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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dco
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
discs overgrown
Annotation Symbol
CG2048
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002413
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
discs overgrown (dco) encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that functions in the circadian rhythm pathway to phosphorylate and bind with circadian target proteins such as the product of per. It also contributes to Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, cell death, neurodegeneration, hyperplasia and planar cell polarity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
dbt, double-time, doubletime, CKIε, CK1ε
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:31,054,085..31,061,210 [-]
Recombination map
3-102
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Casein kinase I subfamily. (O76324)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CK1 KINASES -
The CK1 kinases (Casein Kinase 1 family) share a highly conserved kinase domain. CK1 kinases are serine/threonine kinases with a preference for acidic substrates. The highly variable C-terminal domains are involved in regulating subcellular localization and activity. (Adapted from FBrf0132098, PMID:24825444 and PMID:15722192).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in circadian rhythms, viability and molecular oscillations of the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Dbt reduces the stability and thus the accumulation of monomeric per proteins, probably through phosphorylation. No evident circadian oscillation is detected in head. Together with CkIalpha, regulates processing of ci by phosphorylating it which promotes its binding to slmb, the F-box recognition component of the SCF(slmb) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (PubMed:16326393).
(UniProt, O76324)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\dco or the JBrowse view of Dmel\dco for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Gene model reviewed during 6.19
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085742
2980
440
FBtr0085743
3062
440
FBtr0085744
3667
440
FBtr0334548
4156
440
FBtr0473370
3230
440
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085104
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0085105
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0085106
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0306615
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0422974
48.0
440
9.92
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

440 aa isoforms: dco-PA, dco-PB, dco-PC, dco-PD, dco-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
440 (aa); 48 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Forms a complex with per (PubMed:9674431). Interacts with Dlish (PubMed:27692068).
(UniProt, O76324)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dco using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000225966
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (25 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (24 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:per; FB:FBgn0003068
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000225966
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000225966
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000225966
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
dco transcripts are expressed in photoreceptor cells in the eye. They are also expressed in a wide region between the optic lobe and the central brain which includes the lateral neurons. They are expressed in the same pattern as per transcripts. No evidence of circadian cycling was observed for dco transcripts.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
dco is expressed at similar levels in both larval and pupal stages of eye development.
dco is present in nurse cells at all stages of oogenesis with the most intense signal seen in early stages (S1-4). It is expressed in the oocyte at later stages and continues to be expressed in nurse cells. It is first expressed in follicle cells at later stages (S8,9) and is not present in all follicle cells which results in a patchy expression pattern.
Levels of dco protein do not oscillate, and are present at at all times of day.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dco in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 48 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 54 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dco
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dco
Deletions and Duplications ( 31 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
 
5 of 15
No
No
 
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (87)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (18)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
6 of 9
No
Yes
6 of 9
No
Yes
6 of 9
No
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AM7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915060L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07IJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07DP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0AFG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
7 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Hsap\LOC400927-CSNK1E
8 of 15
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      RNA-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      suppressible
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Forms a complex with per (PubMed:9674431). Interacts with Dlish (PubMed:27692068).
      (UniProt, O76324 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
      Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
      Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
      The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map
      3-102
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3R:31,054,085..31,061,210 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      100B1-100B2
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Aph-407028&P{PZ}dcorK215 and P{PZ}l(3)rM731rM731
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      100B2-100B4
      100B2-100B4
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      100B-100B
      (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B1--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B3--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61A (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      100B-100B
      (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B1--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Among 20,000 progeny, no recombinants between dco and l(3)03670 were recovered.
      dco is closely linked to ld.
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (31)
      Genomic Clones (15)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (51)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for identity of: dco CG2048
        Source for database merge of
        Source for merge of: dco dbt
        Source for merge of: dco l(3)S144701 l(3)S053813
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        dco-mediated hyperphosphorylation of Clk does not require cyc or the DNA-binding domain of Clk.
        The kinase activity of the dco product appears to be required for wg/arm signalling, but not for fz/PCP signalling.
        dco kinase activity controls the subcellular localization of per.
        The dco and CkIα products act additively to provide optimal kinase activity required for efficient ci protein phosphorylation and processing.
        dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
        dco can regulate the feedback of per protein on its mRNA by delaying the time at which it is translocated to nuclei and altering the level of nuclear per during the declining phase of the cycle.
        dco affects the nuclear entry or stability of per protein. dco contributes to the generation of circadian rhythmicity by regulating multiple steps of clock biochemistry.
        Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for per, dco, Clk, and cyc but not tim.
        dco, along with other circadian genes Clk, cyc, and per (but not tim) have roles in regulating cocaine sensitization and may function as regulators of Tdc.
        dco loss of function mutants show strong effects on cell survival and growth control in imaginal discs.
        The dco protein is a crucial component in the mechanism that links cell survival during proliferation to growth arrest in imaginal discs.
        The gene product of the dco locus regulates per protein accumulation. The function of dco may be to reduce the stability and thus the level of accumulation of monomeric per proteins, promoting the delay between per/tim transcription and the function of the per/tim protein complex, which is essential for molecular rhythmicity.
        Some of the proteins of apico-lateral junctions are required both for apico-basal cell polarity and for the signalling mechanisms controlling cell proliferation, whereas others are required more specifically in cell-cell signalling.
        Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, imaginal disc overgrowth.
        Endocrine mechanisms responsible for the prolongation of larval life in dco mutants have been investigated: results suggest that delayed pupariation is caused by the overgrown imaginal discs inhibiting the production or release of ecdysteroids from the endocrine system.
        Reduced ecdysteroid titer and delayed or blocked metamorphosis in mutants may be a result of altered neuropeptide production, which is probably secondary to the imaginal disc overgrowth.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 115 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (47)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        dCKIε
        dbt
        (Venkatesan et al., 2019, Lam et al., 2018, Jiang et al., 2017, Selcho et al., 2017, Fu et al., 2016, Andreazza et al., 2015, Fan et al., 2015, Kang et al., 2015, Lazopulo et al., 2015, Means et al., 2015, Tataroglu and Emery, 2015, Venkatesan et al., 2015, Zwarts et al., 2015, Choksi et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Pegoraro et al., 2014, Zheng et al., 2014, Garbe et al., 2013, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Chiu et al., 2011, Sehgal and Mignot, 2011, Ko et al., 2010, Li et al., 2010, Sun et al., 2010, Zhang et al., 2010, Choi et al., 2009, Cziko et al., 2009, Fan et al., 2009, Kotwica et al., 2009, O'Keefe et al., 2009, Yu et al., 2009, Chiu et al., 2008, Kivimäe et al., 2008, Ogawa et al., 2008, Sekine et al., 2008, Yang et al., 2008, Huang et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Ko et al., 2007, Muskus et al., 2007, Nawathean et al., 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Klein et al., 2006, Price, 2006, Yu et al., 2006, Zhou et al., 2006, Cyran et al., 2005, Looby and Loudon, 2005, Xu et al., 2005, Marino, 2004, Preuss et al., 2004, Preuss et al., 2004, Sathyanarayanan et al., 2004, Smolen et al., 2004, Hall, 2003, Stanewsky, 2003, Ko et al., 2002, Lefers and Holmgren, 2002, Panda et al., 2002, Price and Kalderon, 2002, Bao et al., 2001, Brown and Schibler, 2001, Clayton et al., 2001, Kloss et al., 2001, Kyriacou and Hastings, 2001, Merrow and Roenneberg, 2001, Roenneberg and Merrow, 2001, Rosato and Kyriacou, 2001, Bae et al., 2000, Hardin, 2000, Lakin-Thomas, 2000, Loudon et al., 2000, Rothenfluh et al., 2000, Rothenfluh et al., 2000, Scully and Kay, 2000, Suri et al., 2000, Wager-Smith and Kay, 2000, Yang et al., 2000, Young, 2000, Young, 2000, Andretic and Hirsh, 1999, Andretic et al., 1999, Dunlap, 1999, Dunlap et al., 1999, Giebultowicz, 1999, Spradling et al., 1999, Subramanian and Lakhotia, 1999, Tsang, 1999.3.2, Tyson et al., 1999, Wolf, 1999, Zilian et al., 1999, Anonymous, 1998, Costa and Kyriacou, 1998, Dunlap, 1998, Green, 1998, Hardin, 1998, Kaneko, 1998, Kloss, 1998.3.24, Kloss et al., 1998, Peters, 1998, Price et al., 1998, Reppert, 1998, Whitmore et al., 1998, Wilsbacher and Takahashi, 1998, Young, 1998, Meister and Braun, 1995.10, BDGP Project Members, 1994-1999)
        l(3)discs overgrown-1
        l(3)rK215
        Name Synonyms
        Casein Kinase I epsilon
        Casein Kinase Iε
        Casein kinase 1
        Casein kinase I epsilon
        Double-Time
        disc overgrown
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0011349
        • FBgn0011508
        • FBgn0024895
        • FBgn0027967
        • FBgn0028129
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (325)