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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pho
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pleiohomeotic
Annotation Symbol
CG17743
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002521
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
pleiohomeotic (pho) encodes a zinc-finger protein that binds to Polycomb response elements and is required for recruitment of Polycomb group protein complexes to chromatin. It is primarily a transcriptional repressor. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

l(4)29, YY1, l(4)BU-2, l(4)OC-1, l(4)102EFc

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
4:1,172,469..1,181,628 [-]
Recombination map

4-0

RefSeq locus
NC_004353 REGION:1172469..1181628
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (23 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VDY1
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000360827
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
POLYCOMB GROUP RECRUITERS/DNA-BINDING PROTEINS -
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators, best characterized for the repression of Hox gene expression. In Drosophila, PcG proteins repress their target genes by binding to specific DNA elements called Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). PcG DNA binding proteins contribute to the recruitment of Polycomb complexes to PREs. (Adapted from FBrf0228921).
INO80 COMPLEX -
The INO80 complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller that can mobilize nucleosomes. (Adapted from PMID:17316710).
PHO REPRESSIVE COMPLEX -
In Drosophila, the Pho repressive complex (PhoRC) can bind Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) and recruit Polycomb repressive complexes. (Adapted from FBrf0190547 and FBrf0220020).
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Polycomb group (PcG) protein that binds to the 5'-CNGCCATNNNNG-3' sequence found in the regulatory regions of many genes. PcG proteins act by forming multiprotein complexes, which are required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins are not required to initiate repression, but to maintain it during later stages of development. They probably act via the methylation of histones, rendering chromatin heritably changed in its expressibility. Probably targets the Esc/E(z) complex to DNA. Necessary but not sufficient to recruit a functional PcG repressive complex that represses target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required to allow a subsequent repression. Proposed core component of the chromatin remodeling Ino80 complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and probably DNA repair.
(UniProt, Q8ST83)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
l(4)102EFc (R. Denell)
Homozygotes from heterozygous mothers die as pupae (Hochman). Those that reach the pharate-adult stage show partial homeotic transformations of first and second antennal segments into proximal leg structures, meso- and metathoracic legs into prothoracic legs, as well as posteriorly directed transformations of features of the abdominal hypoderm and of parovaria into spermathecae in females. All three pairs of legs distorted, with tarsal segments swollen and sometimes fused with missing claws; some abnormalities of derivatives of the antennal disc and of the dorsal prothorax also present (Gehring; Duncan). Heterozygous adults normal, except that males also heterozygous for a deficiency or mutation of E(Pc) occasionally develop sex-comb teeth on meso- and metathoracic legs (Sato et al.). Heterozygous and homozygous larvae from heterozygous mothers normal; homozygotes from transplanted homozygous ovaries die as late embryos with a complex homeotic syndrome. Head involution incomplete, and portions of head develop abdominal-like denticles. All thoracic segments partially transformed to resemble the first abdominal segment, and more posterior segments may develop cuticular features characteristic of the eighth abdominal segment. Heterozygtoes from homozygous ovaries sometimes die as late embryos displaying relatively mild homeotic effects of the head and mesothorax or slightly incomplete head involution or both, but often hatch and die during larval or pupal stages. Rarely, adults eclose, often with appendages that are crippled or are missing owing to failure of imaginal-disc evagination (Denell). Most embryos produced by oocytes hemizygous for l(4)102EFc3 and l(4)102EFc4, achieved by pole-cell transplantation, fail to form cuticle, even with a wild-type paternal complement; a few of the latter genotype produce enough cuticle to reveal extensive defects in segmentation; setal belts usually missing or transformed; head involution fails; anterior hole present in most embryos (Breen and Duncan, 1986, Dev. Biol. 118: 442-45).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

zinc finger - Polycomb group - the first Polycomb group member to be identified as a DNA binding protein - targets Polycomb response elements involved in gene silencing

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pho or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pho for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089204
2381
520
FBtr0089205
2159
520
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.341 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088268
58.2
520
6.74
FBpp0088269
58.2
520
6.74
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

520 aa isoforms: pho-PA, pho-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

520 (aa); 58 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Rpd3 and Caf1. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Component of the chromatin remodeling Ino80 complex. Interacts with Sfmbt to form a pho-repressive complex (PhoRC).

(UniProt, Q8ST83)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pho using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pho in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 9 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 27 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pho
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pho
Deletions and Duplications ( 13 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
3  
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BN1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502KF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02BX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X029J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03FM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
6 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Rpd3 and Caf1. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Component of the chromatin remodeling Ino80 complex. Interacts with Sfmbt to form a pho-repressive complex (PhoRC).
    (UniProt, Q8ST83 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    4
    Recombination map

    4-0

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    4:1,172,469..1,181,628 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    102F8-102F8
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Mapped in diplo-4 triploids.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (20)
    Genomic Clones (11)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (158)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: pho CG17743

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for pho protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).

    The 'PhoRC' (pho-Sfmbt) complex binds PREs via the pho protein and methylated histones in the chromatin flanking the PREs via the Sfmbt protein to maintain a repressed chromatin state.

    pho and phol act redundantly to repress homeotic genes.

    pho encodes a sequence-specific DNA binding protein that interacts with PRE in the en gene. The pho protein is proposed to act to anchor PcG protein complexes to DNA.

    In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.

    Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.

    A pho maternal effect mutant produces embryos with a twisted phenotype, similar to those of dorsal-ventral axis mutations.

    Maternal function of pho is vital for embryonic development and can support embryonic, larvl and much of adult development.

    pho is one of several Pc-G genes required for the repression of gap genes by maternally supplied hb product.

    Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.

    Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic pho product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.

    The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.

    Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that pho is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.

    Homozygotes from heterozygous mothers die as pupae (Hochman). Those that reach the pharate-adult stage show partial homeotic transformations of first and second antennal segments into proximal leg structures, meso- and metathoracic legs into prothoracic legs, as well as posteriorly directed transformations of features of the abdominal hypoderm and of parovaria into spermathecae in females. All three pairs of legs distorted, with tarsal segments swollen and sometimes fused with missing claws; some abnormalities of derivatives of the antennal disc and of the dorsal prothorax also present (Gehring, 1970; Duncan, 1982). Heterozygous adults normal, except that males also heterozygous for a deficiency or mutation of E(Pc) occasionally develop sex-comb teeth on meso- and metathoracic legs (Sato et al., 1983). Heterozygous and homozygous larvae from heterozygous mothers normal; homozygotes from transplanted homozygous ovaries die as late embryos with a complex homeotic syndrome. Head involution incomplete and portions of head develop abdominal-like denticles. All thoracic segments partially transformed to resemble the first abdominal segment, and more posterior segments may develop cuticular features characteristic of the eighth abdominal segment. Heterozygotes from homozygous ovaries sometimes die as late embryos displaying relatively mild homeotic effects of the head and mesothorax or slightly incomplete head involution or both, but often hatch and die during larval or pupal stages. Rarely, adults eclose, often with appendages that are crippled or are missing owing to failure of imaginal-disc evagination (Denell). Most embryos produced by oocytes hemizygous for phob and phoc, achieved by pole-cell transplantation, fail to form cuticle, even with a wild-type paternal complement; a few of the latter genotype produce enough cuticle to reveal extensive defects in segmentation; setal belts usually missing or transformed; head involution fails; anterior hole present in most embryos (Breen and Duncan, 1986).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 112 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0005575
    • FBgn0024914
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • transgene_used
    Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
    • bait_protein
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