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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\kto
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
kohtalo
Annotation Symbol
CG8491
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001324
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
kohtalo (kto) encodes a subunit of the kinase module of the mediator complex. It is not required for all the transcriptional functions of mediator, but links it to a set of transcription factors that are involved in developmental signaling. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Med12, Trap230, psg14, dTRAP230
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:19,836,614..19,844,944 [+]
Recombination map
3-46
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Mediator complex subunit 12 family. (Q9VW47)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MEDIATOR COMPLEX -
The Mediator (MED) complex serves as a hub for transcriptional signaling events. MED bridges transcriptional activators and repressors. This large multi-protein complex has a central core conserved from yeast to humans. The core is composed of three modules: head, middle, and tail. A separate module, the Cdk8 kinase module, composed of Cdk8, CycC, kto and skd, serves as a regulator. (Adapted from FBrf0226415 and FBrf0191850).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in regulated gene transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. Required for leg and eye development and macrochaete specification or differentiation.
(UniProt, Q9VW47)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kto: kohtalo (J.A. Kennison)
Isolated as a dominant suppressor of Pc mutations. Also suppresses Pcl alleles as well as Msc, Mrt, and AntpScx. Associated with recessive larval lethality.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\kto or the JBrowse view of Dmel\kto for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074884
7740
2531
FBtr0304716
1723
534
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074653
279.5
2531
7.60
FBpp0293259
58.0
534
12.01
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Cdk8 module of the Mediator complex, composed of CycC, Cdk8, kto and skd.
(UniProt, Q9VW47)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\kto using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q7KTX8
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P25008
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VT57
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000980589
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000980589
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:MED17; FB:FBgn0038578
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CycC; FB:FBgn0004597, FLYBASE:Cdk8; FB:FBgn0015618
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:skd; FB:FBgn0003415
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000980589
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000980589
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
dissected tissue
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression increases after the prepupal (+10 hr APF) ecdysone pulse.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:MED17; FB:FBgn0038578
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CycC; FB:FBgn0004597, FLYBASE:Cdk8; FB:FBgn0015618
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:skd; FB:FBgn0003415
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\kto in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of kto
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of kto
Deletions and Duplications ( 30 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900EL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150052 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00CE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00BR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00I6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Cdk8 module of the Mediator complex, composed of CycC, Cdk8, kto and skd.
(UniProt, Q9VW47 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-46
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:19,836,614..19,844,944 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
76D1-76D1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L3809L3809 and P{lacW}l(3)L1243L1243&P{lacW}Mi-2j3D4
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Location from complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (11)
Genomic Clones (14)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (14)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: kto CG8491
Additional comments
Source for merge of kto CG8491 was sequence comparison ( date:010116 ).
Other Comments
Both skd and kto are required to establish normal cell affinity differences at the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral compartment boundaries of the wing disc.
skd and kto seem to act together to promote specific cell fate decisions, transmitting either a novel signal or a combination of signals.
Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
kto is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 35 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Brm @ Kto
Srb8/KTO/TRAP230
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0036912
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (130)