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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Ldh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Lactate dehydrogenase
Annotation Symbol
CG10160
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001258
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) encodes a protein involved in myoblast fusion and somatic muscle development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-19]
Also Known As

ImpL3, Imp-L3, Ecdysone-inducible gene L3, dLdh, lincRNA.S4223

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:6,259,105..6,262,694 [-]
Recombination map

3-16

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:6259105..6262694
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (5 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000166436
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR015955
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001557
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011304
(assigned by InterPro )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. LDH family. (Q95028)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CH-OH OXIDOREDUCTASES, NAD OR NADP AS ACCEPTOR -
The Other CH-OH oxidoreductases, NAD or NADP as acceptor group, is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major CH-OH oxidoreductases, NAD or NADP as acceptor group.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Imp-L: Imp-Late
Imp-L encoding transcripts associated with membrane-bound polysomes in imaginal discs and expressed only in response to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20 HOE). Expression studied both in vitro and in vivo. Imp-L denotes three "late" genes involved in the eversion to the exterior of the elongated regions of discs by means of local changes in cell shape (Osterbur et al., 1988).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Ldh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077008
1391
332
FBtr0332065
1778
332
FBtr0332066
1324
332
FBtr0332067
1350
332
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076716
35.5
332
7.10
FBpp0304375
35.5
332
7.10
FBpp0304376
35.5
332
7.10
FBpp0304377
35.5
332
7.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

332 aa isoforms: Ldh-PA, Ldh-PB, Ldh-PC, Ldh-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homotetramer.

(UniProt, Q95028)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Ldh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Ldh transcripts are abundant during late embryogenesis and in larval stages. Transcripts are present at low levels in pupae and increase again in adults. Ldh transcripts are detected in cultured imaginal discs and levels increase with exposure to 20-hydroxyecdysone. In situ hybridization shows that Ldh transcripts are abundantly expressed in somatic muscles from stage 13 on and are detected as early as stage 11. Staining is also observed in the posterior spiracles, pharyngeal muscles, and proventriculus by stage 15.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Levels of Ldh protein were measured by assaying for LDH activity. LDH activity is detected in cultured imaginal discs and is significantly higher in discs cultured with 20-hydroxyecdysone. LDH activity was found to be low in third instar larval leg discs but high in prepupal leg discs in the tarsal segments and the presumptive tibia. LDH activity localizes to somatic mesoderm and later to somatic muscle cells in embryos. Activity is also detected in the posterior spiracles, pharyngeal muscles, and proventriculus by stage 15.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Ldh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Ldh
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Ldh
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BM8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506XJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08SH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08O2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0HME )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
8 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homotetramer.
(UniProt, Q95028 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map

3-16

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:6,259,105..6,262,694 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
65A11-65A11
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0209402094 and P{lacW}l(3)L4060L4060
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
65B-65B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (7)
Genomic Clones (18)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (65)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 

polyclonal

Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Ldh ImpL3

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: ImpL3 CG10160

Additional comments

The symbol/name of FBgn0001258 has been changed from 'Impl3/Ecdysone-inducible gene L3' to 'Ldh/Lactate dehydrogenase' to provide a more informative nomenclature that is consistent with usage in the literature.

Other Comments

ImpL3 encodes lactate dehydrogenase.

The ImpL3 lactate dehydrogenase product may have a similar function in imaginal disc morphogenesis as it does in muscle contraction, and maintains levels of metabolism required for active actin-myosin contraction in an environment characterized by reduced oxygen availability.

Temporal profile of gene expression is altered in Eip74EF mutant background.

Ecdysteroid-regulated gene.

Encodes a transcript associated with membrane-bound polysomes in imaginal discs and expressed only in response to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20 HOE). Expression studied both in vitro and in vivo. A 'late' gene involved in the eversion to the exterior of the elongated regions of discs by means of local changes in cell shape (Osterbur, Fristrom, Natzle, Tojo and Fristrom, 1988).

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (26)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0035698
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (174)