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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\hth
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
homothorax
Annotation Symbol
CG17117
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001235
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
homothorax (hth) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that allows the nuclear import of the protein encoded by exd by direct binding. The complex hth-exd are Hox cofactors but also have additional Hox-independent functions such as in antennal development, proximal appendages patterning, and cell division promotion of the undifferentiated eye field. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

dorsotonals, dtl, P53, anon- EST:Liang-2.13

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:10,507,561..10,639,568 [-]
Recombination map

3-50

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:10507561..10639568
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (42 terms)
Molecular Function (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P40427
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:exd; FB:FBgn0000611
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932623
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000219731
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000219731
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (27 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (21 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:L; FB:FBgn0267825
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932623
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000219735
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932623
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932623
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932623
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932623
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000219731
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000219731
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the TALE/MEIS homeobox family. (O46339)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
TALE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
TALE homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These proteins are characterized by an atypical homeodomain that possesses a three amino acid insertion in the first loop. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:18797923).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
All isoforms are required for patterning of the embryonic cuticle. Acts with exd to delimit the eye field and prevent inappropriate eye development. Isoforms that carry the homeodomain are required for proper localization of chordotonal organs within the peripheral nervous system and antennal identity; required to activate antennal-specific genes, such as sal and to repress the leg-like expression of dac. Necessary for the nuclear localization of the essential HOX cofactor, extradenticle (exd). Both necessary and sufficient for inner photoreceptors to adopt the polarization-sensitive 'dorsal rim area' (DRA) of the eye fate instead of the color-sensitive default state. This occurs by increasing rhabdomere size and uncoupling R7-R8 communication to allow both cells to express the same opsin rather than different ones as required for color vision.
(UniProt, O46339)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
hth: homothorax
Homozygous lethal. Thoracic segments of embryo similar to one another; morphology of denticle bands intermediate between that of normal first and second thoracic segments.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

homeodomain transcription factor - HM domain protein - required for Extradenticle nuclear localization - a partner of Hox genes - required for segmentation and proper head involution

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\hth for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082256
4226
472
FBtr0082255
6557
487
FBtr0100454
3868
266
FBtr0100455
2462
266
FBtr0344145
6340
266
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

6.0-6.5, 4.0-4.5 (northern blot)

3.5 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081733
51.1
472
6.41
FBpp0081732
52.8
487
6.35
FBpp0099878
28.9
266
5.85
FBpp0099879
28.4
266
6.24
FBpp0310558
28.4
266
6.24
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

266 aa isoforms: hth-PF, hth-PI
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

487 (aa); 50 (kD observed)

487, 472 (aa)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with exd; required for nuclear translocation of exd.

(UniProt, O46339)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\hth using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

hth is transcribed in the deuterocerebrum

and more posterior neurectoderm.

hth transcripts are relatively abundant in 3-15hr embryos, 1st instar larvae, and pupae. They are less abundant in 2nd instar larvae and are at very low levels in early embryos, third instar larvae, and adults.

hth transcripts are first expressed in the cellular blastoderm embryos in what becomes the segmented portion of the embryo but not at the poles. During gastrulation, they are expressed throughout the ectoderm but not in the procephalon. Beginning in stage 11 embryos, expression is strong in the thoracic region but begins to decline in the abdominal region. Expression is also moderate in the mandible and maxilla but absent from the labium. hth expression is also observed at this time in the visceral mesoderm and at a very high level in the clypeolabrum. In stages 13-14, expression appears in the developing Malpighian tubules and in the CNS. It remains high in the head and thorax and low in the abdomen. During stages 15-17, expression declines in the ectoderm and becomes more prominant in the CNS. The CNS expression is graded, higher in the anterior region and weak in the posterior regions.

hth transcripts are expressed in the wing disc in the notum, winge hinge, and ventral pleura. In the leg discs, expression is in the periphery region corresponding to the proximal segments of the legs. In the antennal disc, the expression is in all but the arista region. In the eye disc, hth expression is strong in the anterior region surrounding the eye field, including the regions corresponding to the ptilinum, ocellus, and head capsules, and weak in the posterior and lateral margins of the disc. hth is also expressed in all cells of the peripodial membrane in the eye disc. Weak expression is observed in the posterior region composed of mature photoreceptors. This expression pattern generally coincides with that of exd.

hth transcripts are first detected at 3hr of embryogenesis in a broad domain extending from 15-85% egg length. In later stages the pattern becomes very dynamic. The strongest expression is seen in the trunk region and portions of the head. Starting at stage 9, staining is stronger in the thorax than in the abdomen and this difference increases with time. By stage 14, expression is strong in the CNS, especially in the thorax. In the midgut, expression is strongest in the gastric caeca primordia and in a central broad domain in the endoderm. Expression is absent in the most anterior and posterior portions of the midgut endoderm. By stage 16, strong expression is seen in the Malpighian tubules. Expression in the endoderm begins posterior to the first midgut constriction and ends just anterior to the third midgut constriction. In leg and antennal discs, hth is expressed in the peripheral cells of these discs.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
distribution deduced from reporter
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
scutum | presumptive
ocellus | presumptive
ptilinum | presumptive
eye disc | posterior

Comment: undifferentiated cells

neuron | subset of medulla

Comment: expression at 24h APF

Additional Descriptive Data

In stage 16 embryos, hth is expressed in principal cells (Malpighian tubule Type I cell) in the distal portion of the Malpighian tubules and in stellate cells (Malpighian tubule Type II cell ) in both distal and proximal portions of the tubule.

hth expression is always found in the

larval Leucokinin ABLK neurons of the abdominal ganglion of segments A1-3, and in a number of cases in segment A4.

hth protein is expressed in newly formed larval medulla neuroblasts.

During gastrulation, hth protein is localized to the cytoplasm. At stage 9, it starts to accumulate in the nucleus in a spatially regulated manner. Nuclear localization is observed in the ectoderm, in specific cells in the thoracic portion of the ventral nerve cord, and in the visceral mesoderm.

hth protein is expressed in developing antennal lobe neurons. It is expressed in many of the cells that surround the antennal lobe in larval and adult brains. It is expressed in the antero dorsal and the lateral projection neurons, the two main olfactory projection neuron lineages in the brain. In the lateral lineage, hth is also expressed in the GH298-positive interneurons and in a small group of ventral cells that in part overlap with GH146-positive projection neurons. In the larval brain, hth is expressed in the neuroblasts of the anterodorsal and lateral antennal lobe lineages.

hth protein is expressed in the differentiated neurons of the innermost domain of the medulla anlage from third instar larvae and in pupa until 12h APF, where it borders the concentric domain of run distally. hth protein co-localises with bsh on the distal region of its domain. Thereafter and in adults, hth protein is found in layers 8 to 10 of the medulla. hth protein is also weakly expressed in the neuroblasts of third instar larva.

hth is expressed in NB5-6 starting at embryonic stage 11 in abdominal and thoracic lineages, is expressed in all cells in the lineage at stage 13, and is maintained throughout the lineage in subsequent stages. It is also expressed in more anterior NB5-6 lineages. There is a sharp increase in hth levels between stage 12 and 13.

hth protein is detected in third instar larval antennal discs in the primordia of antennal segments 2 and 3 and in the arista promordia.

hth is expressed in the myocytes of the anterior aorta, which the exception of the posterior-most myocyte. Expression is excluded from the posterior aorta and the heart.

hth protein is expressed in all cells of the second instar eye disc; expression levels are lower in the posterior disc. By late third instar, hth protein is expressed in the eye disc in a pattern that excludes the morphogenetic furrow, the h-expressing pre-proneural region immediately anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, and the cells immediately posterior the morphogenetic furrow. hth is expressed in the antennal disc in a pattern that excludes the distal-most region.

hth protein is expressed throughout the wing disc from early second instar to mid third instarhth protein expression resolves into three distinct domains in the proximal region of the wing disc, two of which overlap with wg expression in the hinge region.

hth protein is expressed in wing discs during the second larval instar. Wing disc expression is lost during the early third instar, and returns at late third instar. In the late third instar, hth protein is expressed in two concentric rings surrounding the wing pouch, corresponding to the presumptive wing hinge.

The distribution of hth protein is very similar to that of hth transcripts but it is first detected at gastrulation.

hth protein is expressed in the wing disc in the notum, winge hinge, and ventral pleura. In the leg discs, expression is in the peripheral region corresponding to the proximal segments of the legs. In the antennal disc, the expression is in all but the arista region. In the eye disc, hth expression is strong in the anterior region surrounding the eye field, including the regions corresponding to the ptilinum, ocellus, and head capsules, and weak in the posterior and lateral margins of the disc. hth is also expressed in all cells of the peripodial membrane in the eye disc. Weak expression is observed in the posterior region composed of mature photoreceptors. This expression pattern generally coincides with that of exd.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4}hthGAL4.H
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}hthGAL4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}hthP1-GAL4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}hth05745
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}hth06762
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain cell body rind | restricted

Comment: punctate or subset expression in adult brain cortex

adult brain cell body rind

Comment: subset of neuronal cell bodies in the adult brain cortex

Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\hth in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 51 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 41 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of hth
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of hth
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal tergite 5 & trichome | male, with Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237
abdominal tergite 6 & trichome | male, with Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237
abdominal tergite & trichome | male | somatic clone
alula & wing sensillum, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
antennal segment 2 & leg | somatic clone
antennal segment 3 & leg | somatic clone
embryonic brain & axon
embryonic thorax & denticle | ectopic
eye & adult head | ventral
leg & trichome | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI
mesothoracic dorsal triscolopidial chordotonal organ dch3 & neuron
metathoracic dorsal triscolopidial chordotonal organ dch3 & neuron
microchaeta & scutum, with Scer\GAL4MS248
photoreceptor cell & eye-antennal disc | ventral
prothoracic dorsal triscolopidial chordotonal organ dch3 & neuron
sense organ & neuron
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (23)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
0  
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1  
2 of 15
No
No
2  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (18)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (15)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (28)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (21)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906B4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508RA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0A8D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0A4D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0KDP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with exd; required for nuclear translocation of exd.
    (UniProt, O46339 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-50

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:10,507,561..10,639,568 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    86C1-86C3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}jumu06439&P{lacW}l(3)j8B6j8B6 and P{PZ}hth05745
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    86C1-86C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    86C1-86C6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    86C1-86C4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Located on 3R.
    Location refined by complementation mapping.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (22)
    Genomic Clones (83)
    cDNA Clones (161)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: hth P53

    Source for merge of: hth anon- EST:Liang-2.13

    Additional comments

    Complementation tests indicate that hth and tss are different loci.

    Other Comments

    The noc and elB paralogs interact with hth to correctly specify the photoreceptors which detect polarised light at the dorsal rim of the retina, being involved in specifying both morphological and molecular fate. noc and elB also antagonise the transcriptional activator and repressor functions of oc in the retina through distinct protein domains.

    hth generates two types of protein isoforms, one that contains a DNA-binding homeodomain (HthFL) one that does not contain a homeodomain (HDless). Many of the functions of this gene, including appendage patterning and most Hox-related activities, can be executed by the HDless isoform. In contrast, antennal development shows an absolute dependency on the HthFL isoform.

    The primary signal for repression of hth expression during wing development is dpp.

    hth is both necessary and sufficient for inner photoreceptor cells in the eye to adopt the polarisation-sensitive DRA (dorsal rim area) fate instead of the colour-sensitive default state.

    Dll and hth specify antennal fates via regulation of multiple genes.

    Identification: screen for mutants in opsin regulation and photoreceptor cell type specification.

    hth expression specifically marks the two dorsal-most rows of inner photoreceptors.

    Repression of hth expression in the wing pouch is a prerequisite for wing development; forcing hth expression prevents growth of the wing blade.

    hth is necessary for wing hinge development. hth also limits where along the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary wing blade development can initiate, thus helping to define the size and position of the wing blade within the wing disc epithelium.

    Dll acts in parallel with hth to induce antennal differentiation.

    exd is required for salivary gland formation.

    hth mutants show patterning defects in the primary axonal scaffolds of the developing embryonic brain.

    hth is required during development for normal eye development and is necessary for the formation of the ventral head capsule.

    The hth protein alters the balance between NLS and NES function if the exd gene product in favor of the NLS.

    The hth gene product is required to overcome the influence of the exd NES (nuclear export signal), possibly by inducing a conformational change in the exd product. The exd and hth gene products interact in the cytoplasm. The hth gene product, like that of exd, has an NLS (nuclear localization signal).

    The subcellular location of exd gene product and its mammalian counterpart Hsap\PBX1 depends on nuclear export and import signals and is modulated by association with hth protein or its mammalian counterpart Hsap\PKNOX1.

    esg and hth regulate proximodistal patterning in the distal domain of the leg.

    Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.

    Scr negatively regulates hth, which is required for the nuclear localization of the exd gene product.

    In addition to importing exd protein into the nucleus, hth protein is part of an essential DNA-bound hth/Hox/exd trimeric complex.

    Expression of Dll and hth prevents cells from mixing at the interface between the body wall and leg territories in the developing leg disc.

    In the antennal disc, the Scr, Antp, Ubx, and abd-A HOM-C genes all exert their effects by suppressing the transcription of hth and thus preventing the nuclear localisation of exd. hth may also be involved in proximodistal development of the antenna.

    exd activity is required for the apparent stability of the hth protein.

    exd and hth are antennal-determining genes. hth is an antennal selector gene and Antp promotes leg development by repressing hth and consequently nuclear exd.

    hth is required for the nuclear localisation of exd protein.

    hth acts upstream of exd and is required and sufficient for nuclear localisation of exd protein. hth and exd are both negative regulators of eye development.

    hth is necessary for the nuclear localisation of exd protein.

    Defined by an insertion of P{lacW}.

    Mutation in hth causes abnormal positioning of the chordotonal organs.

    hth is required for PNS development in the embryo.

    hth mutants display thoracic segments that are very similar to each other.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 74 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Hth
    (Kribelbauer et al., 2020, Orthofer et al., 2020, Delker et al., 2019, Zandvakili et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Heinloth et al., 2018, Powers and Srivastava, 2018, Ruiz-Losada et al., 2018, Bosch et al., 2017, Doe, 2017, Requena et al., 2017, Shu and Deng, 2017, Suzuki and Sato, 2017, Tsai et al., 2017, Beh et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Fallahi et al., 2016, Fried et al., 2016, Viets et al., 2016, Yasugi and Nishimura, 2016, Zandvakili and Gebelein, 2016, Foos et al., 2015, Garaulet and Lai, 2015, Irvine and Harvey, 2015, Wernet et al., 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Yung et al., 2015, Boekhoff-Falk and Eberl, 2014, Boube et al., 2014, Slattery et al., 2014, Spletter and Schnorrer, 2014, Enderle and McNeill, 2013, Johnston, 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Sambrani et al., 2013, Sato et al., 2013, Slattery et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Weasner and Kumar, 2013, Agelopoulos et al., 2012, Fausti et al., 2012, Fujioka et al., 2012, Hudry et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Tokusumi et al., 2012, Agrawal et al., 2011, Baker and Firth, 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Fernández et al., 2011, Halder and Johnson, 2011, Hudry et al., 2011, Lelli et al., 2011, Lynch and Wagner, 2011, Noro et al., 2011, Slattery et al., 2011, Slattery et al., 2011, Xin et al., 2011, Zhao et al., 2011, Estella and Mann, 2010, Papadopoulos et al., 2010, Papadopoulos et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Uhl et al., 2010, Witt et al., 2010, Benítez et al., 2009, Bischoff et al., 2009, McKay et al., 2009, Braid and Verheyen, 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Estella et al., 2008, Gebelein et al., 2008, Karlsson et al., 2008, Lebreton et al., 2008, Nusinow et al., 2008, Rafel and Milán, 2008, Takacs et al., 2008, Escudero and Freeman, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Joshi et al., 2007, Karlsson et al., 2007, Lopes and Casares, 2007, Luque and Milan, 2007, Merabet et al., 2007, Mishra and Nigam, 2007, Monier et al., 2007, Noro and Mann, 2007, Zirin and Mann, 2007, Ekas et al., 2006, Lim and Tomlinson, 2006, Pueschel and Boekhoff-Falk, 2006, Roignant et al., 2006, Zaffran et al., 2006, Merabet et al., 2005, Wildonger et al., 2005, Perrin et al., 2004, Brumby et al., 2002, Rogers et al., 2002)
    MEIS1
    Meis1
    anon-EST:Liang-2.13
    hth
    (Hung et al., 2020, Samuels et al., 2020, Arbel et al., 2019, Arbouzova et al., 2019, DeAguero et al., 2019, Dorafshan et al., 2019, Gaspar et al., 2019, Romero-Pozuelo et al., 2019, Sancer et al., 2019, Sapar and Han, 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Ariss et al., 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Davie et al., 2018, Palliyil et al., 2018, Baril et al., 2017, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Neto et al., 2017, Rebeiz and Williams, 2017, Stratmann and Thor, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wang et al., 2017, Apitz and Salecker, 2016, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Carbone et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Neto et al., 2016, Peng et al., 2016, Shlyueva et al., 2016, Skottheim Honn et al., 2016, Uhl et al., 2016, Zacharioudaki et al., 2016, Bivik et al., 2015, Camino et al., 2015, Crocker et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Duff et al., 2015, Kern et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Wittkorn et al., 2015, Zaballos et al., 2015, Boyle et al., 2014, Chin et al., 2014, Choo et al., 2014, Oas et al., 2014, Piñeiro et al., 2014, Rogers et al., 2014, Shukla et al., 2014, Spletter and Schnorrer, 2014, Stern et al., 2014, Wernet et al., 2014, Zohar-Stoopel et al., 2014, Baek et al., 2013, Corsetti and Azpiazu, 2013, Harbison et al., 2013, Hasegawa et al., 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Moran et al., 2013, Sambrani et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Suzuki et al., 2013, Bryantsev et al., 2012, Cheutin and Cavalli, 2012, Garcia et al., 2012, Hudry et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Li-Kroeger et al., 2012, Nagaraj et al., 2012, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Stultz et al., 2012, Sui et al., 2012, Wang and Sun, 2012, Ahn et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Brockmann et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Choo et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Merabet et al., 2011, Reddy and Irvine, 2011, Saadaoui et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Tolhuis et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Cunha et al., 2010, Estella and Mann, 2010, Firth et al., 2010, Joshi et al., 2010, Kannan et al., 2010, Karlsson et al., 2010, Lemons et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Mohan et al., 2010, Neto-Silva et al., 2010, Oros et al., 2010, Roignant et al., 2010, Ziosi et al., 2010, Bessa et al., 2009, Dichtel-Danjoy et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Firth and Baker, 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Peng et al., 2009, Perea et al., 2009, Salvany et al., 2009, Salzer and Kumar, 2009, Zúñiga et al., 2009, Anderson and Kumar, 2008, Benchabane et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Cohen and Salzberg, 2008, Coiffier et al., 2008, Duong et al., 2008, Kim et al., 2008, Li-Kroeger et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Rogulja-Ortmann et al., 2008, Sato et al., 2008, Singh et al., 2008, Stultz et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Aldaz et al., 2007, Ayala-Camargo et al., 2007, Bras-Pereira and Casares, 2007, Dworkin et al., 2007, Ebacher et al., 2007, Emmons et al., 2007, Garcia et al., 2007, Halachmi et al., 2007, Kumar and Datta, 2007, Kumar and Luhur, 2007, Kumar and Salzer, 2007, Lan et al., 2007, Link et al., 2007, Mandal et al., 2007, Mukherjee and Bürglin, 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Ringrose and Paro, 2007, Samsonova et al., 2007, Singh and Wook-Choi, 2007, Stevens and Mann, 2007, Chopra and Mishra, 2006, Culi et al., 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Glazov et al., 2006, Joulia et al., 2006, Mendes et al., 2006, Molnar and de Celis, 2006, Noro et al., 2006, Stultz et al., 2006, Bolinger and Boekhoff-Falk, 2005, Glazov et al., 2005, Merabet et al., 2005, Pearson et al., 2005, Percival-Smith et al., 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Stark et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2004, Grienenberger et al., 2003)
    l(3)05745
    l(3)86Ca
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010875
    • FBgn0011583
    • FBgn0015762
    • FBgn0016022
    • FBgn0025968
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (592)