General Information
Symbol
Dmel\kel
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
kelch
Annotation Symbol
CG7210
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001301
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Kelch is a substrate targeting component of a Cullin3-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase. It binds F-actin in vitro, while its predominant in vivo function is in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It has an essential role in oogenesis, where it is required for cytoskeletal organization in ovarian ring canals. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
Kelch
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:18,129,884..18,138,083 [-]
Recombination map
2-53
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Component of ring canals that regulates the flow of cytoplasm between cells. May be involved in the regulation of cytoplasm flow from nurse cells to the oocyte during oogenesis. Binds actin.
(UniProt, Q04652)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kel: kelch
Recessive female sterile. Nurse cell cytoplasm not incorporated in oocyte. Small eggs "open" at anterior pole since egg membranes are not deposited around whole oocyte.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\kel or the JBrowse view of Dmel\kel for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0057892.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression supported by data in FBrf0216884.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081042
5476
689
FBtr0081043
5476
1477
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080595
76.6
689
5.40
FBpp0080596
160.0
1477
6.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
160, 76 (kD observed)
787, 688 (aa); 83.5, 76.5 (kD)
Comments
Two kel proteins are produced from a single transcript through stop codon suppression: a shorter 76kD protein (ORF1), and a "full-length" 160 kD (ORF1 + ORF2) protein. Both proteins co-sediment with ring canal complexes, but the ring canal localization determinants lie in the first ORF. Transgenic kel 76kD ORF1 protein, but not 160 kD full-length protein, is able to rescue female fertility and ring canal morphology.
Two kel proteins are produced from a single transcript through stop codon suppression: a shorter 76kD protein (ORF1), and a "full-length" 160 kD (ORF1 + ORF2) protein. Both proteins co-sediment with ring canal complexes, but the ring canal localization determinants lie in the first ORF (ORF1). Transgenic kel 76kD ORF1 protein, but not 160 kD full-length protein alone, is able to rescue female fertility and ring canal morphology.
The 787aa kel protein is the second protein predicted from the bicistronic kel transcript. It has not been physically detected.
One of a couple of protein products generated from a bicistronic transcript.
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\kel using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The kel transcript is most abundant in ovaries but is also detected in males and ovarectomized females.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The ratio of 160 kD to 76kD kel protein varies in different tissues during development; the ratio is 1:20 in whole ovary extracts, but approaches 1:1 in adult fly carcasses (without gonads), and during metamorphosis.
kel protein is observed in ring canals starting in germarium region 3. Initially staining is seen in a subset of ring canals. All ring canals are stained by stage 3.
kel protein localizes specifically to the ring canals of egg chambers starting in oogenesis stage S2.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\kel in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of kel
Allele of kel
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of kel
Deletions and Duplications ( 18 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
actin filament & nurse cell ring canal
nurse cell & actin filament
nurse cell & nucleus
nurse cell & plasma membrane
oocyte & actin filament
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (42)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (15)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (9)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901N7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500IY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W024Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X022A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G04QJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-53
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:18,129,884..18,138,083 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    36E5-36E6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Aac11k06710 and P{EP}CG10413EP2164
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    36E-36F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    36E1-36E3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (30)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Embryos injected with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene show a broad range of defects at the beginning of cellularisation, including falling of some nuclei from the cortex, and a reduction of nuclear elongation. They also show defects in membrane invagination during cellularisation.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
      kel protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in a Src64B-dependent pathway.
      kel is essential for the proper organization of actin in ovarian ring canals.
      The kel gene encodes two proteins, a 76kD open reading frame 1 (ORF1) protein and a 160kD full-length (ORF1 + ORF2) protein. Transgenic analysis suggests that the 76kD ORF1 protein is sufficient for kel function.
      The amino-terminal region of the kel protein regulates the timing of kel protein localisation to the ring canals. The amino-terminal half of the kel protein including the BTB domain mediates dimerisation. The kelch repeat domain is necessary and sufficient for ring canal localisation.
      The kel protein becomes localized to ring canals hours after hts and actin, and is necessary for maintaining a highly ordered ring canal rim.
      Mutations cause female sterility. Molecular and expression analysis suggests that kelch produces a component of ring canals that regulates the flow of cytoplasm between cells.
      Mutations at the kel locus cause defects in midoogenesis.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Schupbach.
      Etymology
      "kelch" is German for "goblet", reflecting the shape of eggs formed by mutant females.
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (140)