General Information
Symbol
Dmel\H
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Hairless
Annotation Symbol
CG5460
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001169
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Hairless (H) is the major antagonist of Notch signaling activity during imaginal development. H silences N target genes by assembling a transcriptional repressor complex, which includes the transcription factor Su(H) and general co-repressors like gro and CtBP. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
Hairless
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:20,621,938..20,628,915 [+]
Recombination map
3-69
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Protein Domains/Motifs
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Is a potent antagonist of neurogenic gene activity during sensory organ development. The expression of distinct cell fates by the trichogen (shaft) / tormogen (socket) sister cell pair depends on the level of H activity. A certain threshold level of H activity is required, below which both sister cells adopt the tormogen fate.
(UniProt, Q02308)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
H: Hairless
thumb
H: Hairless
From Bridges and Morgan, 1923, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 327: 161.
Bristles, especially postverticals and abdominals, missing in heterozygous H flies. Bristle sockets present at some sites, not at others. Expressed most distinctly on head; occipital; post vertical and ocellar bristles affected. Bristles of antennae and vibrissae show mutant phenotype much less frequently. Sockets without shafts also found on thorax, scutellum, abdominal tergites, external genitalia, wings, and legs. No shaftless sockets appear on the bracted costa of the wing. Some 40% of bristle organs located on distal part of femur differentiate neither shaft nor bract; bracts absent whenever shaft missing but present when shaft present; abnormally short shaft may be accompanied by normal-sized bract (from description of H2, by Tobler, Rothenbuhler, and Nothiger, 1973, Experientia 29: 370-71). Veins L4 and L5 do not reach wing margin; occasionally true of L2 also. Eyes larger than wild type; body color somewhat paler. Lees and Waddington [1942, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. B. 131: 87-110 (fig.)] show that trichogen cell forms a socket instead of a bristle shaft at some sites. Phenotypic expression of H responds linearly to dosage of Su(H)+ in region 35B6-10 on the left arm of chromosome 2. The number of microchaetae in H/+ flies varies from approximately 35 in the presence of a single dose of 35B6-10 to fewer than 10 in the presence of four doses (Ashburner, 1982, Genetics 64: 471-79). Interactions with other mutants studied by House (1953, Genetics 38: 199-215, 309-27; 1959, Genetics 44: 516; 1955, Anat. Record 122: 471; 1959, Anat. Record 134: 581-82). H suppresses wing notching of N, fa, fano, and nd, enhances Ax; also H enhances eye effect of spl, and removes more bristles in combination with spl (House, Von Halle). Reduction in the number of copies of the wild-type allele of H decreases the mutant phenotype of heterozygous N and Dl flies, but increase in the number of copies of the wild-type allele of H enhances the mutant phenotype of heterozygous N, Dl, and E(spl) flies (Vassin, Vielmetter, and Campos-Ortega, 1985, J. Neurogenet. 2: 291-308). H shows some superadditive interaction with en, ci, ciW, and ciD relative to degree of L4 interruption. L2 interruption augmented in combinations with ve and ri; L3 interruption augmented in combinations with ve and tt. Triploid, H/+/+, intermediate between wild type and H/+. H/H/+ most extreme type with bristles absent from head, thorax, and abdomen [Gowen, 1933, Am. Nat. 67: 178-80 (fig.)]. Homozygous lethal. H null homozygotes die during larval and pupal stages (Bang et al.). Animals surviving to pharate adult are completely devoid of macrochaetes and microchaetes on the head and notum, with occasional "double sockets" remaining on the abdominal tergites. Bristles on the legs significantly resistant to loss of H+ function; many "double sockets" and some normal bristles remain on the legs of H null homozygotes. In regions of the notum exhibiting bristle "loss" in adult H mutants, macrochaete and microchaete primary precursor cells undetectable (Bang et al.). RK1.
H16
Recessive allele of Hairy (formerly called Hairless-recessive). Homozygotes have nearly all bristles and hairs substituted by double and triple abnormal sockets; veins L4 and L5 fail to reach margin. H16/H lethal, probably in pupal stage; few escapers short lived with extreme Hairless phenotype; all bristles and hairs suppressed or substituted by abnormal sockets; wings reduced; veins L2, L4 and L5 abnormal.
H22
Less severe than H16. Almost completely recessive. Heterozygotes most frequently wildtype in phenotype, but occasionally a "double socket" appears on the head in the position of a postvertical macrochaete or on the abdominal tergites. Homozygotes display a much stronger and more extensive mutant phenotype than H null heterozygotes. Many head and notum macrochaetes and approximately 50% of notum microchaetes missing; remaining 50% exhibit a spectrum of "double socket" phenotypes. Homozygotes also exhibit loss of wing vein tissue from L4 and L5. Approximately 50% of flies carrying H22r in trans to a H null allele die as pharate adults. The remainder survive to eclosion, but are short-lived and exhibit extensive loss of both macrochaetes and microchaetes on the head, notum, and abdominal tergites; only 20% of the notum microchaetes remain, all with a completely transformed "double socket" phenotype.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\H or the JBrowse view of Dmel\H for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083914
5919
1077
FBtr0083915
3884
1059
FBtr0083917
6004
1059
FBtr0083916
4255
1077
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.0, 5.3, 5.0, 4.2, 4.0 (northern blot)
6, 5.5, 4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083322
111.1
1077
10.08
FBpp0083323
109.2
1059
10.14
FBpp0083325
109.2
1059
10.14
FBpp0083324
111.1
1077
10.08
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1077 aa isoforms: H-PA, H-PD
1059 aa isoforms: H-PB, H-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1059 (aa); 109 (kD)
1076 (aa); 110 (kD)
Comments
No extensive homology to other protein sequences in the databases was observed. The H protein is highly basic overall but has a >100 aa stretch that is very acidic surrounded by particularly basic regions. Long homopolymeric runs of alanine residues are also present,especially near the carboxy terminus.
One of a couple of products generated by alternative splicing.
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\H using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (13 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
H protein is found in all cells of all tissues at all stages assayed.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\H in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 103 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of H
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      0
      --
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
              0
              --
                0
                --
                  0
                  --
                    0
                    --
                      0
                      --
                        0
                        --
                          0
                          --
                            0
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                            0
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                              0
                              --
                                0
                                --
                                  0
                                  --
                                  Other relevant insertions
                                  insertion of mobile activating element
                                  Transgenic Constructs ( 45 )
                                  For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
                                  Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of H
                                  Allele of H
                                  Mutagen
                                  Associated Transgenic Construct
                                  Stocks
                                  Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of H
                                  characterization construct
                                  Name
                                  Expression Data
                                  Deletions and Duplications ( 12 )
                                  Summary of Phenotypes
                                  For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
                                  Lethality
                                  Allele
                                  Sterility
                                  Allele
                                  Other Phenotypes
                                  Allele
                                  visible (with H1)
                                  visible (with H3)
                                  Phenotype manifest in
                                  Allele
                                  adult abdominal sensillum & sternite
                                  adult head & macrochaeta
                                  adult head & microchaeta
                                  adult thorax & macrochaeta
                                  adult thorax & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4T113
                                  dorsal mesothoracic disc & cell
                                  dorsal row & sensory mother cell, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
                                  head & macrochaeta
                                  macrochaeta & adult head
                                  macrochaeta & head
                                  macrochaeta & scutum
                                  mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta
                                  mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta | somatic clone
                                  microchaeta & scutum
                                  microchaeta & tormogen cell | conditional ts
                                  microchaeta & trichogen cell
                                  scutum & macrochaeta
                                  wing & macrochaeta
                                  wing & microchaeta | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
                                  Orthologs
                                  Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                                  Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                                  Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
                                  No orthologs reported.
                                  Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906C5 )
                                  Organism
                                  Common Name
                                  Gene
                                  AAA Syntenic Ortholog
                                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                  Drosophila melanogaster
                                  fruit fly
                                  Drosophila suzukii
                                  Spotted wing Drosophila
                                  Drosophila simulans
                                  Drosophila sechellia
                                  Drosophila erecta
                                  Drosophila yakuba
                                  Drosophila ananassae
                                  Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
                                  Drosophila persimilis
                                  Drosophila willistoni
                                  Drosophila virilis
                                  Drosophila mojavensis
                                  Drosophila grimshawi
                                  Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AZW )
                                  Organism
                                  Common Name
                                  Gene
                                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                  Musca domestica
                                  House fly
                                  Glossina morsitans
                                  Tsetse fly
                                  Glossina morsitans
                                  Tsetse fly
                                  Lucilia cuprina
                                  Australian sheep blowfly
                                  Mayetiola destructor
                                  Hessian fly
                                  Aedes aegypti
                                  Yellow fever mosquito
                                  Anopheles darlingi
                                  American malaria mosquito
                                  Anopheles gambiae
                                  Malaria mosquito
                                  Culex quinquefasciatus
                                  Southern house mosquito
                                  Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0FFE )
                                  Organism
                                  Common Name
                                  Gene
                                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                  Bombyx mori
                                  Silkmoth
                                  Danaus plexippus
                                  Monarch butterfly
                                  Heliconius melpomene
                                  Postman butterfly
                                  Apis florea
                                  Little honeybee
                                  Apis mellifera
                                  Western honey bee
                                  Bombus impatiens
                                  Common eastern bumble bee
                                  Bombus terrestris
                                  Buff-tailed bumblebee
                                  Linepithema humile
                                  Argentine ant
                                  Megachile rotundata
                                  Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                                  Nasonia vitripennis
                                  Parasitic wasp
                                  Dendroctonus ponderosae
                                  Mountain pine beetle
                                  Tribolium castaneum
                                  Red flour beetle
                                  Pediculus humanus
                                  Human body louse
                                  Cimex lectularius
                                  Bed bug
                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum
                                  Pea aphid
                                  Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0FF2 )
                                  Organism
                                  Common Name
                                  Gene
                                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                  Strigamia maritima
                                  European centipede
                                  Strigamia maritima
                                  European centipede
                                  Strigamia maritima
                                  European centipede
                                  Strigamia maritima
                                  European centipede
                                  Strigamia maritima
                                  European centipede
                                  Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
                                  No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
                                  Human Disease Model Data
                                  FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                                    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                                    Download
                                    Models ( 0 )
                                    Allele
                                    Disease
                                    Evidence
                                    References
                                    Interactions ( 0 )
                                    Allele
                                    Disease
                                    Interaction
                                    References
                                    Comments ( 0 )
                                     
                                    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                                    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                                    Homo sapiens (Human)
                                    Gene name
                                    Score
                                    OMIM
                                    OMIM Phenotype
                                    Complementation?
                                    Transgene?
                                    Functional Complementation Data
                                    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                                    Interactions
                                    Summary of Physical Interactions
                                    esyN Network Diagram
                                    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
                                    Select Layout:
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                                    Protein
                                    RNA
                                    Selected Interactor(s)
                                    Interactions Browser

                                    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                                    protein-protein
                                    Interacting group
                                    Assay
                                    References
                                    RNA-RNA
                                    Interacting group
                                    Assay
                                    References
                                    RNA-protein
                                    Interacting group
                                    Assay
                                    References
                                    Summary of Genetic Interactions
                                    esyN Network Diagram
                                    esyN Network Key:
                                    Suppression
                                    Enhancement

                                    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                                    Starting gene(s)
                                    Interaction type
                                    Interacting gene(s)
                                    Reference
                                    suppressible
                                    enhanceable
                                    Starting gene(s)
                                    Interaction type
                                    Interacting gene(s)
                                    Reference
                                    suppressible
                                    suppressible
                                    suppressible
                                    suppressible
                                    suppressible
                                    suppressible
                                    suppressible
                                    External Data
                                    Linkouts
                                    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                                    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                                    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                                    Pathways
                                    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
                                    External Data
                                    Linkouts
                                    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
                                    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
                                    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                                    Chromosome (arm)
                                    3R
                                    Recombination map
                                    3-69
                                    Cytogenetic map
                                    Sequence location
                                    3R:20,621,938..20,628,915 [+]
                                    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                                    Cytogenetic map
                                    Evidence for location
                                    92F3-92F3
                                    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)1058510585 and P{EP}SyndEP409
                                    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                                    Cytogenetic map
                                    Notes
                                    References
                                    92E12-92E14
                                    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                                    92E14-92E15
                                    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                                    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                                    Left of (cM)
                                    Right of (cM)
                                    Notes
                                    Stocks and Reagents
                                    Stocks (47)
                                    Genomic Clones (21)
                                    cDNA Clones (98)
                                     

                                    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                                    cDNA clones, fully sequences
                                    BDGP DGC clones
                                    Other clones
                                    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                                    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                                    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                                    RNAi and Array Information
                                    Linkouts
                                    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                                    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                                    Antibody Information
                                    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                                     
                                    Commercially Available Antibodies
                                     
                                    Other Information
                                    Relationship to Other Genes
                                    Source for database identify of
                                    Source for identity of: H CG5460
                                    Source for database merge of
                                    Additional comments
                                    Other Comments
                                    Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).
                                    H protein opposes N pathway activity by acting as an adaptor between Su(H) protein and the corepressors gro and CtBP.
                                    H is required to repress the transcription of sim.
                                    H forms DNA bound complex with Su(H).
                                    gro and H both act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina.
                                    gro and H control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern. H represses ato expression in territories far ahead of the morphogenetic furrow, while behind the morphogenetic furrow H ensures the timely selection of regularly spaced R8 precursors, presumably by modulating N signaling.
                                    The activation of Su(H) by N involves the release of Su(H) from an inhibitory complex which contains H.
                                    The Su(H) phenotype is epistatic to that of H during wing disc development.
                                    H influences the whole of the sensory organ cell lineage.
                                    Subcellular localisation of H protein shows a major focus of activity within the nucleus.
                                    Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
                                    Seven EMS-induced mutations have been isolated that suppress the bristle and wing vein phenotypes of NAx-16. The mutants are apparently duplications of the H locus.
                                    H acts by inhibiting signal transduction rather than by promoting signal production, during both selection of microchaete precursors in the notum and vein cell differentiation in the wing. H plays no essential role during embryogenesis.
                                    Definitive denticle belt phenotypes (abnormal hairs and/or bristles) are foreshadowed by abnormal organisation of the actin cytoskeleton in embryonic epidermal cells.
                                    Structure-function analysis of H demonstrates the protein can be subdivided into the absolutely essential Su(H)-binding domain, important N- and C- terminal domains and a central antimorphic domain.
                                    A screen to isolate mutations that cause dominant enhancement of wing vein phenotypes associated with Egfr recovered mutations in H.
                                    Loss of function mutations of H and the AS-C are epistatic to Brd.
                                    Mutations show strong interactions with high and low selection lines, abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers are affected. Results suggest H is a candidate for bristle number quantitative trait loci (QTL) in natural populations or is in the same genetic pathway.
                                    N, H and Su(H) exhibit dose-dependent genetic interactions.
                                    H promotes stable commitment to the sensory organ precursor cell fate by negatively regulating the activity of the N signalling pathway.
                                    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and the yeast two hybrid system demonstrate the H protein can inhibit the in vitro DNA binding activity of Su(H) through direct protein-protein interactions. Co-transfection assays in S2 cells demonstrate transcriptional activation driven by Su(H) is also inhibited by H.
                                    N receptor activity suppresses H function during adult external sense organ development. H activity insulates sensory organ precursor cells from inhibition by N. H function appears to be an integral negative regulatory element of the N signalling pathway.
                                    Overexpression of a wild type construct causes premature lethality and gain of function phenotypes, at ambient temperature it still rescues the dominant loss of function phenotypes. Mutant derivatives have allowed separation of a lethally mutable domain from a neural domain required for sensory organ formation.
                                    In vitro binding assays demonstrate the H gene product can inhibit the DNA binding of Su(H) through direct protein-protein interactions. Consistent with this, transcriptional activation driven by Su(H) in transfected S2 cells is inhibited by H. These results support a model in which H acts, in part, as a negative regulator of Su(H) activity.
                                    Decreasing or increasing the level of Su(H) function confers mutant phenotypes that closely resemble those associated with gain and loss of H activity, respectively.
                                    The phenotypes of the Abruptex class of N allele are modified by mutations at Ser, Dl, H and gro.
                                    Dominant lethal interaction of an allele of H with kniri-92f reported: transheterozygotes are never recovered.
                                    The H gene product is involved in the early nervous system differentiation and counteracts the action of other neurogenic genes.
                                    NM1 defines a new class of Notch allele: similarity with and lack of specificity of interaction of N- and NM1 with H, mam, gro and E(spl) suggest that the NM1 effect is due to modification in the intracellular signalling of the activated N receptor.
                                    Whereas H mutant alleles cause trichogen to tormogen double socket phenotype, heat shock ectopic Hairless-expression experiments produce double shaft tormogen to trichogen transformation, and bristle multiplication/loss phenotype similar to those caused by loss of function Notch mutations. Sensory organ precursor cell fate may require H to antagonise neurogenic gene functions and expression of distinct trichogen/tormogen sister cell pair may depend on asymmetry of H+ activity or their response to it. H has been cloned beginning with plasmid rescue of the insertion in HD179. Heat shock driven H+ line has been generated that rescues mutant H alleles. Mutant phenotype and expression studies suggest that neither fine spatial/temporal regulation nor high levels of H transcription are required for normal H function.
                                    A screen that identified Dominant suppressors of the wing phenotype associated with Dl9P and DlFE32 identified 12 new H alleles.
                                    In H mutants, neuronal precursors do not differentiate: H may be involved in specifying neuronal cell fate. H mutations show genetic interactions with neurogenic mutations.
                                    Genetic and molecular study of H function reveals that H is one of a small number of genes for which the loss of function phenotype is the failure of sensillum precursor development.
                                    emcD has synergistic interactions with H alleles and mutual rescuing with Dl alleles. The NAx-1, NAx-M2 and NAx-M3 alleles increase the phenotype of H alleles.
                                    Lack-of-function alleles of H correct ASC "Hw" phenotypes in both ectopic and normal positions.
                                    H is an enhancer of spl alleles of N: due to the haploinsufficiency of the H locus.
                                    Mutations in H cause pleiotropic phenotypes in embryonic patterns and affect several longitudinal veins.
                                    H dominantly suppresses the dx adult wing and ocelli phenotypes. Flies heterozygous for H and homozygous for dxENU have eyes smaller than wild type, infrequent missing or duplicated bristle phenotype and ommatidia are square wih a bristle at each corner.
                                    ve, vn, ci, cg, svs, ast, H, Vno and vvl belong to the vein phenotypic group (Puro, 1982, Droso. Info. Serv. 58:205--208 ) within the 'lack-of-vein' mutant class. Loss-of-function alleles at these loci remove stretches of veins in two or more longitudinal veins. Double mutations within members of this group remove all veins, have smaller, slightly lanceolate wings, no sensilla and extra chaetae. Some alleles are embryonic lethal.
                                    A study of the interactions between N, Dl, H and E(spl) suggest that the effects of H, Dl and E(spl) on N are allele specific and occurring at the protein level.
                                    Functional relationships between neurogenic genes has been studied.
                                    Bristles, especially postverticals and abdominals, missing in heterozygous H flies. Bristle sockets present at some sites, not at others. Expressed most distinctly on head; occipital; postvertical and ocellar bristles affected. Bristles of antennae and vibrissae show mutant phenotype much less frequently. Sockets without shafts also found on thorax, scutellum, abdominal tergites, external genitalia, wings, and legs. No shaftless sockets appear on the bracted costa of the wing. Some 40% of bristle organs located on distal part of femur differentiate neither shaft nor bract; bracts absent whenever shaft missing but present when shaft present; abnormally short shaft may be accompanied by normal-sized bract (from description of H2, by Tobler, Rothenbuhler and Nothiger (1973). Veins L4 and L5 do not reach wing margin; occasionally true of L2 also. Eyes larger than wild type; body color somewhat paler. Lees and Waddington (1942) show that trichogen cell forms a socket instead of a bristle shaft at some sites. Phenotypic expression of H responds linearly to dosage of Su(H)+ in region 35B6-10 on the left arm of chromosome 2. The number of microchaetae in H/+ flies varies from approximately 35 in the presence of a single dose of 35B6-10 to fewer than 10 in the presence of four doses (Ashburner, 1982). Interactions with other mutants studied by House (House, 1953a; House 1953b; House, 1959a; House, 1955; House, 1959b). H suppresses wing notching of N, fa, Nnd-3 and nd, enhances Ax; also H enhances eye effect of spl and removes more bristles in combination with spl (House, Von Halle). Reduction in the number of copies of the wild-type allele of H decreases the mutant phenotype of heterozygous N and Dl flies, but increase in the number of copies of the wild-type allele of H enhances the mutant phenotype of heterozygous N, Dl and E(spl) flies (Vassin, Vielmetter and Campos-Ortega, 1985). H shows some superadditive interaction with en, ci, ciW and ciD relative to degree of L4 interruption. L2 interruption augmented in combinations with ve and ri; L3 interruption augmented in combinations with ve and tt. Triploid, H/+/+, intermediate between wild type and H/+. H/H/+ most extreme type with bristles absent from head, thorax and abdomen (Gowen, 1933). Homozygous lethal. H null homozygotes die during larval and pupal stages (Bang, Hartenstein and Posakony, 1991). Animals surviving to pharate adult are completely devoid of macrochaetes and microchaetes on the head and notum, with occasional 'double sockets' remaining on the abdominal tergites. Bristles on the legs significantly resistant to loss of H+ function; many 'double sockets' and some normal bristles remain on the legs of H null homozygotes. In regions of the notum exhibiting bristle 'loss' in adult H mutants, macrochaete and microchaete primary precursor cells undetectable (Bang, Hartenstein and Posakony, 1991).
                                    Origin and Etymology
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                                    Etymology
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                                    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 66 )
                                    Crossreferences
                                    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                                    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                                    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                                    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
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                                    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
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                                    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                                    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
                                    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                                    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                                    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                                    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                                    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
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                                    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                                    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                                    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                                    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                                    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
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                                    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
                                    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
                                    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
                                    Reported As
                                    Symbol Synonym
                                    H
                                    (Bala Tannan et al., 2018, Salazar and Yamamoto, 2018, Chan et al., 2017, Nagel et al., 2017, Praxenthaler et al., 2017, Shukla et al., 2017, Zehender et al., 2017, Zhu et al., 2017, Horvath et al., 2016, Malartre, 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Smylla et al., 2016, Dai et al., 2015, Praxenthaler et al., 2015, Brockmann et al., 2014, Coumailleau and Schweisguth, 2014, Gómez-Lamarca et al., 2014, Nagel and Preiss, 2014, Zacharioudaki and Bray, 2014, Dai et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Djiane et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Yu et al., 2013, Cook et al., 2012, Domanitskaya and Schüpbach, 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Hazelett et al., 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Troost and Klein, 2012, Guan et al., 2011, Johnson et al., 2011, Maier et al., 2011, Nagel and Preiss, 2011, Pilgram et al., 2011, Tsubota et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Zhou et al., 2011, Bardin et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, modENCODE Consortium et al., 2010, Saj et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Benítez et al., 2009, Mao and Freeman, 2009, Moshkin et al., 2009, Olswang-Kutz et al., 2009, Perkins et al., 2009.8.10, Protzer et al., 2009, Stern et al., 2009, Bejarano et al., 2008, Haussmann et al., 2008, Hayashi et al., 2008, Leevers, 2008.10.20, Maier et al., 2008, Parks et al., 2008, Protzer et al., 2008, Yatsu et al., 2008, Araujo et al., 2007, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Harding-Theobald et al., 2007.2.6, Kugler and Nagel, 2007, Martin et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Nagel et al., 2007, Park et al., 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Herranz et al., 2006, Koelzer and Klein, 2006, Mahoney et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Müller et al., 2006, Orme et al., 2006, Williams et al., 2006, Copley, 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Nagel et al., 2005, Tang et al., 2005, Wech and Nagel, 2005, Wesley and Mok, 2003, Schreiber et al., 2002, Gim et al., 2001, Weinmaster, 1997)
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