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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Lam
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Lamin
Annotation Symbol
CG6944
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002525
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
lamin Dm0, Dm0, Dm0, lamin Dm0, lamin B
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:5,542,480..5,546,642 [+]
Recombination map
2-17
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the intermediate filament family. (P08928)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LAMINS -
Lamins are type V intermediate filament that form the major component of the nuclear lamina (FBrf0200518).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Lamins are components of the nuclear lamina, a fibrous layer on the nucleoplasmic side of the inner nuclear membrane, which is thought to provide a framework for the nuclear envelope and may also interact with chromatin (PubMed:3126192, PubMed:15035436). May have a role in the localization of the LEM domain proteins Ote, bocks and MAN1 to the nuclear membrane (PubMed:15035436, PubMed:16439308). In spermatocytes, plays a role in maintaining type-A lamin LamC nuclear localization; regulates meiotic cytokinesis by maintaining the structure of the spindle envelope, and by contributing to the formation of the contractile ring and central spindle (PubMed:27402967).
(UniProt, P08928)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Lam: Lamin
The structural gene for nuclear lamin. Translated as a prolamin of apparent molecular mass of 76-kd, which is quickly processed to a 74-kd species, presumably by proteolysis. The processed polypeptide is assembled into the nuclear envelope, where it becomes phosphorylated and again attains a mass of 76 kd (Smith, Gruenbaum, Berrios, and Fisher, 1987, J. Cell Biol. 105: 771-90).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
an intermediate filament protein - chromatin associated protein - Lamin binds to scaffold/matrix-associated regions, DNA sequences that are held responsiblefor mediating the interaction between the nuclear matrix and chromatin.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Lam or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Lam for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079100
3129
622
FBtr0307058
3235
622
FBtr0307059
3504
622
FBtr0346460
3191
622
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.0, 2.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078733
71.3
622
6.40
FBpp0297901
71.3
622
6.40
FBpp0297902
71.3
622
6.40
FBpp0312110
71.3
622
6.40
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

622 aa isoforms: Lam-PA, Lam-PB, Lam-PC, Lam-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
622 (aa); 76 (kD observed); 71 (kD predicted)
Comments
The 76 kD Lam polypeptide is post-translationally modified to give a 74 kD form.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts directly with LBR (PubMed:15054108). Interacts with MAN1 (PubMed:16439308). Interacts with Ote (PubMed:9632815, PubMed:22751930).
(UniProt, P08928)
Post Translational Modification
Three forms of lamin have been identified in D.melanogaster, lamin Dm0 is rapidly processed to lamin Dm1 in the cytoplasm, Dm1 is then assembled in the nuclear envelope and is then phosphorylated, forming lamin Dm2.
(UniProt, P08928)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Lam using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (37 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:fs(1)Ya; FB:FBgn0000927
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Ote; FB:FBgn0266420
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:wash; FB:FBgn0033692
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8MLV1
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (27 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (27 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with spindle envelope
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The 3.0 kb Lam transcript is expressed at all stages, from embryo to adult. Although the 2.8 kb Lam transcript predominates in late oogenesis and early embryogenesis, the 3.0 kb transcript predominates starting at 2-3 hours of embryogenesis. Both transcripts encode the same polypeptide, and differ in their 3'-untranslated regions.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
salivary gland
nucleus

Comment: 8-14 hr APF; full-length 76 kD Lamin

salivary gland

Comment: 12-14 hr APF; cleaved 45 kD Lamin

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
salivary gland

Comment: 8-14 hr APF; full-length 76 kD Lamin

salivary gland

Comment: 12-14 hr APF; cleaved 45 kD Lamin

Additional Descriptive Data
Lam protein is a nuclear envelope polypeptide which remains in an envelope-like structure enclosing the mitotic apparatus throughout mitosis.
Full-length Lam is abundant at 8 hours APF, but decreases from 10-12 hours APF, and is at low to absent levels at 14 hours APF. Cleaved Lam is observed starting at 10 hours APF, and is abundant by 14 hours APF.
Lam protein is a component of the individualization complex in late spermatogenesis.
Between stages S4 and S6-S7 of oogenesis, Lam protein localizes to the nuclear periphery in all cell types, but after stage S6-S7, nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic accumulation is also observed. During larval, pupal and adult stages Lam protein localizes to the nucleus of most cells. No Lam protein is detected during stages 6-11 of spermiogenesis.
Lam protein is nuclear. There is some, but not complete, overlap in subcellular Lam and LamC protein expression.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with spindle envelope
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Lam in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 23 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Lam
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Lam
Deletions and Duplications ( 26 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
cystocyte & nucleus & pharate adult
eye & nucleus & pharate adult
eye disc & nucleus | ectopic
eye disc & nucleus | ectopic (with Df(2L)cl-h4)
eye disc & nucleus | ectopic | somatic clone
gonad | male & pharate adult
nucleus & eye photoreceptor cell & eye disc
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (35)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
 
11 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (27)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (25)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
12 of 13
No
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (18)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (29)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (13)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906QY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502Y4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03QW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03NX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05LK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
9 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 9 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts directly with LBR (PubMed:15054108). Interacts with MAN1 (PubMed:16439308). Interacts with Ote (PubMed:9632815, PubMed:22751930).
(UniProt, P08928 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-17
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:5,542,480..5,546,642 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
25E6-25E6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Hel25Ek11511 and P{lacW}l(2)k06502k06502
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
25E5-25E6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
25F1-25F2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (18)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (105)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: Lam CG6944
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Lam l(2)04643
    Source for merge of: Lam misguided l(2)25Ec
    Source for merge of: misguided l(2)25Ec
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Lam is required in the cyst stem cell lineage but is dispensible in both the germline and the hub cells in the testis.
    Lam is required to regulate organisation of the stem cell niche in the testis so that both the cyst stem cells and germline stem cells can assume proper interactions with the hub.
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Lam protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
    Lam is required for nuclear attachment to the microtubule organizing centre and for localization of klar to the nuclear envelope.
    Mutations in Lam disrupt the directed outgrowth of the cytoplasmic extensions from terminal cells of the tracheal system. Female germline mutant clones disrupt the dorsal-ventral polarity of the oocyte.
    Lam protein interacts with both Ote and fs(1)Ya in a yeast two-hybrid system.
    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
    Biochemical techniques reveal that in living cells lamins are closely associated with both DNA and RNA.
    The Lam gene product is essential for the structural integrity of the nuclear envelope and for the correct integration of nuclear pore complexes into the nuclear membrane.
    Recruitment of fs(1)Ya and Lam to the male pronucleus occurs prior to or during the early stages of pronuclear migration and this accompanies or requires reorganisation of the sperm nucleus.
    Region of a DNA fragment, λ20p1.4, which is a moderately repetitive sequence of the genome present in about 120 copies per haploid genome, polymerises with purified Lam.
    The alpha-helical rod domain of Lam is sufficient for the specific interaction with the M/SAR fragment of ftz. For this specific interaction to occur it is essential that Lam is organised above the level of the dimer.
    Identified as being specifically expressed in the terminal cells of the developing tracheal system and required for the formation and outgrowth of the terminal branches.
    Monoclonal antibody ADL84 is specific for Lam Dm1 and does not bind Lam Dm2. The antibody demonstrates that isolated interphase Lams Dm1 and Dm2 occur as mixed dimers, indicating random interactions. Mapping of the epitope for ADL84 shows Lam Dm2-specific phosphorylation takes place in the amino terminal head domain, most likely at Ser25.
    Nuclear assembly has been followed in a cell free system: the Lam gene product plays essential role in nuclear envelope assembly.
    Three isoforms of Lam protein have been purified and their activity in vitro has been studied.
    Lam has been cloned and sequenced.
    Some Lam protein is apparently retained in an envelope-like structure throughout mitosis in early Drosophila embryos.
    A soluble isoform of Lam protein has been identified in the extracts of cultured cells blocked in mitosis. This isoform is the only species detectable in late-stage egg chambers and early embryos. The conversion of nuclear isoforms of Lam protein to this soluble isoform is mediated by a specific rearrangement of phosphate groups rather than large net changes in the levels of Lam protein phosphorylation. The residues involved in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions have been tentatively mapped within the fragment containing amino acids 385-547.
    l(2)25Ec was included as part of a study of the 24D4--25F2 region.
    Gene identified by screening a lambda-gt11 cDNA expression library, constructed from early embryonic mRNA, with monoclonal antibodies against Drosophila lamin. The structural gene for nuclear lamin. Translated as a prolamin of apparent molecular mass of 76kD, which is quickly processed to a 74kD species, presumably by proteolysis. The processed polypeptide is assembled into the nuclear envelope, where it becomes phosphorylated and again attains a mass of 76kD (Smith, Gruenbaum, Berrios, and Fisher, 1987).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    The gene is named "misguided" because terminal branches of the tracheal system do not follow the normal patterns of projection during branch outgrowth in mutants.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 68 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (73)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(2)25Ec
    l(2)gdh7
    l(2)jf27
    Name Synonyms
    intermediate filament-like lamina
    lamin Dm[[0]]
    lethal(2)25Ec
    α-Lamin
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0001930
    • FBgn0010582
    • FBgn0014344
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • transgene_used
    The insulator protein SU(HW) modulates nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.
    • transgene_used
    Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
    References (449)