General Information
Symbol
Dmel\hb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
hunchback
Annotation Symbol
CG9786
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001180
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Hunchback, Rg-pbx
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:8,690,980..8,697,822 [-]
Recombination map
3-48
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the hunchback C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family. (P05084)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Gap class segmentation protein that controls development of head structures.
(UniProt, P05084)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
hb: hunchback
Homozygotes for null alleles of hb (class I alleles of Lehmann and Nusslein-Volhard) are embryonic lethals of the gap type. Gastrulation abnormal; no cephalic fold; cell death evident at 6 hr later becoming extensive, predominantly in the neuroectoderm; germ band extension curtailed at 50% of embryonic length. After germ band shortening embryos lack thoracic and labial segments; cephalopharyngeal skeleton present but poorly formed; head involution fails. Seventh and eighth abdominal segments fused by the deletion of parasegment 13; A1 segment 1.5 times normal width, with eight to ten deranged denticle rows compared to the normal number of four, and a widened region of naked cuticle. Filzkorper material reduced; posterior spiracles fail to evert. Three ventral ganglia absent; gap appears between suboesophogeal region of ventral nerve cord and more posterior trunk ganglia. Extreme mutants display a reduced number of stripes of ftz expression at cellular blastoderm; the first stripe is widened and followed by a narrowed gap of nonexpression preceding the second stripe; the last pair of stripes are fused (Carroll and Scott, 1986, Cell 45: 113-26). Hypomorphic alleles display variably less severe disruption depending on allele (hbDrv6 = hbb2 = hbe21 > hbb7 > hbDrv9), the least severe, hbDrv9 lacking only T2. Class II alleles (Lehmann and Nusslein-Volhard) resemble the null alleles except that some or all of the prothorax and A7 are retained. The class III allele retains the labial segment as well. Class IV alleles lack only the mesothoracic segment. Class V mutants exhibit segment transformations as well as gaps and are described separately below. Temperature sensitive period of hbts1 during first four hr of development. hb/+ offspring produced from homozygous oogenic clones develop normally; homozygous embryos resulting from such clones display enhanced zygotic phenotype; gnathal, thoracic, and the first three abdominal segments replaced by two or three segments of abdominal identity in mirror image relation to the more posterior abdominal segments; weak alleles without maternal effect; extra doses of hb+ in female without effect on phenotype of hb offspring. The anterior zone of hb expression extended posteriorly by six additional cells in the absence of Kr+; conversely the zone of Kr expression expanded anteriorly by six to eight cells in hb mutants; posterior zone appears insensitive to Kr constitution (Jackle, Tautz, Schuh, Seifert, and Lehmann, 1986, Nature 324: 668-70). hb+ appears to set the boundaries of Ubx expression (White and Lehmann, 1986, Cell 47: 311-21); zone of Ubx expression expanded in both anterior and posterior directions in hb mutant embryos at the stage of full germ band elongation; segmental disposition of expression characteristically deranged prior to the advent of cell death. Although Ubx expression in the ventral nerve chord at the stage of fully shortened germ band extends from parasegments 5-13, Ubx protein detected in parasegments 1, 7-12 and 14 in hb12, 3 and 7-14 in hb1, and head to parasegment 1 plus parasegments 7-12 and 14 in hb7 (White and Lehmann). Phenotypic effects of ftz and hb in double mutants additive in thorax and anterior abdomen, but more severe than expected in head and posterior regions.
hb6
hb6/hb6 embryos lack meso- and metathorax, but nine abdominal segments are formed, the most anterior being T2 transformed into A1 and the next the normal A1.
hb7
Homozygous embryos lack labium and all thoracic segments; head and gnathal segments transformed into posterior abdominal segments as is A1. Expressed only in homozygotes, not in hemizygotes; hb7/Df(3R)hb displays class III phenotype. Lethality of hb7 homozygotes not rescued by Dp(3;Y)P92 which is able to cover the other alleles; attempts to implicate a linked lethal mutation negative.
hb11
As in the case of hb7, resembles a class I mutant, but with transformation of gnathal and first abdominal segments into posterior abdominal segments. Expression in homozygotes more extreme than in hemizygotes.
hbD1: hunchback-Dominant
A gain-of-function mutation; viable both in heterozygous and homozygous condition. Phenotype resembles that of pbx; insensitive to additional doses of hb+ but suppressed by extra doses [e. g., five copies of BXC+ (Lewis)]; enhanced in heterozygous combination with null alleles of ftz.
hbD2
Homozygous lethal; lethal when heterozygous to hb null alleles (e.g. hb12). Has two dominant phenotypes: 1) homeotic transformation of parasegment six to parasegment five, resembling that produced by bxd pbx; 2) a pair-rule segmentation defect, consisting of partial deletion of even-numbered abdominal segments, principally A2 and A4. Homozygote shows more extreme expression of both phenotypes; penetrance and expressivity of first effect enhanced in double heterozygous combination with null alleles of ftz (e.g. hbD2/ftzr14); second phenotype enhanced by Df(2R)eve, such that only a few adult escapers of the doubly heterozygous genotype are observed. Also has a recessive phenotype, revealed either when homozygous or heterozygous to an hb null allele; deletion of parasegment 13 and reduction of filzkorper; labial and thoracic segments normal. Thus, affects posterior, but not anterior, domain of hb+ function. Viable in trans to some hypomorphic alleles that do not affect parasegment 13 (e.g. hb6).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\hb or the JBrowse view of Dmel\hb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081951
3338
758
FBtr0081950
3181
758
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.2, 2.9 (sequence analysis)
3.5, 3.2, 3.0, 2.8, 2.6 (northern blot)
3.2, 2.9 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081432
83.1
758
7.24
FBpp0081431
83.1
758
7.24
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

758 aa isoforms: hb-PA, hb-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
758 (aa); 83 (kD predicted)
Comments
hb protein is shown to specifically bind DNA from the bx regulatory region of Ubx. Three hb binding sites were characterized in theis region.
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\hb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (23 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with nucleoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
colocalizes_with nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000694458
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-8 hr AEL

Comment: reference states 2-6 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
hb-RNA is detected in neuroblasts at embryonic stages 9 and 10. At embryonic stage 11 labeling is seen in ganglion mother cells. At embryonic stage 16 hb-RNA labels early-born neurons in the deepest layers of the embryonic CNS.
hb-RB transcript is not expressed until late in embryonic cycle 14, when the hb expression pattern has been refined to two stripes.
hb transcripts are produced only by the germline-derived nurse cells. Transcripts are first detected at stage 7, increase dramatically in stages 8 and 9 and are no longer detectable by stage 12.
The hb transcript is expressed in the early embryo in two domains, an anterior domain which spans from the anterior tip to %50 egg length and posterior domain which spans from 90% egg length to the posterior tip.
The hb transcript is expressed in two broad regions in the cellular blastoderm, one which covers up to 50% egg length from the anterior and one which covers up to 20% egg length from the posterior.
The 2.8kb and 2.6kb hb transcripts are expressed only during first 6 hours of embryogenesis with a peak at 2-4 hrs. In situ hybridization shows that the hb gene is first expressed uniformly over the embryo. In syncytial blastoderm embryos, expression is seen in a broad anterior stripe (50-100% EL) and a narrower posterior signal (0-15% EL). In late stage 4 embryos the anterior hb stripe weakens and narrows to two broad stripes. These are gone by the extended germ band stage when ventral hypoderm expression is seen.
The 3.0kb and 3.2kb hb transcripts accumulate to their highest levels over the first 8 hours of embryogenesis. They are also present in adult females and males with higher levels in females. In situ hybridization shows that the hb gene is first expressed uniformly over the embryo. In syncytial blastoderm embryos, expression is seen in a broad anterior stripe (50-100% EL) and a narrower posterior signal (0-15% EL). In late stage 4 embryos the anterior hb stripe weakens and narrows to two broad stripes. These are gone by the extended germ band stage when ventral hypoderm expression is seen.
The 3.2kb hb transcripts are homogenously distributed in early embryos, then form an anterior-posterior gradient and are gone before the blastoderm stage. They appear again at nuclear cycle 13-14, where they form an anterior stripe at ~53% egg length and a posterior stripe. They are also expressed in the anterior yolk nuclei. The anterior stripe is in the region of the 2nd thoracic segment on the fate map and the posterior stripe is in the region of abdominal segments 7 and 8. The 3.2kb transcript persists throughout germ band extension.
2.9kb hb transcripts are first detected at nuclear cycle 11-12 in the anterior half of the embryos and in the yolk nuclei in that region. Transcripts disappear at the beginning of gastrulation.
The 2.9kb hb transcript is detected between 2 and 6 hours of embryonic development.
The 3.2kb hb transcript is present in maternal RNA and continues to be present for the first 8 hours of embryonic development. It is also detected in adult females.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunoprecipitation
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
At embryonic stage 16 both hb-protein is detected in early-born neurons in the deepest layers of the embryonic CNS.
hb protein is detected in neurons of the male pupal brain and in the ventral nerve cord. A subset of neurons that express hb protein also express fru protein, and a subset of the latter are labelled by Scer\GAL4NP0021.
Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.
Markers that uniquely identify the cells of the NB3-7 lineage were used to examine the serotonin expressing cell lineages.
Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - d3-7, v2; deuterocerebrum - d1, d13, v3, v4,v6; protocerebrum - ad1, ad3, ad4, ad14-15, ad17, av1, cd2, cd6, cd 7, cd13, cd18, cd19, cd21, cv1, cv3, cv6-9, pd3, pd15, pv2
In embryos of mothers with moderate pum alleles (pum1/pum680), the domain of hunchback expression is extended posteriorly. In strong pum mutant embryos (pumMsc/pumFC8), hb is expressed throughout the embryo.
hb protein accumulation at the anterior of the embryo is inhibited by ectopic nos protein in nosbcd.3UTR embryos. As a result, only a small amount of hb protein accumulates in the center of these embryos. In nosbcd.3UTR embryos from osk1 mothers, hb protein accumulates in the posterior half of the embryo.
In wild typeblastoderm embryos, posterior hb expression begins as a cap at theposterior pole. The cap then disappears leaving a stripe from 10-20%egglength. In csw mutants, hb does not retract but remains as aterminal cap.
hb protein is expressed in mature neuroblasts and their neuronal progeny. In embryos lacking the l(1)sc gene, hb protein expression is seen in fewer cells and their arrangement is more regular.
In blastoderm embryos, the anterior domain of hb protein expression extends to the posterior border of eve stripe 3, while the posterior domain of hb expression overlaps eve stripe 7.
Transplantation experiments show that hb protein is expressed during oogenesis.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{hb0.7-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{hb1.2-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HB123}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HB123x2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HB263}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HB747}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{hb-GFP.HG4-1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{hb-GFP.HG4-2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{hb-GFP.HG4-3}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{hb-GFP.HG4-7}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HB-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HG4-5-GFP}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb1-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb2-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb3-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb5-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb6-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb7-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb8-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb9-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb10-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb11-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb15-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Thb16-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\hb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 50 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of hb
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
              0
              --
              Other relevant insertions
              Transgenic Constructs ( 82 )
              For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
              Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of hb
              Allele of hb
              Mutagen
              Associated Transgenic Construct
              Stocks
              Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of hb
              characterization construct
              Name
              Expression Data
              Deletions and Duplications ( 48 )
              Summary of Phenotypes
              For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
              Lethality
              Allele
              Sterility
              Allele
              Other Phenotypes
              Allele
              Phenotype manifest in
              Allele
              Orthologs
              Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
              Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
              Species\Gene Symbol
              Score
              Best Score
              Best Reverse Score
              Alignment
              Complementation?
              Transgene?
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              No
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              No
              1 of 15
              Yes
              No
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
              Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
              Species\Gene Symbol
              Score
              Best Score
              Best Reverse Score
              Alignment
              Complementation?
              Transgene?
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              No
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              No
              1 of 15
              Yes
              No
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (14)
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              No
              1 of 13
              Yes
              No
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              No
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              No
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
              1 of 12
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 12
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 12
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 12
              Yes
              Yes
              Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
              8 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 15
              No
              No
              1 of 15
              No
              Yes
              1 of 15
              No
              No
              1 of 15
              No
              Yes
              Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
              No orthologs reported.
              Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
              1 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
              1 of 12
              Yes
              No
              1 of 12
              Yes
              No
              Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905UB )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              AAA Syntenic Ortholog
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Drosophila melanogaster
              fruit fly
              Drosophila suzukii
              Spotted wing Drosophila
              Drosophila simulans
              Drosophila sechellia
              Drosophila erecta
              Drosophila yakuba
              Drosophila ananassae
              Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
              Drosophila persimilis
              Drosophila willistoni
              Drosophila virilis
              Drosophila mojavensis
              Drosophila grimshawi
              Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150873 )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Musca domestica
              House fly
              Glossina morsitans
              Tsetse fly
              Lucilia cuprina
              Australian sheep blowfly
              Mayetiola destructor
              Hessian fly
              Aedes aegypti
              Yellow fever mosquito
              Anopheles gambiae
              Malaria mosquito
              Culex quinquefasciatus
              Southern house mosquito
              Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08R6 )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Bombyx mori
              Silkmoth
              Danaus plexippus
              Monarch butterfly
              Heliconius melpomene
              Postman butterfly
              Apis florea
              Little honeybee
              Apis mellifera
              Western honey bee
              Bombus impatiens
              Common eastern bumble bee
              Bombus terrestris
              Buff-tailed bumblebee
              Bombus terrestris
              Buff-tailed bumblebee
              Linepithema humile
              Argentine ant
              Megachile rotundata
              Alfalfa leafcutting bee
              Nasonia vitripennis
              Parasitic wasp
              Tribolium castaneum
              Red flour beetle
              Pediculus humanus
              Human body louse
              Rhodnius prolixus
              Kissing bug
              Cimex lectularius
              Bed bug
              Acyrthosiphon pisum
              Pea aphid
              Zootermopsis nevadensis
              Nevada dampwood termite
              Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08MW )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Strigamia maritima
              European centipede
              Ixodes scapularis
              Black-legged tick
              Stegodyphus mimosarum
              African social velvet spider
              Stegodyphus mimosarum
              African social velvet spider
              Stegodyphus mimosarum
              African social velvet spider
              Stegodyphus mimosarum
              African social velvet spider
              Tetranychus urticae
              Two-spotted spider mite
              Daphnia pulex
              Water flea
              Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0DHN )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
              Purple sea urchin
              Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
              Purple sea urchin
              Human Disease Model Data
              FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                Download
                Models ( 0 )
                Allele
                Disease
                Evidence
                References
                Interactions ( 0 )
                Allele
                Disease
                Interaction
                References
                Comments ( 0 )
                 
                Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                Homo sapiens (Human)
                Gene name
                Score
                OMIM
                OMIM Phenotype
                Complementation?
                Transgene?
                Functional Complementation Data
                Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                Interactions
                Summary of Physical Interactions
                esyN Network Diagram
                Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
                Select Layout:
                Legend:
                Protein
                RNA
                Selected Interactor(s)
                Interactions Browser

                Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                RNA-protein
                Interacting group
                Assay
                References
                protein-protein
                Interacting group
                Assay
                References
                Summary of Genetic Interactions
                esyN Network Diagram
                esyN Network Key:
                Suppression
                Enhancement

                Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                Starting gene(s)
                Interaction type
                Interacting gene(s)
                Reference
                suppressible
                Starting gene(s)
                Interaction type
                Interacting gene(s)
                Reference
                suppressible
                External Data
                Linkouts
                BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                Pathways
                Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
                External Data
                Linkouts
                SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
                Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                Chromosome (arm)
                3R
                Recombination map
                3-48
                Cytogenetic map
                Sequence location
                3R:8,690,980..8,697,822 [-]
                FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                Cytogenetic map
                Evidence for location
                85A5-85A5
                Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L4740L4740 and P{EP}D1EP473
                Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                Cytogenetic map
                Notes
                References
                85A3-85B1
                (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                85A1-85B1
                (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                85A-85B
                (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                85A3-85A3
                (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                Left of (cM)
                Right of (cM)
                Notes
                3-48.3
                Stocks and Reagents
                Stocks (33)
                Genomic Clones (16)
                 
                cDNA Clones (41)
                 

                Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                cDNA clones, fully sequences
                BDGP DGC clones
                Other clones
                  Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                  For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                  cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                  BDGP DGC clones
                  RNAi and Array Information
                  Linkouts
                  DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                  GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                  Antibody Information
                  Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                  Commercially Available Antibodies
                   
                  Other Information
                  Relationship to Other Genes
                  Source for database identify of
                  Source for identity of: hb CG9786
                  Source for database merge of
                  Source for merge of: Rg-pbx hb
                  Additional comments
                  Other Comments
                  DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for hb protein in 2-3 hr embryos; see BDTNP1_TFBS_hb collection report.
                  Maintenance of hb expression within the ganglion mother cells is mediated by pros.
                  The bcd protein gradient shows high embryo-to-embryo variability and is not correlated with egg length. In contrast, the hb mRNA and protein profile shows extreme reproducibility from embryo to embryo, and shows a strong correlation with egg length.
                  hb is required for the specification of early sublineage of neuroblast 7-3.
                  The poly(A) tail is not required for regulation of hb maternal translation.
                  hb and Kr control early born temporal identity in neuroblast cell lineages.
                  Individual phases of hb transcription, which overlap temporally and spatially, contribute specific patterning functions in early embryogenesis.
                  Persistence of hb protein in the terminal region of the blastoderm embryo impairs anterior development.
                  hb is able to specify thoracic segments in the absence of bcd.
                  The nos gene product forms a ternary complex with the RNA-binding domain of pum and the hb NRE (nos response element).
                  The embryonic CNS contains sequentially generated neuroblast sublineages that can be distinguished by their expression of either hb, nub or cas. hb and cas may directly silence nub expression in early and late developing sublineages, given that nub cis-regulatory DNA contains approximately 32 hb/cas-binding sites and its enhancer(s) are ectopically activated in cas- neuroblasts. Targeted misexpression of cas in all neuronal lineages reduces nub expression without altering hb expression. By ensuring correct POU gene expression boundaries hb and cas maintain temporal subdivisions in the cell-identity circuitry controlling CNS development.
                  Mutants are isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis: mutants exhibit gap pattern defects.
                  Quantifying rates of protein sequence divergence within and between species reveals that the Drosophila genome harbors a substantial proportion of genes with a very high divergence rate.
                  A study of the mechanisms of nos-mediated translational repression indicates that nos and pum determine posterior morphology by promoting the deadenylation of maternal hb mRNA, thereby repressing its translation.
                  Gene product is known to regulate Kr CD (cis acting control element) expression.
                  A 1.4kb region of hb upstream sequence has been identified and characterised and found to be both necessary and sufficient for the normal expression and function of the gene in the posterior blastoderm stage embryo.
                  nos response elements (NRE) in the hb mRNA mediate nos repression of hb maternal transcript translation. pum protein is an NRE binding factor, pum recognises the NRE and recruits nos, the resulting complex is thought to inhibit some component of the translation machinery.
                  Ubx fragments that bind hb protein in vitro contain parasegmental enhancers active in the embryo in specific parasegmental patterns.
                  Transcription factors hb and kni can associate with Kr in vitro and they interact functionally with Kr-dependent target gene expression mediated by a single Kr-binding site close to an heterologous promoter in Schneider cells.
                  The products of the Taf4 and Taf6 loci serve as coactivators to mediate transcriptional activation by the bcd and hb enhancer binding proteins. A quadruple complex containing Tbp, Taf1, Taf4 and Taf6 mediates transcriptional synergism by bcd and hb, whereas triple Tbp-Taf complexes lacking one or other coactivator failed to support synergistic activation. The concerted action of multiple regulators with different coactivators helps to establish the pattern and level of segmentation gene transcription during development.
                  The abdominal cad domain is under the control of the hb gradient. It is activated at low concentrations of hb and repressed at high concentrations.
                  Translation of hb mRNA can be interfered by a protein complex of pum and nos gene products that bind to the nanos response element (NRE) in the 3' untranslated region of hb.
                  The first and second finger domains of hb are separable and the region between the domains (the D box) is specifically involved in the regulation of a subset of genes.
                  hb is responsible for the posterior boundary of h stripe 6.
                  Enhancer elements of hb and Dvir\hb include highly conserved sequence blocks. The regulatory and coding regions of Dvir\hb are fully functional in D.melanogaster and are regulated very much like the endogenous hb gene.
                  hb transcripts accumulate to high levels in the nurse cells of the adult ovary. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs define a minimal genomic fragment of 1.2kb that is enough to confer a hb expression pattern.
                  Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.
                  E(z) is required to maintain the expression domain of kni and gt initiated by the maternal hb gradient. A small region of the kni promoter mediates regulation by E(z) and hb.
                  hb is autonomously capable of activating the target gene Kr at low concentrations and repressing it at high concentrations. An artificially created hb gradient can organize a large part of the segment pattern, although it is expressed at a different position and in a different shape than the wild type pattern of hb.
                  hb is required for bcd to execute all its functions. The combined activity of bcd and hb, rather than bcd alone, form the morphogenetic gradient that specifies polarity along the embryonic axis and patterns the embryo.
                  Ectopic ttk expression has no effect on expression of Kr and hb.
                  Expression of hb has been used as a marker for a subset of neuroblasts in study of requirement for wg gene product for neuroblast specification and formation in the CNS.
                  Expression of prd depends on activation by gap gene hb, Kr, kni and gt products. Primary pair rule gene products act primarily in subsequent modulation rather than activation of prd stripes. Factors activating prd expression in the pair rule mode interact with those activating it along the dorso-ventral axis.
                  The role of hb in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.
                  The BRE region of Ubx includes binding sites for hb, ftz, tll, en and twi. The binding of their products and the interplay between them is responsible for generating the expression pattern directed by the BRE.
                  Translation of hb affected similarly by pumilio product and nos product.
                  Embryos with nanos artificially localised anteriorly show suppressed maternal hb expression, leading to the production of a second abdomen, acting through the gap genes.
                  hb binding sites in Ubx promoter region function to suppress ectopic ftz-mediated activation outside Ubx expression domain.
                  In csw- embryos hb remains as a posterior cap and the seventh ftz stripe expands posteriorly, both due to lack of hkb repressing activity.
                  The gene products of bcd, hb, Kr and gt all bind within the 480bp region that is necessary and sufficient for the expression of eve stripe 2. Activation depends on cooperative interactions between hb and bcd.
                  Sequence alignments of orthologous fragments of hb, Kr and sna from a variety of arthropods and other phyla show that amino acid differences are not normally correlated with evolutionary distance between respective species. Amino acids directly involved in DNA binding are the most conserved, and binding specificity of a hb finger from different species is not changed.
                  hb controls thoracic and abdominal segmentation by acting as a classical gradient morphogen.
                  hb does not mediate the activating effect of bcd on gt anterior expression as shown by the slight anterior shift of stripe 3 in hb mutant embryos.
                  Expression from the Ecol\lacZ-Kr730 Kr-promoter fusion construct was monitored in hb- embryos to ensure the target site for hb mediated Kr expression had not been lost.
                  hb has a slight repressive effect on gt expression in the posterior of the embryo.
                  Mutations in zygotic cardinal gene hb do not interact with RpII140wimp.
                  hb protein directly regulates the expression of eve stripe 2 expression by DNA binding to the stripe 2 promoter element.
                  Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
                  The 145 bp region carrying the hb1 and hb2 nos response elements (NRE) is essential for cis-acting nos mediated hb repression. The sensitivity of maternal hb mRNA to regulation by nos depends on the number and quality of the NREs in the transcript: two copies confers greater sensitivity than one. The degree of regulation mediated by the NREs depends on the level of nos.
                  Protein DNA interaction studies suggest that hb protein directly binds to the PBX control region of Ubx and acts as a repressor to specify the boundary positions of the PBX pattern.
                  hb is a concentration-dependent activator of transcription.
                  The effect of hkb, fkh and tll on hb expression has been studied.
                  hb mutants exhibit a deletion in the head and thorax.
                  The effect of hb protein concentration on the expression of kni and Kr in the embryo has been studied.
                  Characterisation of the crude RNA polymerase II transcription system using transcription initiation of the hb promoter.
                  bcd protein binds to five sites upstream of the transcription start site of the zygotic gape gene hb. Three of these sites are necessary and sufficient for the activation of zygotic hb expression.
                  An investigation of the role of gap genes in expression from Ubx and Antp promoters in the blastoderm embryo reveals that a unique combination of gap genes and pair rule genes is required for their initial activation.
                  Mutations in hb alter gt expression in the posterior of the embryo.
                  The on/off periodicity of the pair-rule gene eve involves the interaction of the hb and Kr proteins with defined eve promoter elements.
                  Ecol\lacZ reporter gene has been used to define cis-acting regulatory sequences of hb. A 123bp core region is both necessary and sufficient for activation, this may depend on component elements, one of which can substitute the other when present in multiple copies. These elements respond only where the levels of bcd gene product exceed threshold levels. The elements can mediate bcd-dependent gene activation in a yeast heterologous system.
                  Comparison of hb RNA and protein expression reveals that maternally derived hb RNA is translationally regulated in the preblastoderm embryo.
                  The evolutionary divergence of both the primary DNA sequence and the spatial expression pattern of Dvir\hb and D.melanogaster hb has been investigated.
                  Genetic analysis demonstrates that the effect of the gap gene product hb on homeotic gene expression in the visceral mesoderm is indirect and mediated by the genes that establish parasegment borders, eve and ftz.
                  hb expression has been studied in wild-type and fkh6 embryos.
                  Northern analysis demonstrates that hb encodes at least five overlapping transcripts divisible into two classes based on structure and time of expression.
                  hb gene activity is involved in the establishment of the Antp parasegment 4 domain.
                  Mutant embryos exhibit normal Dfd expression.
                  hb was involved in a complementation analysis of the 85A region.
                  Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have been used to investigate the hb cis-regulatory region and therefore the regulation of the hb transcripts. The 3.2kb transcript is required for the correct formation of abdominal segments 7 and 8 and the second thoracic segment. Anterior activation of the 2.9kb transcript is essential for gap gene function of hb.
                  Involved in functions related to that of tll.
                  Analysis of embryos mutant for the maternal genes affecting the anterior-posterior segmentation pattern shows that the formation of the early hb gradient is controlled by the osk group of genes, whereas activation of the zygotic anterior expression domain is dependent on bcd activity.
                  Developmental studies of hb mutants suggest that the hb gene product is required during early development at the onset of gastrulation.
                  hb gene product has been isolated, structural features, spatial and temporal expression patterns determined. Results are compared to equivalent features of the Kr gene product.
                  hb behaves genetically as an antagonist of Pc, their mutant combinations lead to the ectopic expression of genes from the BXC and ANTC. Insufficiency of Pc products can be corrected by insufficiency of hb products or be exaggerated by the excess of the same products.
                  hb mutants display deletion of gnathal and thoracic segments.
                  Homozygotes for null alleles of hb (class I alleles of Lehmann and Nusslein-Volhard, 1987) are embryonic lethals of the gap type. Gastrulation abnormal; no cephalic fold; cell death evident at 6 hr later becoming extensive, predominantly in the neuroectoderm; germ band extension curtailed at 50% of embryonic length. After germ band shortening embryos lack thoracic and labial segments; cephalopharyngeal skeleton present but poorly formed; head involution fails. Seventh and eighth abdominal segments fused by the deletion of parasegment 13; A1 segment 1.5 times normal width, with eight to ten deranged denticle rows compared to the normal number of four, and a widened region of naked cuticle. Filzkorper material reduced; posterior spiracles fail to evert. Three ventral ganglia absent; gap appears between suboesophogeal region of ventral nerve cord and more posterior trunk ganglia. Extreme mutants display a reduced number of stripes of ftz expression at cellular blastoderm; the first stripe is widened and followed by a narrowed gap of nonexpression preceding the second stripe; the last pair of stripes are fused (Carroll and Scott, 1986). Hypomorphic alleles display variably less severe disruption depending on allele (hbDrv6 = hbb2 = hbe21 > hbb7 > hbDrv9), the least severe, hbDrv9 lacking only T2. Class II alleles (Lehmann and Nusslein-Volhard) resemble the null alleles except that some or all of the prothorax and A7 are retained. The class III allele retains the labial segment as well. Class IV alleles lack only the mesothoracic segment. Class V mutants exhibit segment transformations as well as gaps and are described separately in the allele records. Temperature sensitive period of hbts1 during first four hr of development. hb/+ offspring produced from homozygous oogenic clones develop normally; homozygous embryos resulting from such clones display enhanced zygotic phenotype; gnathal, thoracic and the first three abdominal segments replaced by two or three segments of abdominal identity in mirror image relation to the more posterior abdominal segments; weak alleles without maternal effect; extra doses of hb+ in female without effect on phenotype of hb offspring. The anterior zone of hb expression extended posteriorly by six additional cells in the absence of Kr+; conversely the zone of Kr expression expanded anteriorly by six to eight cells in hb mutants; posterior zone appears insensitive to Kr constitution (Jackle, Tautz, Schuh, Seifert and Lehmann, 1986). hb+ appears to set the boundaries of Ubx expression (White and Lehmann, 1986); zone of Ubx expression expanded in both anterior and posterior directions in hb mutant embryos at the stage of full germ band elongation; segmental disposition of expression characteristically deranged prior to the advent of cell death. Although Ubx expression in the ventral nerve chord at the stage of fully shortened germ band extends from parasegments 5-13, Ubx protein detected in parasegments 1, 7-12 and 14 in hb12, 3 and 7-14 in hb1 and head to parasegment 1 plus parasegments 7-12 and 14 in hb7 (White and Lehmann). Phenotypic effects of ftz and hb in double mutants additive in thorax and anterior abdomen, but more severe than expected in head and posterior regions.
                  Origin and Etymology
                  Discoverer
                  Etymology
                  Identification
                  External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 41 )
                  Crossreferences
                  NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                  GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                  GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                  RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                  UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                  Other crossreferences
                  BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
                  InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
                  Linkouts
                  BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                  Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                  DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                  Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                  FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                  FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
                  Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
                  Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
                  FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                  GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                  iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                  Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                  InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                  KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                  modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
                  SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
                  Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
                  Reported As
                  Symbol Synonym
                  Hb
                  (Anreiter and Sokolowski, 2018, Basu et al., 2018, Doe, 2017, Reichert, 2017, Altenhein et al., 2016, Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Vincent et al., 2016, Yasugi and Nishimura, 2016, Briscoe and Small, 2015, Gula and Samsonov, 2015, Naval-Sánchez et al., 2015, Krotov et al., 2014, Mannervik, 2014, Marjoram et al., 2014, Martinez et al., 2014, Kim et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Morozov and Ioshikhes, 2013, Umulis and Othmer, 2013, Crombach et al., 2012, Hardway, 2012, Homem and Knoblich, 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Oyallon et al., 2012, Tamari and Barkai, 2012, Benito-Sipos et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Helman et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Papatsenko and Levine, 2011, Struffi et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Bauer et al., 2010, Guenin et al., 2010, He et al., 2010, He et al., 2010, He et al., 2010, Kitajima et al., 2010, Mace et al., 2010, Morton de Lachapelle and Bergmann, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Lucchetta et al., 2009, Papatsenko et al., 2009, Crocker and Erives, 2008, Hardway et al., 2008, He et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Noyes et al., 2008, Papatsenko and Levine, 2008, Rogulja-Ortmann et al., 2008, Tkacik et al., 2008, Wheeler et al., 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Bergmann et al., 2007, Gregor et al., 2007, Haecker et al., 2007, Jansen et al., 2007, Lee and Lundell, 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Orian et al., 2007, Song et al., 2007, Tran and Doe, 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Grosskortenhaus et al., 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, Krause et al., 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Yu and Small, 2006, Fichelson et al., 2005, Karcavich and Doe, 2005, Ma, 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Skeath and Thor, 2003, Hou et al., 2002, Isshiki et al., 2001, Chang et al., 2000)
                  R-pbx
                  hb
                  (Haines and Eisen, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Amourda and Saunders, 2017, Barr et al., 2017, Bentovim et al., 2017, Chertkova et al., 2017, Fradin, 2017, Fukaya et al., 2017, Goyal et al., 2017, Gursky et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Mir et al., 2017, Samee et al., 2017, Hoermann et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Spirov et al., 2016, Bothma et al., 2015, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Fiedler et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Laver et al., 2015, Liu and Ma, 2015, Loedige et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Tikhonov et al., 2015, Tkačik et al., 2015, Villaverde et al., 2015, Cheung et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Palsson et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Zagrijchuk et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Combs and Eisen, 2013, Garcia et al., 2013, Joly et al., 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Knowles and Biggin, 2013, Kohwi et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Little et al., 2013, Liu and Ma, 2013, Liu and Ma, 2013, Lucas et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Samee and Sinha, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Spirov and Holloway, 2013, Sung et al., 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Aswani et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, Hirono et al., 2012, Hou et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kao et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Kozlov et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, McDermott et al., 2012, Miles et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Perry et al., 2012, Sokolowski et al., 2012, Touma et al., 2012, Wunderlich et al., 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Davis et al., 2011, Fowlkes et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, He et al., 2011, Holloway et al., 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Kohwi et al., 2011, Kuzin et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Liu and Ma, 2011, Myasnikova et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Vorwald-Denholtz and De Robertis, 2011, Wilson and Dearden, 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Aswani et al., 2010, Dilão and Muraro, 2010, Dilão and Muraro, 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Li and Arnosti, 2010, Losada-Pérez et al., 2010, Meyer et al., 2010, Nakajima et al., 2010, Parry et al., 2010, Porcher et al., 2010, Tran et al., 2010, Ashyraliyev et al., 2009, Bartkuhn et al., 2009, Butler et al., 2009, Chen and Condron, 2009, Erdmann et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, He et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Marco et al., 2009, Moses, 2009, Myasnikova et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Okabe-Oho et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Saunders and Howard, 2009, Schuettengruber et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Weber et al., 2009, Ashyraliyev et al., 2008, Bergmann et al., 2008, Bialek et al., 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Chen and Condron, 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Fowlkes et al., 2008, Gavis et al., 2008, Hare et al., 2008, Holloway et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Kwong et al., 2008, Lopes et al., 2008, Lopes et al., 2008, McDermott and Kliman, 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Tran and Doe, 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Astigarraga et al., 2007, Bonds et al., 2007, De Renzis et al., 2007, Kadyrova et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Lopes et al., 2007, Marques-Souza et al., 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Aguilar-Fuentes et al., 2006, Azevedo et al., 2006, Bartolome and Charlesworth, 2006, Cho et al., 2006, Choksi et al., 2006, Gresens and Cook, 2006.8.29, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Janssens et al., 2006, Keranen et al., 2006, Luengo Hendriks et al., 2006, McGregor, 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Schulz et al., 2006, Wheeler et al., 2006, Yucel and Small, 2006, Cho et al., 2005, Delanoue and Davis, 2005, Fu and Ma, 2005, Grosskortenhaus et al., 2005, Kanai et al., 2005, Lopes et al., 2005, Merabet et al., 2005, Odenwald, 2005, Peel et al., 2005, Van De Bor et al., 2005, Wawersik and Van, 2005, Grad et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Clyde et al., 2003, Fu et al., 2003, Noor and Kliman, 2003, Spirov and Holloway, 2003, Zeremski et al., 2003, Shaw et al., 2002, Wolf et al., 2002, Durando et al., 2000)
                  l(3)85Ah
                  Name Synonyms
                  Regulator-of-postbithorax
                  hunchback
                  (Wang et al., 2018, Auman and Chipman, 2017, Bentovim et al., 2017, Desponds et al., 2016, Ferraro et al., 2016, Signor et al., 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Bothma et al., 2015, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Liu and Ma, 2015, Peng et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Cheung et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Lucas et al., 2013, McDermott and Davis, 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Rödel et al., 2013, Shen et al., 2013, Spirov and Holloway, 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Crombach et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Hirono et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Perry et al., 2012, Vazquez-Pianzola and Suter, 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Bieler et al., 2011, Davis et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, He et al., 2011, Holloway et al., 2011, Liu and Ma, 2011, Ogawa and Miyake, 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Roth, 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Vorwald-Denholtz and De Robertis, 2011, Wilson and Dearden, 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Li and Arnosti, 2010, Mace et al., 2010, Porcher et al., 2010, Butler et al., 2009, Gupta et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Myasnikova et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Weber et al., 2009, Zamparo and Perkins, 2009, Bergmann et al., 2008, Bialek et al., 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Emberly, 2008, Gavis et al., 2008, Holloway et al., 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Lemke et al., 2008, Lopes et al., 2008, Martinek et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Tkacik et al., 2008, Wu and Xie, 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Yu et al., 2008, Astigarraga et al., 2007, Bonds et al., 2007, Haecker et al., 2007, Kadyrova et al., 2007, Lee and Lundell, 2007, Lohr et al., 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Zinzen and Papatsenko, 2007, Aguilar-Fuentes et al., 2006, Cho et al., 2006, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Keranen et al., 2006, McGregor, 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Schulz et al., 2006, Veitia, 2006, Yucel and Small, 2006, Chan et al., 2005, Gregor et al., 2005, King-Jones and Thummel, 2005, Lopes et al., 2005, Merabet et al., 2005, Wawersik and Van, 2005, Kreiman, 2004, Menon et al., 2004, Riede, 2004, Zeremski et al., 2003, Wilkie et al., 2001, Durando et al., 2000, Edwards et al., 2000, Tautz, 1987.5.14)
                  Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  • FBgn0015224
                  Datasets (2)
                  Study focus (2)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project
                  Project Type
                  Title
                  • bait_protein
                  ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
                  • bait_protein
                  Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
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