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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Hsp27
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Heat shock protein 27
Annotation Symbol
CG4466
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001226
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) encodes a member of the ATP-independent, small heat shock protein family. It contributes to regulation of eye morphology, polyglutamine toxicity, lifespan and starvation tolerance. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
Hsp28, DmHsp27, Dhsp27, Hsp 27
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:9,384,063..9,385,694 [+]
Recombination map
3-29
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (P02518)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SMALL HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS -
The small Heat Shock Protein (sHSP) family is characterized by the presence of an α-crystallin domain. sHSPs play a crucial role in protein folding. Most sHSPs have the ability to prevent protein aggregation and to maintain substrate proteins in a refoldable state. (Adapted from FBrf0228040 and FBrf0231212).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Hsp22 - Hsp-G3
There are seven closely related heat-shock genes at 67B (Ayme and Tissieres, 1985; Pauli, Arrigo, Vasquez, Tonka, and Tissieres, 1989, Genome 31: 671-76). In addition to the four small heat-shock genes previously identified (Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp26, and Hsp27), three more genes (Hsp-G1, Hsp-G2, and Hsp-G3, formerly called Gene1, Gene2, and Gene3) have been found clustered within 15 kb of DNA at the same 67B cytological location. All seven genes are heat-shock inducible in almost all cells at the stages tested (Ayme and Tissieres, 1985). The genes are also transcribed during certain developmental stages in the absence of heat shock (Sirotkin and Davidson, 1982, Dev. Biol. 89: 196-210). Pauli et al (1989) report that the maximum accumulation of developmental rRNA in a majority of these small heat-shock genes occurs in the white pupae stage; in Hsp-G2, however, a small transcipt is found in embryos, first and second instar larvae, and young pupae; and a larger transcript in the pupal and adult stages of males (Pauli and Tonka, 1987, J. Mol. Biol. 198: 235-40; Pauli, Tonka, and Ayme-Southgate, 1988, J. Mol. Biol. 200: 47-53). In absence of stress, the expression of Hsp26 has been observed in spermatocytes, nurse cells, epithelium, imaginal discs, proventriculus, and neurocytes (Glaser, Wolfner, and Lis, 1986, EMBO 5: 747-54). Transcripts of Hsp26 and Hsp27 accumulate in adult ovaries, apparently originating in nurse cells (Zimmerman, Petri, and Meselson, 1983, Cell 32: 1161-70).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Hsp27 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Hsp27 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.41
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076454
1220
213
FBtr0346541
1632
213
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.25 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076182
23.6
213
7.50
FBpp0312159
23.6
213
7.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

213 aa isoforms: Hsp27-PA, Hsp27-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
213 (aa); 23.62 (kD predicted)
27.091 (kD predicted)
27 (kD observed)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Hsp27 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (11 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:lwr; FB:FBgn0010602
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence model
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | posterior

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states <=2-3 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Hsp27 transcripts are initially detected in early embryogenesis, and subsequently disappear. Hsp27 transcripts reappear starting at late third larval instar, and a second peak is observed in white prepupae.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Hsp27 protein is first detected in embryos and first larval instar. The protein is detected at very low levels in prepupae, and peaks at mid-pupal stages, when Hsp27 transcript has almost disappeared.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Hsp27 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Hsp27
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Hsp27
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
 
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (18)
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (15)
2 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FPO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150BIO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0E1I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0HK6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0USC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
7 of 10
7 of 10
7 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 7 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-29
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:9,384,063..9,385,694 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    67B3-67B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Hsp26EP3336&P{EP}Hsp26EP3315 and P{PZ}fry02240
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    67B1-67B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    67B-67B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (134)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Hsp27 anon-WO0140519.69
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of Hsp27 anon-WO0140519.69 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
      Other Comments
      Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.
      Co-immunoprecipitation with an antibody raised against lwr confirms interaction with Hsp23 and Hsp26 and preferentially with Hsp27.
      Heat shock does not appreciably affect the expression pattern of the small heat shock proteins and the same cell-specific pattern is observed after heat shock. Hsp23 and Hsp27 show cell-specific pattern of expression in the testes, the relative amount of Hsf also varies in the different cell types. Cells that do not express the proteins in the absence of stress are similarly unable to mount a heat shock response.
      In murine L929 fibrosarcoma cells the constitutive expression of Hsp27 significantly decreases the intracellular levels of ROS and therefore rendered the burst of these reactive species caused by tumour necrosis factor (TNFα) harmless. The protective mechanism (raising the intracellular concentration of glutathione) of Hsp27 differs from that mediated by Hsp70 proteins.
      The DNA between the TATA box and the heat shock elements (HSEs) is constitutively organised by a positioned nucleosome, effectively shortening the distance between the distal HSEs and the TATA box.
      Expression of Hsp27 in human L929 fibrosarcoma cells confers resistance to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and protects cells against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or menadione.
      Hsp27 RNA levels do not increase with age.
      DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS) in the 5' regions of Hsp27 and Hsp23 are mapped in salivary glands developmentally exposed to ecdysone during larval-prepupal transition. The DHSs reveal the sites that correlate with the hormonal induction of tissue-specific expression.
      Synthesis of heat shock proteins is inhibited by both short-chain fatty acids and their corresponding alcohols, compounds which have no observable effect on histone acetylation.
      Chromosome staining reveals that Trl and heat shock transcription factors (HSF) colocalises at Hsp27.
      Biochemical fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence analysis indicates that the protective function of Hsp27 is localised at the level of the nucleus.
      RNA polymerase II density on the Hsp27 gene is rapidly increased by heat shock.
      In unshocked cells Hsp83 is moderately transcribed while transcription from the other heat shock genes is undetectable. Engaged but paused RNA molecules are found at the various Hsp70 and Hsp26 genes but not at the other heat shock genes. Increased transcription of the heat shock genes is observed within 1-2 mins of heat shock and maximal rates were reached within 2-5 minutes. Rates of transcription vary over a 20-fold range.
      Sequences that regulate hormone-dependent Hsp27 expression have been studied using reporter genes.
      Exposure of cells to pulses of elevated temperature initiates the heat-shock response. A restricted subset of genes, the Hsp genes, is activated and the majority of transcription and translation is shut down. 3H-uridine incorporation ceases at its usual positions and commences at new puff sites. Preexisting polysomes disaggregate and within a few minutes a new population of polysomes appears containing newly transcribed mRNA; this RNA hybridizes to some of the heat-shock puffs. Similar response inducible by other stressful treatments. The response may be elicited at all stages of the life cycle and in cultured cells.
      Immunoblot analysis demonstrates that Hsp27 protein can confer thermal resistance in Chinese hamster O23 cells following 3.5 hours of heat treatment at 44oC.
      Response elements of Hsp27 and Hsp23 can confer hormonal regulation on a basal promoter in vivo and render transcription in vitro dependent on purified ecdysterone receptor.
      Sequences that regulate ecdysone-responsive Hsp27 expression have been studied using reporter genes.
      EcR binds as a dimer to an imperfect palindromic sequence (GGTTCAATGCACT) in the Hsp27 promoter region.
      Translation of Hsp70 mRNAs and to a lesser extent the mRNAs for the small heat shock proteins is almost independent of eIF-4E.
      Mutations at br reduce the transcription rate or stability of the small heat shock protein mRNAs.
      The binding sites for the protein factors required for activation of transcription of Hsp genes are multiple short upstream sequence elements called HSEs or heat shock consensus elements.
      Ecol\CAT transient assay in culture cells shows the ecdysone response of the Hsp27 promoter is mediated by multiple regulatory elements clustered 500bp 5' to the gene. Heat induction depends on three heat shock regulatory elements (HSE) at about position -300.
      Heat-shock inducible in almost all cells at the stages tested.
      Activation of transcription of Hsp genes apparently involves the sequential binding of two or more protein factors in vicinity of TATA box.
      Transcripts of Hsp26 and Hsp27 accumulate in adult ovaries, apparently originating in nurse cells.
      Polymerase II dissociates from most chromosome regions and accumulates at the new heat shock puff sites upon heat shock.
      Hsp27 is transcribed during certain developmental stages in the absence of heat shock.
      The effects of heat shock may be abrogated to some degree by pretreatment with a pulse of a slightly lower temperature.
      Mitochondrial and histone-gene activities persist transcription and translation.
      In polytene cells, during heat shock response, existing puffs regress and a novel group quickly appear at 33B, 63C, 64F, 67B, 70A, 87A, 87C, 93D, 95D.
      The heat shock response follows a pulse of 36oC to 40oC; treatments above 40oC inhibit all activity and lead to death; treatments of 30oC-35oC induce heat-shock-protein synthesis without repressing normal protein synthesis.
      In polytene cells, during heat shock response, existing puffs regress and a novel group quickly appear at cytological locations 33B, 63C, 64F, 67B, 70A, 87A, 87C, 93D, 95D.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 60 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (28)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Dmel23.6
      Hsp27
      (Erwin and Blumenstiel, 2019, Kockel et al., 2019, Rivera et al., 2019, Singh and Tapadia, 2019, Hemphill et al., 2018, Kennerdell et al., 2018, Lei et al., 2017, Wu et al., 2017, Yang and Veraksa, 2017, Donovan and Marr, 2016, Fabre et al., 2016, Gajan et al., 2016, Maistrenko et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2015, Hull et al., 2015, Kang et al., 2015, Štětina et al., 2015, Van Bortle et al., 2015, Xie et al., 2015, Faisal et al., 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Marr et al., 2014, Mulakkal et al., 2014, Shlyueva et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Kwon et al., 2013, Lavagnino et al., 2013, Stefanatos et al., 2013, Telonis-Scott et al., 2013, Chauhan et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Eleftherianos and Castillo, 2012, Fredriksson et al., 2012, Habermann et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kellner et al., 2012, Stern et al., 2012, Franco et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Handler et al., 2011, Ren et al., 2011, Rosenbaum et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Bina et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Colinet et al., 2010, Kallappagoudar et al., 2010, Kong et al., 2010, Mosqueira et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Tian et al., 2010, Bernardo et al., 2009, Takemori and Yamamoto, 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Bettencourt et al., 2008, Blanco et al., 2008, Fisher et al., 2008, Hanyu-Nakamura et al., 2008, Hoopfer et al., 2008, Liu and Lehmann, 2008, Mensch et al., 2008, Michaud et al., 2008, Xi et al., 2008, Ahrens et al., 2007, Muse et al., 2007, Muse et al., 2007, Pal et al., 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Baird et al., 2006, Neal et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Walser et al., 2006, Birch-Machin et al., 2005, Lundgren et al., 2005, Geiger-Thornsberry and Mackay, 2004, Loop et al., 2004, Gim et al., 2001)
      anon-WO0140519.69
      hsp27
      (Geronikolou et al., 2018, Sharma et al., 2018, Jevtov et al., 2015, Bernardo et al., 2014, Blanchard et al., 2014, Pandey et al., 2014, Brianti et al., 2013, Soh et al., 2013, Pakula et al., 2012, Zoglowek et al., 2012, He et al., 2011, Johnston et al., 2011, Kugler et al., 2011, Sala et al., 2011, Schauer et al., 2011, Tower, 2011, Frydenberg et al., 2010, Krusiński et al., 2010, Beatty et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2008, Liao et al., 2008, Sudi et al., 2008, Hao et al., 2007, Dobryszycki et al., 2006, Tsuda et al., 2006, Kurapati et al., 2004, Poels et al., 2004, Sawatsubashi et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Ringrose et al., 2003, Rymarczyk et al., 2003, Chen et al., 2002, Seo et al., 2002, Wang and Benzer, 2002, Burns et al., 2001, Grad et al., 2001, Mouillet et al., 2001, Fivaz et al., 2000, Henrich et al., 2000, Jiang et al., 2000, Kurapati et al., 2000, Niedziela-Majka et al., 2000, King and Tower, 1999, Lezzi et al., 1999, Perera et al., 1999, Crispi et al., 1998, Niedziela-Majka et al., 1998, Rorth et al., 1998, Wang et al., 1998, Elke et al., 1997, Lehmann et al., 1997, Otsuka et al., 1997, Strutt et al., 1997, Wilkins and Lis, 1997, Huet et al., 1996, Mehlen et al., 1996, Mikitani, 1996.9.4, Quivy and Becker, 1996, Shopland and Lis, 1996, Antoniewski et al., 1995, Fernandes et al., 1995, Mikitani, 1995, Rasmussen and Lis, 1995, Wheeler et al., 1995, Champlin and Lis, 1994, Dubrovsky et al., 1994, Jindra, 1994, Quivy and Becker, 1994, Southgate, 1994.2.17, Antoniewski et al., 1993, Ayme-Southgate, 1993.2.23, Cherbas, 1993, Heikkila, 1993, Mehlen et al., 1993, O'Brien and Lis, 1993, Vazquez et al., 1993, Andres and Thummel, 1992, Berger et al., 1992, Pauli et al., 1992, Amin et al., 1991, Cherbas et al., 1991, Dobens et al., 1991, Koelle et al., 1991, Luo et al., 1991, Ozyhar et al., 1991, Vazquez, 1991, Zapata et al., 1991, Berger and Dobens, 1990, Galceran et al., 1990, Haass et al., 1990, Maschat et al., 1990, Ornelles and Penman, 1990, Pauli et al., 1990, Thummel, 1990, Pauli et al., 1989, Pauli et al., 1988, Pauli and Tonka, 1987, Ayme-Southgate and Tissieres, 1985, Southgate et al., 1983, Ingolia and Craig, 1981)
      small hsp locus 67B
      Name Synonyms
      Heat shock protein 237
      heat shock protein 27
      heat shock protein hsp27
      heatshock protein 27
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010232
      • FBgn0044559
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (335)