General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dco
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
discs overgrown
Annotation Symbol
CG2048
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002413
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Discs overgrown (Dco) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase. Dco functions in the circadian rhythm pathway to phosphorylate and bind with circadian target proteins such as per. Dco also contributes to Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, cell death, neurodegeneration, hyperplasia and planar cell polarity. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
dbt, CKIε, CK1ε, l(3)dco, l(3)S053813
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:31,054,085..31,061,210 [-]
Recombination map
3-102
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Casein kinase I subfamily. (O76324)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
CK1 KINASES -
The CK1 kinases (Casein Kinase 1 family) share a highly conserved kinase domain. CK1 kinases are serine/threonine kinases with a preference for acidic substrates. The highly variable C-terminal domains are involved in regulating subcellular localization and activity. (Adapted from FBrf0132098, PMID:24825444 and PMID:15722192).
Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Involved in circadian rhythms, viability and molecular oscillations of the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Dbt reduces the stability and thus the accumulation of monomeric per proteins, probably through phosphorylation. No evident circadian oscillation is detected in head. Together with CkIalpha, regulates processing of ci by phosphorylating it which promotes its binding to slmb, the F-box recognition component of the SCF(slmb) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (PubMed:16326393).
(UniProt, O76324)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\dco or the JBrowse view of Dmel\dco for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Gene model reviewed during 6.19
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085742
2980
440
FBtr0085743
3062
440
FBtr0085744
3667
440
FBtr0334548
4156
440
FBtr0473370
3230
440
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085104
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0085105
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0085106
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0306615
48.0
440
9.92
FBpp0422974
48.0
440
9.92
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

440 aa isoforms: dco-PA, dco-PB, dco-PC, dco-PD, dco-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
440 (aa); 48 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Forms a complex with per (PubMed:9674431). Interacts with Dlish (PubMed:27692068).
(UniProt, O76324)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dco using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (34 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (27 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (24 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:per; FB:FBgn0003068
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000226268
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002628885
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002628885
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000936173
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
dco transcripts are expressed in photoreceptor cells in the eye. They are also expressed in a wide region between the optic lobe and the central brain which includes the lateral neurons. They are expressed in the same pattern as per transcripts. No evidence of circadian cycling was observed for dco transcripts.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
dco is present in nurse cells at all stages of oogenesis with the most intense signal seen in early stages (S1-4). It is expressed in the oocyte at later stages and continues to be expressed in nurse cells. It is first expressed in follicle cells at later stages (S8,9) and is not present in all follicle cells which results in a patchy expression pattern.
Levels of dco protein do not oscillate, and are present at at all times of day.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dco in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 48 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of dco
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
      Other relevant insertions
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 49 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dco
      Allele of dco
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dco
      Deletions and Duplications ( 31 )
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Sterility
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      12 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
       
      6 of 15
      No
      Yes
       
      5 of 15
      No
      No
       
      4 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
       
      1 of 15
      No
      No
       
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      12 of 15
      No
      Yes
      4 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
      9 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      8 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
      12 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      10 of 12
      No
      Yes
      3 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      11 of 15
      No
      Yes
      11 of 15
      No
      Yes
      5 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (87)
      9 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      4 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
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      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (18)
      9 of 9
      Yes
      Yes
      9 of 9
      Yes
      Yes
      8 of 9
      No
      Yes
      8 of 9
      No
      Yes
      8 of 9
      No
      Yes
      8 of 9
      No
      Yes
      8 of 9
      No
      Yes
      7 of 9
      No
      Yes
      6 of 9
      No
      Yes
      6 of 9
      No
      Yes
      6 of 9
      No
      Yes
      5 of 9
      No
      Yes
      5 of 9
      No
      Yes
      2 of 9
      No
      Yes
      1 of 9
      No
      Yes
      1 of 9
      No
      Yes
      1 of 9
      No
      Yes
      1 of 9
      No
      Yes
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
      10 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      6 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AM7 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915060L )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07IJ )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07DP )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0AFG )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 2 )
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Hsap\LOC400927-CSNK1E
      8 of 15
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
        Select Layout:
        Legend:
        Protein
        RNA
        Selected Interactor(s)
        Interactions Browser

        Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        RNA-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        suppressible
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Forms a complex with per (PubMed:9674431). Interacts with Dlish (PubMed:27692068).
        (UniProt, O76324 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
        Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
        Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
        Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
        The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
        External Data
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        3R
        Recombination map
        3-102
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        3R:31,054,085..31,061,210 [-]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        100B2-100B2
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Aph-407028&P{PZ}dcorK215 and P{PZ}l(3)rM731rM731
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        100B2-100B4
        100B2-100B4
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        100B-100B
        (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B1--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B3--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61A (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        100B-100B
        (determined by in situ hybridisation) 100B1--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Location
        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Among 20,000 progeny, no recombinants between dco and l(3)03670 were recovered.
        dco is closely linked to ld.
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (23)
        Genomic Clones (15)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (51)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
           
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for identity of: dco CG2048
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: dco dbt
          Source for merge of: dco l(3)S144701 l(3)S053813
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          dco-mediated hyperphosphorylation of Clk does not require cyc or the DNA-binding domain of Clk.
          The kinase activity of the dco product appears to be required for wg/arm signalling, but not for fz/PCP signalling.
          dco kinase activity controls the subcellular localization of per.
          The dco and CkIα products act additively to provide optimal kinase activity required for efficient ci protein phosphorylation and processing.
          dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
          dco can regulate the feedback of per protein on its mRNA by delaying the time at which it is translocated to nuclei and altering the level of nuclear per during the declining phase of the cycle.
          dco affects the nuclear entry or stability of per protein. dco contributes to the generation of circadian rhythmicity by regulating multiple steps of clock biochemistry.
          Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for per, dco, Clk, and cyc but not tim.
          dco, along with other circadian genes Clk, cyc, and per (but not tim) have roles in regulating cocaine sensitization and may function as regulators of Tdc.
          dco loss of function mutants show strong effects on cell survival and growth control in imaginal discs.
          The dco protein is a crucial component in the mechanism that links cell survival during proliferation to growth arrest in imaginal discs.
          The gene product of the dco locus regulates per protein accumulation. The function of dco may be to reduce the stability and thus the level of accumulation of monomeric per proteins, promoting the delay between per/tim transcription and the function of the per/tim protein complex, which is essential for molecular rhythmicity.
          Some of the proteins of apico-lateral junctions are required both for apico-basal cell polarity and for the signalling mechanisms controlling cell proliferation, whereas others are required more specifically in cell-cell signalling.
          Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, imaginal disc overgrowth.
          Endocrine mechanisms responsible for the prolongation of larval life in dco mutants have been investigated: results suggest that delayed pupariation is caused by the overgrown imaginal discs inhibiting the production or release of ecdysteroids from the endocrine system.
          Reduced ecdysteroid titer and delayed or blocked metamorphosis in mutants may be a result of altered neuropeptide production, which is probably secondary to the imaginal disc overgrowth.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 86 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (47)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          dCKIε
          dbt
          (Fu et al., 2016, Andreazza et al., 2015, Fan et al., 2015, Kang et al., 2015, Lazopulo et al., 2015, Means et al., 2015, Tataroglu and Emery, 2015, Venkatesan et al., 2015, Zwarts et al., 2015, Choksi et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Pegoraro et al., 2014, Zheng et al., 2014, Garbe et al., 2013, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Chiu et al., 2011, Ko et al., 2010, Li et al., 2010, Sun et al., 2010, Zhang et al., 2010, Choi et al., 2009, Cziko et al., 2009, Fan et al., 2009, Kotwica et al., 2009, O'Keefe et al., 2009, Yu et al., 2009, Chiu et al., 2008, Kivimäe et al., 2008, Ogawa et al., 2008, Sekine et al., 2008, Yang et al., 2008, Huang et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Ko et al., 2007, Muskus et al., 2007, Nawathean et al., 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Klein et al., 2006, Price, 2006, Yu et al., 2006, Zhou et al., 2006, Cyran et al., 2005, Looby and Loudon, 2005, Xu et al., 2005, Marino, 2004, Preuss et al., 2004, Preuss et al., 2004, Sathyanarayanan et al., 2004, Smolen et al., 2004, Hall, 2003, Stanewsky, 2003, Ko et al., 2002, Lefers and Holmgren, 2002, Panda et al., 2002, Price and Kalderon, 2002, Bao et al., 2001, Brown and Schibler, 2001, Clayton et al., 2001, Kloss et al., 2001, Kyriacou and Hastings, 2001, Merrow and Roenneberg, 2001, Roenneberg and Merrow, 2001, Rosato and Kyriacou, 2001, Bae et al., 2000, Hardin, 2000, Lakin-Thomas, 2000, Loudon et al., 2000, Rothenfluh et al., 2000, Rothenfluh et al., 2000, Scully and Kay, 2000, Suri et al., 2000, Wager-Smith and Kay, 2000, Yang et al., 2000, Young, 2000, Young, 2000, Andretic and Hirsh, 1999, Andretic et al., 1999, Dunlap, 1999, Dunlap et al., 1999, Giebultowicz, 1999, Spradling et al., 1999, Subramanian and Lakhotia, 1999, Tsang, 1999.3.2, Tyson et al., 1999, Wolf, 1999, Zilian et al., 1999, Anonymous, 1998, Costa and Kyriacou, 1998, Dunlap, 1998, Green, 1998, Hardin, 1998, Kaneko, 1998, Kloss, 1998.3.24, Kloss et al., 1998, Peters, 1998, Price et al., 1998, Reppert, 1998, Whitmore et al., 1998, Wilsbacher and Takahashi, 1998, Young, 1998, Meister and Braun, 1995.10, BDGP Project Members, 1994-1999)
          l(3)discs overgrown-1
          l(3)rK215
          Name Synonyms
          Casein Kinase I epsilon
          Casein Kinase Iε
          Casein kinase 1
          Casein kinase I epsilon
          Double-Time
          disc overgrown
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0011349
          • FBgn0011508
          • FBgn0024895
          • FBgn0027967
          • FBgn0028129
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          Project
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          References (308)