Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\His1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Histone H1
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001195
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Also Known As

H1, histone, dH1, HisC

Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the histone H1/H5 family. (P02255)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structures.
(UniProt, P02255)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Chromatin component - linker histone - stabilize a higher order 30 nm diameter chromatin fiber that is fundamental to the structural organization of chromosomes

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
0
Number of Unique Polypeptides
0
Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

 

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated in oocytes during prophase I of meiosis.

(UniProt, P02255)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\His1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (7 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005818, InterPro:IPR005819
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005818, InterPro:IPR005819
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005818, InterPro:IPR005819
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005818
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\His1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 0 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of His1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of His1
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    Recombination map

    2-55

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    39D3-39E1
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0029738) Right limit from molecular mapping relative to His2A (FBrf0044950)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    39D-39E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    39D3-39E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-55

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (0)
     
      cDNA Clones (0)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            BDGP DGC clones
              Other clones
                RNAi and Array Information
                Linkouts
                Antibody Information
                Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                Commercially Available Antibodies
                 
                Other Information
                Relationship to Other Genes
                Other Comments

                DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for His1 protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).

                dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene was transfected onto wild-type Kc cells to determine whether the presence of His1 is essential for the association of ribosomal proteins on chromatin. Using this method, His1 is considered essential for the association of ribosomal proteins with chromatin.

                His1 is misexpressed in the PNS of da mutant embryos.

                Chromatin in a cell free chromatin assembly system derived from embryos contains an activity that hydrolyses ATP to render entire nucleosome arrays mobile even in the absence of ATP, and even in the presence of histone H1.

                Efficient repression of transcription by polymerase II in this system does not require the presence of His1.

                The distribution of His1 protein on the 'Alu-repeat' DNA in the non-transcribed spacer of the ribosomal repeat (bb) and on 1.688-g/cm3 satDNA has been mapped.

                polo gene product immunoprecipitated from single Drosophila embryos can phosphorylate casein in vitro, and the kinase activity peaks cyclically at late anaphase/telophase. This contrasts with the cycling of CycB associated p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase, which is maximal upon entry into mitosis during the rapid syncitial mitoses.

                The codon bias of the histone genes from D.melanogaster and D.hydei illustrates that the generalisation that abundantly expressed genes have a high codon bias and low rates of silent substitution does not hold for the histone genes.

                The position of the homologous histone gene repeats within the nuclei of early embryo cells has been investigated. The two homologous histone gene clusters are distinct and separate through all stages of the cell cycle up to nuclear cycle 13. During interphase of cycle 14, the two clusters colocalise with high frequency, and move from near the midline of the nucleus towards the apical side.

                Scaffold attachment region sequences are implicated in the regional opening or closing of chromatin, possibly through their ability to serve as regulators for the His1-induced condensation of chromatin.

                In vivo UV cross-linking and nuclear run-on assays shows that RNA polymerase II density on the Hsp70Bb gene is rapidly repressed by heat shock.

                DNA replication of the 5kb histone gene repeating unit in tissue culture cells (Drosophila Kc cells) initiates at multiple sites located within the repeating unit. Several replication pause sites are located at 5' upstream regions of some histone genes.

                Nascent chain nuclear run-on assays in KC161 cells reveal different responses to heat shock for different genes. Transcription of His1 is severely inhibited under mild heat shocks, of Act5C decreases proportionally with increasing temperature while that of the core histone genes or the heat shock cognates is repressed only under extreme heat shock. Increased transcription of the heat shock genes is observed within 1-2 mins of heat shock and maximal rates were reached within 2-5 minutes. Rates of transcription vary over a 20-fold range.

                DNaseI footprinting analysis reveals that histone His1, unlike His2A, His2B, His3 and His4, fails to bind to the kni, Kr and Ubx minimal enhancer elements.

                Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.

                His1 is a general repressor of transcription.

                The genomic organisation of the histone genes in D.hydei closely resembles that of D.melanogaster.

                The expression of HIS-C genes, including His1, during oogenesis has been studied, and compared to periods of DNA synthesis and actin expression during this developmental stage.

                4.8kb and 5.0kb repeats containing the histone genes His1, His2A, His2B, His3 and His4 are present in all of the more than 20 D.melanogaster strains studied. The strains differ in the relative amounts of the two repeat types, with the 5.0kb repeat always present in equal or greater amounts than the 4.8kb repeat. The strains also differ in a number of far less abundant fragments containing histone gene sequences.

                Encodes Histone-H1. See HIS-C record. H1 associates with DNA between nucleosomes. The ratio of H1 to nucleosome core histones is higher in the salivary glands of larvae than in the cells of young embryos (Holmgren, Johansson, Lambertsson, and Rasmusson, 1985). The expression of the histone genes changes in mid-embryogenesis (Ambrosio and Schedl, 1985; Ruddell and Jacobs-Lorena, 1985). The egg chambers contain a variable and low level of mRNA during nurse cell polytenization; however, at the end of stage 10, all the nurse cells accumulate histone mRNA which is turned over to the growing oocytes as the nurse cells degenerate. Heterozygosity for full or partial deficiency of the histone genes suppresses variegation (BSV, Sbv, wm4); duplications without effect on level of variegation (Moore, Sinclair and Grigliatti, 1983). Transcription not repressed by heat shock (Spradling, Pardue and Penman, 1977).

                Origin and Etymology
                Discoverer
                Etymology
                Identification
                External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 22 )
                Sequence Crossreferences
                GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                Linkouts
                FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
                Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
                Reported As
                Symbol Synonym
                H1
                (Gervais et al., 2019, Baldi et al., 2018, Bobkov et al., 2018, Hu et al., 2018, Khoroshko et al., 2018, Andreyeva et al., 2017, Khuong et al., 2017, Liu and Grosshans, 2017, Marshall and Brand, 2017, Teixeira et al., 2017, Bayona-Feliu et al., 2016, Kavi et al., 2016, Nakashima et al., 2016, Zhou et al., 2016, Horard and Loppin, 2015, Pengelly et al., 2015, Sun et al., 2015, Xu et al., 2014, Doyen et al., 2013, Guglielmi et al., 2013, Lu et al., 2013, Pérez-Montero et al., 2013, Salzler et al., 2013, Zhou et al., 2013, Fasulo et al., 2012, Hohl et al., 2012, Hou et al., 2012, Ito et al., 2012, Unhavaithaya and Orr-Weaver, 2012, Vujatovic et al., 2012, Yao et al., 2012, Demakov et al., 2011, Egelhofer et al., 2011, Gibert and Karch, 2011, Kharchenko et al., 2011, Mikhaylova and Nurminsky, 2011, Regnard et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Filion et al., 2010, modENCODE Consortium et al., 2010, Braunschweig et al., 2009, Graham et al., 2009, Kolesnikova et al., 2009, Kotova et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Shevelyov et al., 2009, Wang and Kalderon, 2009, Ohsawa et al., 2008, Villar-Garea and Imhof, 2008, Camporeale et al., 2007, Corona et al., 2007, Guillebault and Cotterill, 2007, Isogai et al., 2007, Pinnola et al., 2007, Camporeale et al., 2006, Godfrey et al., 2006, Santoso and Kadonaga, 2006, Ivanovska et al., 2005, Lusser et al., 2005, Nagoda et al., 2005, Kim et al., 2004, Pirrotta, 2004, Kakita et al., 2003, McBryant et al., 2003, Ponte et al., 2003, Andrioli et al., 2002, Conaway et al., 2002, Lanzotti et al., 2002, Yu and Wolfner, 2002, Berloco et al., 2001, Kleene, 2001, Ner et al., 2001, Wassarman and Sauer, 2001, Dilworth et al., 2000, Farkas et al., 2000, Fenger et al., 2000, Nagel and Grossbach, 2000, Pham and Sauer, 2000, Renner et al., 2000, Borgnetto et al., 1999, Chen et al., 1999, Reim et al., 1999, Belyaeva et al., 1998, Karetsou et al., 1998, Martinez-Balbas et al., 1998, Pazin et al., 1998, Schienman et al., 1998, Walker and Bownes, 1998, Hassan and Vaessin, 1997, Strausbaugh and Williams, 1996, Blank and Becker, 1995, Granok et al., 1995, Karr et al., 1995, Santiago et al., 1995, Sandaltzopoulos et al., 1994, Belikov et al., 1993, Belikov et al., 1993, Kamakaka and Kadonaga, 1993, Kas et al., 1993, O'Brien and Lis, 1993, Shinomiya and Ina, 1993, Svaren and Horz, 1993, Becker and Wu, 1992, Croston et al., 1992, Franke et al., 1992, Kas and Laemmli, 1992, Kerrigan and Kadonaga, 1992, Wagner et al., 1992, Croston et al., 1991, Harisanova and Ralchev, 1991, Harisanova et al., 1991, Shinomiya and Ina, 1991, Udvardy and Schedl, 1991, Amati and Gasser, 1990, Fitch et al., 1990, Kremer and Hennig, 1990, Hill et al., 1989, Domier et al., 1986, Ruddell and Jacobs-Lorena, 1985)
                Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  Datasets (3)
                  Study focus (3)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project
                  Project Type
                  Title
                  • transgene_used
                  Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
                  • bait_protein
                  Genome-wide localization of histones and their modifications in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
                  • bait_protein
                  Genome-wide localization of histones and their modifications in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
                  References (245)