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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\kkv
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
krotzkopf verkehrt
Annotation Symbol
CG2666
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001311
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Chitin synthase (2.4.1.16)
Gene Snapshot
krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv) encodes a membrane-inserted glycosyltransferase family 2 chitin synthase that uses GlcNAc to produce the polysaccharide chitin, which is extruded to the differentiating cuticle and tracheal system (tracheal cuticle, tube diameter regulation and gas filling). [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
DmCS-1, l(3)82Fh, blimp, CS-1, chitin synthase-1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:5,378,093..5,392,866 [-]
Recombination map
3-47.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + (1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminyl))(n) = UDP + (1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl))(n+1) (2.4.1.16)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE FAMILY 2 -
Glycosyltransferase family 2 includes enzymes with chitin synthase, mannosyl and glucosyl transferase activity, which may be involved in the synthesis of chitin and glycosylation of proteins. (Adapted from FBrf0204706 and FBrf0155856).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kkv: krotzkopf verkehrt
Homozygous lethal; head skeleton crumbled; denticle bands narrower; embryo rarely inverted in egg case.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\kkv or the JBrowse view of Dmel\kkv for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.54
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078798
5457
1615
FBtr0078800
5524
1615
FBtr0301398
5524
1615
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078442
182.8
1615
6.82
FBpp0089164
182.8
1615
6.82
FBpp0290640
182.7
1615
6.82
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1615 aa isoforms: kkv-PA, kkv-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\kkv using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000000227
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000000242
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005136
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001115588
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001115600
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001115588
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\kkv in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 37 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of kkv
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of kkv
Deletions and Duplications ( 8 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic/larval dorsal trunk & procuticle
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
No
 
3 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
2 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900HD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915009W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00C1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X008K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00CW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
8 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-47.5
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:5,378,093..5,392,866 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    83A1-83A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0273302733 and P{EP}EP974
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    kkv has been found to fail to complement Df(3R)3-4 and to complement Df(3R)ME15, placing it in 82F5-82F11, contradicting earlier work that placed kkv between 83C1 and 84B2 (FBrf0041709).
    Location based on deficiency mapping with Df(3R)3-4.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (54)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: kkv CS-1 l(3)82Fh
    Source for merge of: CS-1 CG2666
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of CS-1 CG2666 was sequence comparison ( date:001216 ).
    Twenty-one alleles discarded by Tubingen; including one weak and one temperature sensitive.
    Other Comments
    kkv is essential for procuticle integrity.
    Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    The gene is named after the phenotype of mutant embryos; the head skeleton is strongly reduced and deformed - "krotzkopf" is German for "scrambled head" and in rare cases, hyperactive embryos (which try to hatch but are unable to tear up the vitelline membrane) turn around in the egg case - "verkehrt" is German for "inverted".
    Mutants named 'blimp' for the extreme ballooning of the embryos when squashed under coverslips in the course of doing cuticle preparations.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 50 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0013580
    • FBgn0037319
    • FBgn0043004
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (97)