et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Yamasaki et al., 2011, Zhao and Haddad, 2011, Baig et al., 2010, Biehs et al., 2010, Braid et al., 2010, Gladstein et al., 2010, Li et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Monastirioti et al., 2010, Ribeiro et al., 2010, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Gauhar et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, Harbison et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Zamparo and Perkins, 2009, Zhai et al., 2009, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Juven-Gershon et al., 2008, Kahali et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Usui et al., 2008, Wu and Xie, 2008, Zhou et al., 2008, Zhou et al., 2008, Bulanin and Orenic, 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Popichenko et al., 2007, Shroff et al., 2007, Xing et al., 2007, Jennings et al., 2006, Joshi et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Tsuda et al., 2006, Beckstead et al., 2005, Goldstein et al., 2005, Shav-Tal and Singer, 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Rehmsmeier et al., 2004, Takahashi and Ting, 2004, Myat and Andrew, 2002, Wilkie et al., 2001, Fletcher and Thompson, 2000, Whitlock and Bourguet, 2000, Tsai and Gergen, 1995, Ish-Horowicz, 1989.7.19)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0011517
      • FBgn0019807
      • FBgn0019998
      Datasets (2)
      Study focus (2)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (797)