factor 2, Horka, Fs(3)Hor, Negative transcription elongation factor 2
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
974 (aa); 155 (kD observed)
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\lds using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\lds in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Only double stranded DNA (dsDNA) effectively activates the lds ATPase. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) not only fails to activate the ATPase, but suppresses the dsDNA-dependent ATPase. Interaction of lds with dsDNA is important to couple the ATPase with the transcript release activity. Although properties of the product suggest that it might have helicase activity DNA unwinding activity associated with lds is undetectable.
Transcript release activity of lds requires ATP or dATP and NTPs do not support the activity.
A 154kD lds protein has been purified. This factor causes the release of transcripts by RNA polymerase II in an ATP-dependent manner.
lds is essential for the production of DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole)-sensitive long transcripts in vitro, and consists of two subunits of 124 and 43kD.
Mutations in lds cause chromatin bridges at anaphase.
Immunocytological approach is used to address the behaviour of essential mitotic gene products in embryonic cell cycles.
Mutation is named "Horka" after a Hungarian clan that vanished by the beginning of the 14th century but their names survived in the names of settlements.