General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Hmr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Hybrid male rescue
Annotation Symbol
CG1619
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001206
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Hybrid male rescue is required to repress transposable element and satellite DNA expression. It also has a gain-of-function phenotype of causing lethality in F1 male hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
BcDNA:LD22117
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:10,590,920..10,595,855 [-]
Recombination map
1-32
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
MADF-BESS DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION REGULATORS -
The MADF-BESS domain transcription regulators include a variety of activators and corepressors and chromatin modifying proteins. BESS domains are often present in combination with MADF domains. The BESS domain mediates protein-protein interactions. (Adapted from FBrf0155780 and FBrf0224045).
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
hmr: hybrid male rescue
Rescues D. melanogaster / simulans hybrid males that would not survive in the absence of the gene. Hybrid males that carry both hmr and a duplication (thought to be hmr+) are lethal, so the rescue is considered recessive. The hybrids are sterile. Hybrid females from the reciprocal cross show low viability. D. melanogaster / mauritania and D. melanogaster / sechellia hybrid males also rescued. The rescue of D. melanogaster / simulans and D. melanogaster / mauritania males by hmr almost complete at 18; at 25 D. melanogaster / mauritania male rescue is good, but D. melanogaster / simulans males is poor at this temperature. At 18 only one third of the D. melanogaster / sechellia males are rescued.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Hmr or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Hmr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071511
4696
1413
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071440
158.6
1413
10.08
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Hmr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016641
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Hmr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Hmr
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
    Deletions and Duplications ( 15 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
    1 of 9
    Yes
    No
    1 of 9
    Yes
    No
    1 of 9
    Yes
    No
    1 of 9
    Yes
    No
    1 of 9
    Yes
    No
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901AO )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500RJ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00K9 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      X
      Recombination map
      1-32
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      X:10,590,920..10,595,855 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      9D3-9D3
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}PPP4R2rEP307 and P{EP}rasEP1235&P{EP}rasEP1427
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      9E-9E
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Location based on the correlation between cytogenetic and meiotic map positions in the middle region of the X chromosome, and its genetic map position of 1-31.84 as reported in FBrf0047061).
      Method of mapping is unspecified.
      Hmr maps distal to the distal In(1)AB breakpoint.
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (11)
      Genomic Clones (20)
      cDNA Clones (33)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Source for merge of: Hmr BcDNA:LD22117
        Additional comments
        A Dsim\Hmr+ transgene has no phenotypic effect in D.melanogaster/D.simulans and D.melanogaster/D.mauritiana hybrids and a Dmau\Hmr+ transgene has no phenotypic effect in D.melanogaster/D.simulans and D.melanogaster/D.mauritiana hybrids, strongly supporting the conclusion that the Hmr gene has functionally diverged between the D.melanogaster and sibling-species (D.simulans and D.mauritiana) lineages, to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D.melanogaster lineage, but extensive divergence has also been found in the sibling-species lineage. Together, the findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes, as phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past - at least one million generations ago.
        It is possible that "anon-AE003451.1" should be merged with " BcDNA:LD22117 " to make a single gene.
        sesB and Ant2 do not correspond to Hmr; Hmr maps distal to both genes and neither sesB mutant alleles nor transformants carrying extra copies of sesB and Ant2 have any effect on interspecific viability.
        Source for merge of Hmr BcDNA:LD22117 was sequence comparison ( date:030514 ).
        Other Comments
        The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a heterochromatic complex with Su(var)205 in D. melanogaster. Hmr and Lhr are required to repress transcripts from satellite DNAs and many families of transposable elements. They are also required to help regulate the length of telomeres (which in Drosophila are composed of domesticated transposable elements).
        The Dsim\Lhr ortholog of Lhr does not appear to affect satellite DNA transcription in D. simulans, but it does have a role in repressing transcription of transposable elements in this species.
        Upregulation of transposable element transcription is seen in hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, but this is unlikely to be the direct cause of hybrid lethality.
        The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a centromeric complex in D. melanogaster which is required for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Both an increase and a decrease in complex levels result in mitotic defects, indicating that this function is extremely dose sensitive. Alteration of the levels of the complex also result in an increase in transcription from transposable elements.
        The orthologous D. simulans Dsim\Hmr and Dsim\Lhr proteins also bind each other in coimmunoprecipitation experiments and also localise to the centromere (although Dsim\Hmr also shows a prominent non-centromeric localisation).
        The level of Hmr expression in D melanogaster is substantially higher than the expression of the orthologous Dsim\Hmr gene in D. simulans. Conversely, the expression of the D. simulans Dsim\Lhr gene is higher than the expression of the orthologous Lhr gene in D. melanogaster. Hybrids derived from a cross between D. melanogaster females and D. simulans males thus have an elevated amount of the Hmr-Lhr protein complex compared to the parent species, and the complex is delocalised, being bound to numerous interbands along all chromosome arms in the hybrids. Hybrid males and females show a massive increase in transcription from transposable elements, but as the effect is not sex-specific, this is presumably not the the main cause of the lethality of hybrid males.
        Hmr is required for wild-type levels of viability and fertility of D.melanogaster females.
        Dsim\Lhr has functionally diverged in D.simulans and interacts with Hmr, which has functionally diverged in D.melanogaster, to cause lethality in F1 hybrid males.
        Mutations in the D.melanogaster gene Hmr, along with unidentified polymorphic factors, rescue the agametic phenotype of F1 hybrid females derived from crosses of D.melanogaster females to either D.simulans or D.mauritiana males. F1 hybrid males from these crosses are fully sterile. The F1 hybrid females produce small numbers of progeny in backcrosses to D.melanogaster males, the low fecundity being caused by incomplete rescue of oogenesis as well as zygotic lethality.
        Hmr has a role in inter-species hybrid incompatability.
        The wild-type product of Hmr is neither necessary nor sufficient for embryonic inviability in hybrids between D.melanogaster and its sibling species. Hmr does, however, appear to lower the viability of hybrid larvae. This data suggests that Hmr acts as a gain-of-function poison in hybrids.
        Mapping and characterisation of Hmr.
        Hybrid female progeny resulting from crossing D.simulans females to D.melanogaster males die as embryos. Hybrid males from the reciprocal cross die as late larvae, unless the male parent is mutant at Dsim\Lhr, or the female at Hmr. Hybrid males from D.simulans attached X females and D.melanogaster males are lethal at both embryonic and larval stages, but are rescued to viability by the Hmr mutant in the male parent and the Dsim\mhr mutant in the female parent.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 67 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (93)