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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\l(1)sc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
lethal of scute
Annotation Symbol
CG3839
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002561
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

l'sc, T3, AS-C T3, lsc, EG:198A6.2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:409,721..410,817 [+]
Recombination map

1-0

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:409721..410817
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
AS-C proteins are involved in the determination of the neuronal precursors in the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.
(UniProt, P09774)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
l(1)sc: lethal at scute
Deficiency from which existence of l(1)sc inferred, i.e., In(1)sc4Lsc9R, embryonic lethal. Volume of embryonic ventral nerve cord slightly reduced; posterior commisures thinner than in wild type; longitudinal connectives virtually lacking. Concomitant deletions for scα or scα and ac cause more severe CNS disruptions, although by themselves these deletions have no observable CNS effects; simultaneous deletion of the sc/ region also enchances the CNS disruptions (Jimenez and Campos-Ortega). Transiently expressed at periphery of syncytial blastoderm; late blastoderm shows paired dorsolateral and ventrolateral longitudinal stripes of expression, the latter being coincident with the presumptive neurogenic ectoderm. During germ-band expression, l(1)sc expression seen in many cell clusters over most of the ectoderm; segmental distribution becomes apparent both internally and externally. l(1)sc expression seen in many foci in the head region and in the posterior midgut rudiment (Romani, Campuzano, and Modolell, 1987, EMBO J. 6: 2085-92; Cabrera, Martinez-Arias, and Bate, 1987, Cell 50: 425-33). Little if any expression in later stages, except in the central nervous system (Romani, Campuzano, Macagno, and Modolell, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 997-1007).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - basic HLH - proneural gene that is also involved in specification of muscle progenitors

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\l(1)sc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\l(1)sc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070074
1097
257
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070073
29.0
257
6.34
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein.

(UniProt, P09774)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\l(1)sc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

l(1)sc is expressed in posterior midline glia but not in anterior midline glia in stage 12 embryos.

At cellular blastoderm, l(1)sc transcripts are expressed in 12 dorsolateral stripes of alternating intensity which are interrupted by a narrow lateral nonexpressing strip and dorsal and ventral nonexpressing regions. At gastrulation, the weaker stripes increase in intensity. At germ band extension, the pattern of expression evolves into a "circle" pattern and subsequently into the "double stripe" pattern. The mRNA level appears constant throughout.

l(1)sc transcripts are uniformly distributed in early embryos. In the cellular blastoderm, transcripts are localized within stripes in the presumptive neurectoderm. By early gastrula, there is one stripe per metameric unit and transcripts are also detected in the procephalic neurogenic region. Between stages 8 and 9, the pattern changes to two stripes per metamere. l(1)sc is expressed in the segregating neuroblasts as well as in the cells that remain ectodermal. l(1)sc transcripts are also observed in cephalic neuroblasts and in the posterior midgut. In stages 11 and 12, l(1)sc is expressed by some ganglion mother cells. It then appears to be expressed in PNS precursors. Later expression appears to be restricted to the stomatogastric nervous system and the optic lobes.

l(1)sc transcripts are detected in a dynamic pattern from syncytial blastoderm through stage 11 embryos and are expressed in most neurogenic regions. In blastoderm embryos, l(1)sc is expressed in pairs of longitudinal bands located ventro- and dorso-laterally. Later, expression is seen in clusters of cells over most of the ectoderm. After stage 10 some clusters of expressing cells are found internally near the mesoderm. Expression is also seen along the midline and cephalic regions.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

l(1)sc-protein is expressed in cells of the larval outer optic anlage and in cells of the proximal part of the inner proliferation center that migrate towards the distal part.

l(1)sc is expressed in all midline precursors including MP1, MP3, MP4, MP5, and MP6 at embryonic stages 10-11 and in the MNB at stages 10-12. It remains present in the newly divided neurons of MP3 (H cell and H cell sib), MP5, and MP6. Levels persist in the H-cell longer than in H-cell sib. l(1)sc is undetectable in the progeny of MP1 and MP4. By the end of stage 11, it is no longer detectable in midline neurons. l(1)sc is present in PMG from stages 10-12 and occasionally appears weakly in 2 AMG.

l(1)sc is expressed in one or two rows of neural progenitor cells in the medial neurepithelial region in the developing optic lobe.

l(1)sc is transiently expressed in a narrow band of 1-2 cells at the medial edge of the neuroepithelial sheet. The band precedes neuroblast formation and moves laterally across the optic lobe throughout the third larval instar period. The l(1)sc-expressing cells lead a front that sweeps across the optic lobe (called a proneural wave) and induces neurepithelial cells to become neuroblasts.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - d1-d4, d6, d7, v3; deuterocerebrum - d1, d3, d6, d7, v2, v4-v6, v8; protocerebrum - ad1, ad3, ad5, ad7-10, ad13-15, ad17, av1, cd2, cd3, cd5, cd6, cd8-10, cd14-17, cd19-21, cv1-9, pd3, pd5, pd8-11, pd13, pd15, pd17, pd18, pv1-3

In stages 8-11 ac and l(1)sc proteins are expressed in a dynamic pattern in the procephalic neurectoderm in a largely complementary pattern. By stage 8 l(1)sc protein is detected in a large central domain and as development proceeds the area of protein expression increases. The first proto and deuterocerebral neuroblasts develop from this area. About 60% of all neuroblasts formed until stage 11 express l(1)sc. In stage 8 ac expression is detected in a small dorsal ocular and antennal group of cells. In stage 9 ac expression expands to several large domains in the neuroectoderm.

l(1)sc is expressed in a characteristic pattern in the mesoderm starting at embryonic stage 10. Between stage 10 and 12, it is expressed in at least 19 clusters of cells in each segment with some segment specificity to the pattern. In each cluster, one cell comes to express l(1)sc while expression is lost from other cells of the cluster. One or two cells from each cluster coexpress slou and l(1)sc. The progenitors divide and produce two cells that continue to express slou but not l(1)sc and are the founders of distinct muscles.

Significant l(1)sc protein accumulation begins well after RNA accumulation, from mid-stage 8 onwards. At the onset of the first wave of neuroblast segregation, only a subset of cells that express RNA also express protein. These l(1)sc protein-expressing cells are thought to be the segregating neuroblasts. In N and Dl mutants, l(1)sc protein expression is not limited to the neuroblasts, but occurs in all cells that accumulate RNA.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\l(1)sc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 25 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of l(1)sc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of l(1)sc
Deletions and Duplications ( 23 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
macrochaeta & abdominal sternite 1, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & abdominal sternite 2, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & abdominal sternite 3, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & abdominal sternite 4, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & abdominal sternite 5, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & abdominal sternite 6, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & mesothoracic laterotergite, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
macrochaeta & metathoracic laterotergite, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
macrochaeta & pronotum, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
macrochaeta & scutellum, with Scer\GAL4455.2
macrochaeta & scutum, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
macrochaeta & wing, with Scer\GAL4564.2
microchaeta & mesothoracic laterotergite, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
microchaeta & metathoracic laterotergite, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
microchaeta & pronotum, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
microchaeta & scutum, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
scutellum & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (26)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
No
 
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
 
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (24)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (22)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (18)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (22)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (14)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HWM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DVS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0JED )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0JIR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
7 of 10
7 of 10
5 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein.
    (UniProt, P09774 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map

    1-0

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:409,721..410,817 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1B1-1B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG17896EP1320&P{EP}EP1398 and P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (9)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (269)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: l(1)sc CG3839

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

      Analysis of the function of l(1)sc.

      tll expression in brain neuroblasts is examined and it is demonstrated that the expression is not detectably regulated by btd, oc, l(1)sc or tll itself.

      The bHLH domains of the gene products encoded by the E(spl)-C and AS-C differ in their ability to form homo- and/or heterodimers. The interactions established through the bHLH link the products of the two complexes in a single interaction network which may function to ensure that a given cell retains the capacity to choose between epidermoblast and neuroblast fates until the cell becomes definitively determined.

      ac-sc mutants are epistatic over E(spl)-C mutants.

      All proneural proteins are similarly able to promote the segregation of a neural precursor at the MP2 neuroblast position but show distinct capacities in its specification.

      The function of l(1)sc is not interchangable with that of ac or sc within the MP2, specification of MP2 is similar in embryos lacking ac/sc compared with those lacking ac/sc plus ectopic l(1)sc expression.

      The expression pattern of proneural genes of the AS-C and neurogenic genes of the E(spl)-C are examined in the procephlon and a map of the cells is constructed.

      Loss of function and over-expression phenotypes indicate a role for l(1)sc in the segregation of muscle progenitors and the formation of the muscle pattern.

      Overexpression of da using the GAL4 system, but not the ectopic expression of the AS-C genes l(1)sc or sc, leads to the formation of ectopic neural cells in embryonic tissue without neural competence. This effect os strongly enhanced by coexpressing l(1)sc or sc. Expression of da and/or l(1)sc is not sufficient to overcome the lateral inhibition in the analgen of the embryonic nervous system.

      Neurogenic genes principally regulate l(1)sc expression at the transcriptional level without affecting the domains of proneural gene expression. N and neur are required for the establishment of the mesectodermal fate, Dl and members of the E(spl) complex may be involved in the same process.

      Giant fibre growth studies in cells where l(1)sc has been ablated suggest l(1)sc is normally required to repel the growth cone of the giant fibre.

      Ectopic expression does not affect the viability of either sex, but it does rescue the female lethality caused by ectopic expression of h.

      emc forms heterodimers with the ac, sc, l(1)sc, and da products. emc inhibits DNA-binding of ac, sc and l(1)sc/da heterodimers and da homodimers.

      The proneural function of l(1)sc is independent of ac, sc and ase. Deletion analysis of l(1)sc demonstrates the basic helix-loop-helix domain is necessary and sufficient to mediate the proneural function of l(1)sc to activate neurogenic genes, E(spl), Dl and HLHm5, and to allow lateral inhibition.

      The gene products of ac, sc and l(1)sc together with vnd act synergistically to specify the neuroectodermal E(spl) and HLHm5 expression.

      Proneural gene products (ac, da and l(1)sc) activate transcription of Dl in the neuroectoderm by binding to specific sites within its promoter. This transcriptional activation enhances lateral inhibition and helps ensure that cells in the vicinity of prospective neuroblasts will themselves become epidermoblasts.

      DNaseI footprinting analysis of bacterially expressed da and l(1)sc demonstrates that the gene products can bind as heterodimers to different E-box sequence upstream of the ac gene.

      vnd controls neuroblast formation, in part, through its regulation of the proneural genes of the ac-sc complex. vnd controls proneural gene expression at two distinct steps during neuroblast formation through separable regulatory regions.

      The l(1)sc gene has been cloned. A cluster of E boxes, upstream of the transcribed region, suggest regulation by helix-loop-helix gene products.

      Ectopic expression shows that l(1)sc displays weak but significant feminizing activity.

      Analysis of deficiencies revealed that l(1)sc affects the level but not the spatial pattern of ac expression.

      In vitro DNA binding assays using gel retardation to an ac promoter region and hb zygotic promoter region target sequence demonstrates that da protein elicits a weak homodimeric binding and da/ac or da/sc heterodimers bind tightly. Single copy yeast promoters under the control of the GAL4 promoter were used to test whether ac, sc and da proteins could activate transcription of a Ecol\lacZ reporter gene in the yeast assay system, the l(1)sc gene does not induce Ecol\lacZ activity. Results suggest that da/l(1)sc heterodimers can function as transcriptional activators in direct proportion to their DNA-binding affinities.

      The expression of l(1)sc protein before and during neuroblast segregation in the embryo has been studied.

      DNA sequence analysis reveals four E box binding sites, for the binding of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of da or AS-C proteins, in the first 877 bp of the ac upstream region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the emc protein can specifically antagonise DNA binding of the da/AS-C complexes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, h and E(spl) proteins fail to exhibit this inhibitory effect.

      A comparison of RNA and protein patterns suggests post-transcriptional regulation of l(1)sc. Protein accumulates in only a subset of the cells that express the RNA and these go on to become neuroblasts. The deployment of l(1)sc protein expression is one of the causal factors that assigns specific fates to the neuroblasts and a basis for the mechanism of lateral inhibition.

      The function of ac, sc and l(1)sc are required for the normal development of the neuroblasts and absence of the genes causes neuroectodermal cells to enter the epidermal pathway of development.

      Ectopic expression of l(1)sc has no effect on sex determination.

      Wild-type embryos show the protein is present in the developing neuroblasts, whereas the corresponding RNA is found in the neural and epidermal lineages. A study of the protein product distribution in mutants and wild type demonstrated that mutants cause neural hyperplasia in embryos.

      Sequence analysis reveals that ac, sc and l(1)sc transcription units share highly conserved acidic and basic domains in their protein coding regions. The basic domain of the ac, sc and l(1)sc proteins show similarity to the vertebrate myc and MyoD proteins.

      Transcripts of ac, sc and l(1)sc accumulate at the blastoderm stage in periodic patterns within the neuroectoderm. Subsequent expression is in partially overlapping patterns that correlate with the segregation of the neuroblasts.

      The patterns of expression of ac, sc and l(1)sc are complex and evolve rapidly, affecting most if not all the known neurogenic regions. Gene expression precedes and is concomitant with the histological appearance of precursors of neural cells. The achaete-scute complex plays a role in determination and early differentiation of embryonic neural cells.

      Deficiencies for most regions of the achaete-scute complex are hemizygous and homozygous viable; however, deficiency for l(1)sc is lethal.

      Inferred from the inviability of In(1)sc4Lsc9R <up>left break of In(1)sc9 in doubt</up>, except in the presence of Dp(1;2)sc19. No mutant recovered (Garcia-Bellido, 1979).

      Deficiency from which existence of l(1)sc inferred, i.e., In(1)sc4Lsc9R, embryonic lethal. Volume of embryonic ventral nerve cord slightly reduced; posterior commissures thinner than in wild type; longitudinal connectives virtually lacking. Concomitant deletions for scα or scα and ac cause more severe CNS disruptions, although by themselves these deletions have no observable CNS effects; simultaneous deletion of the scγ region also enchances the CNS disruptions (Jimenez and Campos-Ortega, 1987). Transiently expressed at periphery of syncytial blastoderm; late blastoderm shows paired dorsolateral and ventrolateral longitudinal stripes of expression, the latter being coincident with the presumptive neurogenic ectoderm. During germ-band expression, l(1)sc expression seen in many cell clusters over most of the ectoderm; segmental distribution becomes apparent both internally and externally. l(1)sc expression seen in many foci in the head region and in the posterior midgut rudiment (Romani, Campuzano and Modolell, 1987; Cabrera, Martinez-Arias and Bate, 1987). Little if any expression in later stages, except in the central nervous system (Romani, Campuzano, Macagno and Modolell, 1989).

      Origin and Etymology
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      Etymology
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      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 36 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      l'sc
      (Jörg et al., 2019, Jussen et al., 2016, Apitz and Salecker, 2015, Guillermin et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Pérez-Gómez et al., 2013, Helman et al., 2012, Kunz et al., 2012, Saini and Reichert, 2012, Cave et al., 2011, Grigorian et al., 2011, Egger et al., 2010, Kunert et al., 2009, Schaaf et al., 2009, Kaspar et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2007, Schlatter and Maier, 2005, Tien et al., 2005, Bauer-DuMont et al., 2004, Urbach and Technau, 2004, Belyaeva et al., 2003, Golovnin et al., 2003, Skeath and Thor, 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, Zhimulev et al., 2003, Carmena et al., 2002, Cripps and Olson, 2002, Overton et al., 2002, Skaer et al., 2002, Takano-Shimizu, 2001, Tapanes and Baylies, 2001, Ghazi and VijayRaghavan, 2000, Huang et al., 2000, Long et al., 2000, Sanchez Soriano and Russell, 2000, Stollewerk, 2000, Taylor, 2000, Wulbeck and Simpson, 2000, Zaffran and Frasch, 2000, Apidianakis et al., 1999, Crozatier and Vincent, 1999, Frasch, 1999, Jazwinska et al., 1999, Jennings et al., 1999, Lee et al., 1999, Morgenstern and Atchley, 1999, Paululat et al., 1999, Skeath, 1999, Takano-Shimizu, 1999, Wilson, 1999, Baylies et al., 1998, Buff et al., 1998, Campos-Ortega, 1998, Carmena et al., 1998, Carmena et al., 1998, Chu et al., 1998, Dambly-Chaudiere and Vervoort, 1998, Dumstrei et al., 1998, Hoch and Jackle, 1998, Jagla et al., 1998, Lai and Posakony, 1998, Modolell and Campuzano, 1998, Nose et al., 1998, Rottgen et al., 1998, Ruiz-Gomez, 1998, Skeath, 1998, Takano, 1998, Baylies et al., 1997, Hartenstein, 1997, Klein and Campos-Ortega, 1997, Rottgen et al., 1997, Rudolph et al., 1997, Younossi-Hartenstein et al., 1997, Biehs et al., 1996, D'Alessio and Frasch, 1996, Gigliani et al., 1996, Hartenstein et al., 1996, Hassan and Vassin, 1996, Michelson et al., 1996, Parras et al., 1996, Skeath and Doe, 1996, Taylor, 1996, Younossi-Hartenstein et al., 1996, Carmena et al., 1995, Gomez-Skarmeta et al., 1995, Skeath et al., 1995, Tepass and Hartenstein, 1995, Wilkins, 1995, Francois et al., 1994, Jan and Jan, 1994, Jan and Jan, 1994, Kunisch et al., 1994, Ohsako et al., 1994, Ray and Rodrigues, 1994, Skeath et al., 1994, Martin-Bermudo et al., 1993, Modolell, 1993.5.5, Abmayr et al., 1992, Campos-Ortega and Haenlin, 1992, Campuzano and Modolell, 1992, Skeath et al., 1992, Woods and Bryant, 1992, Brand et al., 1991, Garrell and Campuzano, 1991, Mari-Beffa et al., 1991, Martin-Bermudo et al., 1991, Merriam et al., 1991, Garrell and Modolell, 1990, Hardy, 1990, Campuzano et al., 1985)
      l(1)1Ba
      l-sc
      sc/T3
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
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        References (325)