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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\robo2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
roundabout 2
Annotation Symbol
CG5481
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002543
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
roundabout 2 (robo2) encodes a member of the Robo receptor family that responds to the ligand encoded by sli as a repulsive cue in axons, dendrites, muscles, trachea and heart development. It can also inhibit robo1 signaling, likely explaining why the product of robo2 can appear to be an attractive receptor in certain contexts. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
lea, leak, D-Robo2, Robo 2, robo-2
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:1,380,086..1,420,453 [-]
Recombination map
2-3
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ROUNDABOUT -
The Roundabout genes encode transmembrane receptors that mediate repulsive cues by binding to midline repellent sli and regulate axon guidance. (Adapted from FBrf0210796).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
lea: leak
Embryonic lethal. Head involution incomplete. In combination with Pc-like mutants, abdominal transformations occur.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transmembrane receptor - regulates heart cell and tracheal branch migration and axon guidance - acts in trans to inhibit Slit-Robo1 repulsion in pre-crossing commissural axons
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\robo2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\robo2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077941
6206
1463
FBtr0329985
6206
1519
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077606
160.0
1463
8.28
FBpp0303020
166.2
1519
8.04
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\robo2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
robo2 transcript is expressed in the embryonic/larval heart at embryonic stage 16 but not in cardiogenic mesoderm at stage 11.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
epidermis | dorsal | restricted

Comment: near anterior segment boundaries

olfactory receptor neuron
axon

Comment: 0-24 hr APF; surface of antennal lobe

adult antennal lobe commissure | vicinity of
axon

Comment: reference states 0-40 hr APF; expression is lateral to anntennal commissure

Additional Descriptive Data
robo2 protein is detected in the gonads at embryonic stage 13 and at higher levels at stage 15. It is observed at contact sites between somatic gonadal precursors as well as contact sites between germ cells and somatic gonadal precursors.
At embryonic stages 12-14, robo2 is expressed in the ectodermal domains between the chordotonal organ precursors. During chordotonal organ migration, robo2 is highly expressed in a patch of visceral mesoderm in segments T2 and T3, but is not detected in the abdominal visceral mesoderm. robo2 is strongly expressed in the dendrites of embryonic chordotonal neurons.
robo and robo2 are detected in epidermal cells including the ventral sensory precursor cells. robo3 is not detected at any time in epidermal cells.
robo1, robo2, and robo3 proteins are expressed in overlapping patterns in the larval central nervous system and developing visual system.
robo2 protein is detected in several parts of the tracheal system including the dorsal trunk, transverse connectives, dorsal branch, spiracular branches and ganglionic branches in stage 13 and 14 embryos. No robo2 protein is detected in the lateral trunk or visceral branches. There is an additional stripe of epidemal expression on the dorsal surface near the anterior segment boundaries. No axonal staining is detected in the dorsal sensory neurons or lch5 chrodotonal neurons.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\robo2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 38 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of robo2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of robo2
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidial dendrite, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidial dendritic cap cell, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
cell body & serotonin neuron
cell body & serotonin neuron, with Scer\GAL4eg-Mz360
olfactory neuron & antennal lobe | somatic clone
serotonin neuron & ventral nerve cord
serotonin neuron & ventral nerve cord, with Scer\GAL4eg-Mz360
tergal depressor of trochanter muscle motor neuron & dendrite, with Scer\GAL4shakB.lethal.4.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
No
Yes
 
7 of 15
No
No
7 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
7 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
6 of 12
Yes
No
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
8 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
6 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900PI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500KW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01CS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (21)
5 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-3
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:1,380,086..1,420,453 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    22A1-22A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)1068510685&P{lacW}Tango14k00619 and P{lacW}RFeSPk11704
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Mapped using recombination and deficiency mapping (details unspecified).
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (41)
    cDNA Clones (128)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: robo2 lea
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: lea robo2
    Source for merge of: lea anon- EST:Liang-1 .75
    Source for merge of: robo2 CG14347 CG14348 CG5481 CG5574
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of robo2 CG14347 CG14348 CG5481 CG5574 was sequence comparison ( date:001223 ).
    Other Comments
    robo2 protein promotes midline crossing in the developing nervous system by inhibiting the activity of robo1 protein. robo2 does not promote midline crossing in the cells in which is is produced. Instead, it instructs other robo1-producing nerve cells to cross the midline.
    The lateral positioning of longitudinal axon pathways in the embryo relies primarily on differences in robo gene regulation, not on distinct combinations of the three robo proteins (robo, lea and robo3) as previously thought. However, the unique structural features of robo are required to prevent midline crossing and the unique structural features of lea are required to promote midline crossing.
    lea is required in the thoracic visceral mesoderm to prevent migration of neighbouring thoracic chordotonal organs during development so that they remain in a dorsal position in the thorax.
    low levels of lea or robo and robo3 have both distinct and overlapping functions in controlling pathway choices within the central nervous system.
    lea and robo work together to control repulsive axon guidance in the midline of the embryonic ventral cord.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (27)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CG14347
    CG14348
    Robo2 (Lea)
    anon-EST:Liang-1.75
    robo2
    (Tegeder et al., 2019, Ros et al., 2018, Manavalan et al., 2017, Nagy et al., 2017, Santiago and Bashaw, 2017, Dubois et al., 2016, Evans, 2016, Friedrich et al., 2016, Ito et al., 2016, Oliva et al., 2016, Raza and Jacobs, 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Evans et al., 2015, Bashaw et al., 2014.11.4, Biteau and Jasper, 2014, Santiago et al., 2014, Evans and Bashaw, 2012, Knox et al., 2011, Meyer et al., 2011, Pappu et al., 2011, Schulz et al., 2011, Shin and Diantonio, 2011, Smart et al., 2011, Weyers et al., 2011, Evans and Bashaw, 2010, Evans and Bashaw, 2010, Evans et al., 2010, Mellert et al., 2010, Spitzweck et al., 2010, Chen and Condron, 2009, Zlatic et al., 2009, Chen and Condron, 2008, Dimitrova et al., 2008, Kucherenko et al., 2008, Kurusu et al., 2008, Medioni et al., 2008, Ou et al., 2008, Zmojdzian et al., 2008, Grueber et al., 2007, Magalhaes et al., 2007, Santiago-Martinez et al., 2006, Kolesnikov and Beckendorf, 2005, Nicolas and Preat, 2005, Qian et al., 2005, Sano et al., 2005, Spitzweck, 2005, Zhu et al., 2005, Zmojdzian et al., 2005, Ackley and Jin, 2004, Couch et al., 2004, Jhaveri et al., 2004, Johnson et al., 2004, Kinrade and Hidalgo, 2004, Kraut and Zinn, 2004, Lee et al., 2004, Lundstrom et al., 2004, Orgogozo et al., 2004, Schnorrer and Dickson, 2004, Steigemann et al., 2004, Tayler et al., 2004, Kraut and Zinn, 2003, McGovern et al., 2003, Parsons et al., 2003, Piper and Little, 2003, Uv et al., 2003, Zlatic et al., 2003, Couch et al., 2002, Englund et al., 2002, Kramer and Goodman, 2002, Kraut and Zinn, 2002, Wills et al., 2002, Auld, 2001, Dickson, 2001, Dickson, 2001.3.14, Guthrie, 2001, Jones, 2001, Keleman and Dickson, 2001, Kramer et al., 2001, Kramer et al., 2001, Kraut and Zinn, 2001, Orlando, 2001, Simpson et al., 2001, Tear, 2001, van Meyel et al., 2001, Bashaw et al., 2000, Rajagopalan et al., 2000, Rajagopalan et al., 2000, Rusch and Van Vactor, 2000, Simpson et al., 2000, Simpson et al., 2000, Vogel, 2000, Tear, 1999, Van Vactor and Flanagan, 1999)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0024195
    • FBgn0025977
    • FBgn0031338
    • FBgn0031339
    • FBgn0031340
    • FBgn0031341
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (233)