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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Lcp4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Larval cuticle protein 4
Annotation Symbol
CG2044
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002535
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Component of the larval cuticle. (UniProt, P07189)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

LCP-4

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-59
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:8437647..8438495
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (3 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence model
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002571557
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence model
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002571557
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence model
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CPR CUTICLE PROTEIN FAMILY -
The largest cuticle protein family, the CPR family, contain a 35 amino acid R&R consensus (named after Rebers and Riddiford, PMID:2462055), which in an extended form has been shown to bind chitin (PMID:15475300). (Adapted from FBrf0242484.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Component of the larval cuticle.
(UniProt, P07189)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Lcp1-4
Encode larval cuticle proteins CP1, CP2, CP3, and CP4 (alternatively L3CP1 to L3CP4); molecular weights 17.5, 17.5, 9 and 13 kd respectively. Each has a 15-residue signal peptide.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Lcp4 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry P07189)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Apparent introns not annotated: probable artifact due to repetitive sequence.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088744
792
112
FBtr0333555
527
112
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

0.5-0.6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
UniProt
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087823
12.0
112
4.26
FBpp0305733
12.0
112
4.26
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

112 aa isoforms: Lcp4-PA, Lcp4-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Lcp4 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that the Fly Cell Atlas project found the gene expressed in that cell type. Darker colors mean that more cells of that cell type express the gene:
 low
high 
Colorless tiles indicate that there is no scRNAseq data for the gene in that cell type.
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data (RNA and/or protein) has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
Colored tiles in the ribbon indicate the average RNA expression level of the gene at the indicated stages:
 low
high 
as determined by RNA-seq (RPKM) using whole organism samples modENCODE, Brown et al., 2014. For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 7-13 hr APF

Additional Descriptive Data

Lcp4 transript is expressed at highest levels during the synthesis of the third instar larval cuticle, but is also detected at significant levels in first and second instar larvae, and in wandering third instar larvae. Lcp4 transcript is detected in pupae, up to 7-13 hours after pupariation.

Lcp4 is expressed in the integument of late third instar larvae.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Lcp4 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Lcp4
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Lcp4
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (60)
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Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-59
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    44D1-44D1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Rs1k09514&P{lacW}l(2)k03110k03110 and P{lacW}Vps25k08904&P{lacW}ptck02507
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (3)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (25)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Lcp4 CG2044

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    The genes Lcp4 and Lcp3 share >70% identity and close proximity, and so may have been derived from a DNA-based tandem duplication.

    Other Comments

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    Lcp3 and Lcp4 are in one cluster with Lcp1 and Lcp2 but are transcribed in the opposite orientation.

    The chromatin structure of the larval cuticle gene cluster at 44D (Lcp1, Lcp1Ψ, Lcp2, Lcp3 and Lcp4) has been characterised in embryos.

    Lcp1, Lcp2, Lcp3 and Lcp4 are clustered at 44D, and coordinately expressed.

    One of a series of genes encoding electrophoretically separable proteins extractable from the cuticles of third instar larvae, but not other stages. Four immunologically related proteins are encoded by a cluster of genes on 2R and another cluster of three unrelated to the preceding four, but related to each other, located on 3L. Lcp4 encodes larval cuticle protein CP4 (alternatively L3CP4); molecular weight 13kD. Has a 15-residue signal peptide.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (0)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    References (57)