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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\lz
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
lozenge
Annotation Symbol
CG1689
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002576
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
lozenge (lz) encodes an alpha-subunit of the transcription factor complex core binding factor, which is involved in transcription regulation. It plays an important role during eye development contributing to programmed cell death, eye morphogenesis, eye cone cell differentiation and R7 cell development. It contributes to hemopoiesis and wound healing. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
fs(1)M69
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:9,284,649..9,303,636 [+]
Recombination map
1-27
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RUNT DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Runt-domain (RD) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These proteins are characterized by a Runt domain of 128 amino acids that mediates DNA binding and heterodimerization with a non-DNA binding β-subunit to form the Core Binding Factor transcription factor complex. (Adapted from FBrf0206845 and FBrf0138356).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in prepatterning photoreceptor precursors in the developing eye; in the larval eye disk it defines a subset of cells as an equipotential group that is competent to respond to the sevenless developmental signal and another subset that confer proper photoreceptor identity by positively regulating the homeo box gene Bar. Involved in the aop/pnt dynamic in a Ras-dependent manner to regulate pros expression. Promotes apoptosis in the pupal eye by directly activating aos and klu. Also modulates hid- and rpr-mediated cell death. Regulates amos function in olfactory sensilla development.
(UniProt, Q9W349)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
lz: lozenge
Many alleles with a wide range of phenotypes. Homozygous males have eyes size variably reduced and often ovoid in shape. Surface with fused facets producing a roughened glistening appearance (= glossy), or smooth with pigment either uniformly distributed or concentrated at periphery of the eye (= spectacle). Eye pigment variably reduced, and Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Tarsal claws reduced to different extents by different alleles. Spermathecae and parovaria (= accessory glands) often missing in homozygotes with abnormal parovaria seen in some heterozygous females (Anderson, 1945). Females often sterile, but sterility appears to be primarily an ovarian defect, since some genotypes which lack parovaria and spermathecae are female fertile. Some alleles lack the class of hemocytes called crystal cells, or at least lack the crystalline inclusions of those cells; the inclusions can be shown to comprise prophenoloxidase, and flies lacking crystal cells are deficient in phenol oxidase activity and suppress the phenotype of Bc. Five of fifteen alleles tested (lz36f17, lz46, lzD, lzrfg, and lzs) suppress Bc and lack crystal cells and phenol oxidase activity (Rizki and Rizki, 1981, Genetics 97: s90); postulated that lz+ crucial to differentiation of crystal cells, and is not a structural gene for any of the five phenol oxidase moieties. Peeples, Geisler, Whitcraft, and Oliver report defective phenol oxidase activity in lzg (1969, Biochem. Genet. 3: 563-69) lz64j, lz66c, lzs, and lzy4, but not in lz50e, or lzK (1969, Genetics 62: 161-70); Warner, Grell, and Jacobson (1974, Biochem. Genet. 11: 359-65) found no phenol oxidase activity in lzrfg, but normal levels in lz1 and lzg.
lz1
Eye narrower than wild type and ovoid. Irregular facets in some areas cause rough patches; areas of fused facets appear as smooth patches. Eye color appears normal but, in combination with st, slight reduction in red pigment detectable. Tarsal claws reduced. Developmental study by Waddington and Pilkington (1942, DIS 16: 70) shows failure of middle cell layer of optic disk to penetrate between cells of outer layer; surface thus covered with primary pigment cells. Females sterile. Parovaria and spermathecae absent; some lz/+ females have abnormal parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). Suppressed by su(f)6 (Schalet, 1970, Genen. Phaenen 14: 16-17), su(Hw)2, e(we)s, and su(pr)e3; enhanced by su(s)3 and su(wa) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, 1988, Genetics 119: 391-97). Phenol oxidase activity increased from 17% to 71% normal (Snyder and Smith, 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17). RK1.
lz3
Eye size sharply reduced; surface smooth. Optic disk of mature larva and prepupa two-thirds normal size (Chen, 1929, J. Morphol. 47: 135-99). Red pigment greatly reduced; color yellowish brown, cream colored in combination with v. Tarsal claws vestigial. Homozygous females lack parovaria and spermathecae and are sterile; lz3/+ females lack parovaria and many have abnormal spermathecae [Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96 (fig.)]. Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet, Snyder, and Smith, 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17). RK1.
lz34
Eye phenotype intermediate between lz and lz3. Surface of eye has large areas of fused facets with a few normal facets (Clayton, 1957, Genetics 42: 28-41); eye color dark red with small yellowish spots. Larval Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal; variable (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Tarsal claws reduced. Spermathecae and parovaria absent from homozygous females, which accumulate stage 14 oocyte and are quite infertile; some lz34/+ females have abnormal parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). Eye effect, but not other aspects of phenotype, enhanced by spae(lz); eye converted from a glossy to a spectacle phenotype (Beeson and Bender, 1975, J. Exp. Zool. 193: 177-90). In the presence of su(lz34), lz34 flies have virtually normal eyes. Beeson and Bender were unable to confirm previous observations of Bender and Green (1960, Genetics 45: 1563-66) that su(lz34) increases the fecundity of lz34 females. Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet) or su(Hw)2; however suppressed by su(pr) and enhanced by su(s) and su(wa) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, 1988, Genetics 119: 391-97). RK1.
*lz35
Eyes reduced and diamond shaped; color opaque brown. Homozygous females sterile. lz35/lz females fertile. RK1.
lz37
Eye size reduced. Areas of irregular facets in posterior region of eye; eye color normal. Enhanced by su(f)6 (Schalet, 1970, Genen. Phaenen 14: 16-17); also enhanced by su(Hw)2 and su(s) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, Genetics 119: 391-97). Phenol oxidase level decreased from 94% to 58% of normal (Snyder and Smith, 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17). RK1.
lz48f
Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet).
*lz49h
Eye size sharply reduced; surface smooth; red pigment distributed over entire eye. Tarsal claws normal. Spermathecae and parovaria present and normal in females, which are fertile. Complements all lz alleles tested except lz50e.
lz50e
Like lz49h. Eyes reduced in size and almond shaped; no indication of facets; covered with indentations, giving a pock-marked appearance. Hairs on eye surface sparse or absent; eye surface glossy with many large black or brown flecks. Tarsal claws normal. Females fertile; spermathecae and parovaria present and normal. lz50e/lz has normal eyes except for a few flecks. Complements most other lz alleles except lz49h, lz52c, and those associated with rearrangements or deficiencies. Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet). RK1.
*lz52c
Eyes mottled, yellowish brown, darker at rim; facets fused. Males semisterile with missing tarsal claws, although pulvilli and endopodia normal. Third antennal segment slightly reduced. lz52c/lz50e females resemble lz50e. RK1.
*lz59
Eyes reduced in size and ovoid; facets fused; surface slightly rough and almost or completely hairless; color light brown with darker, slightly reddish rim; almost colorless in combination with v. Tarsal claws practicaly absent as in lzc1. Males sterile, (possibly associated with X-autosome translocation), transmit no motile sperm to females; therefore, homozygous females not observed. lz59/lz37 females intermediate between the two mutants in eye phenotype, have reduced tarsal claws, and are weakly fertile. RK2.
lz61f
Facets completely fused; eye color dark, but pigment unevenly distributed and concentrated at margin. Females found to be fertile by Burdicks, but were sterile when studied by Schwalm, Bender, and Klingle (1970, DIS 45: 91) who studied the ultrastructure of eggs produced by homozygous females. lz61f/lz females more nearly normal than either mutant; facets disrupted and fused only in posterior third of eye; also fertile. RK1.
lz63
Eye shape oval; color brown, darkest at margin; surface smooth and glossy. Viability and fertility of both sexes good. RK1.
lz63f
Eye size moderately reduced; surface smooth; color brownish with darker margin. Tarsal claws and pulvilli strongly reduced. Spermathecae and parovaria absent; female reproductive capability strongly reduced. lz63f complements lz50e but not lz34, lzD, or lz61f (Klingele). Spermathecal number of lz63f/lzK 0-3. RK1.
lz71a
Phenol oxidase activity severely reduced; further reduced in presence of su(f) (Snyder and Smith), 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17.
*lzcl: lozenge-clawless
Eyes narrow and small without facets; surface has rough spots; color amber, both pteridines and ommochromes affected, darker at rim. Tarsal claws absent. Third antennal segment reduced; sensilla on antennae abnormal. Phenotype similar in both sexes. Females infertile and lack spermathecae and parovaria. Autonomous in transplants. RK1.
lzD: lozenge-Dominant
Males and homozygous females resemble lzs. Heterozygous females sometimes have roughened eyes. Apparent dominance shown by H. Bender to be caused by the presence of spae(lz); heterozygous expression additionally enhanced by presence of In(2LR)bwV1.
lzg: lozenge-glossy
Eyes smaller than wild type; surface glossy from fused facets; a few normal facets also present; color dark blood red, bright red in combination with st or v. Larval Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Tarsal claws reduced. Spermathecae and parovaria absent from homozygous females, which have reduced fertility; lzg/+ females tend to have abnormal parovaria [Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96 (fig.)]. RK1.
*lzgl: lozenge-glued
Eyes of male reduced and roughened like Gl; color dark; female eyes somewhat less extreme. lzgl/lz intermediate between lzg1 and lz and sterile. Homozygous females fertile. RK1.
lzK: lozenge of Krivshenko
Eyes narrow and moderately rough; facets irregular; eyes of homozygous females more nearly normal than those of males. Tarsal claws normal. Females fertile; spermathecae and parovaria present. Interactions of lzK with other lz alleles described by Green [1961, Genetics 46: 1169-76 (fig.)]. Unaffected by su(f)6 or su(Hw)2; however suppressed by su(pr) and enhanced by su(s) and su(wa) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, 1988, Genetics 119: 391-97). RK1.
*lzM58: lozenge of Meyer
Eyes small and oval; surface glossy; color brownish. Tarsal claws missing. Homozygous females moderately fertile, although spermathecae absent; lzM58/lzs also fertile. RK1.
lzs: lozenge-spectacled
Eye size reduced, narrower than normal; no true facets; whole eye has glossy surface; color yellow-brown with darker rim, creamy in combination with v. Tarsal claws vestigial. Homozygous females lack spermathecae and parovaria and are sterile. lzs/+ females tend to have abnormal parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). RK1.
lzy4: lozenge in yellow-4
Similar to lzs but eye color redder. Homozygous females lack spermathecae and parovaria and are sterile; lzy4/+ females have abnormal parovaria and tend to lack spermathecae and parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). RK1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - AML-1 homolog - involved in sensillogenesis in antenna - mutants lack basiconic sensilla and some trichoid sensilla - the presence of Lz in R3/4 precluster cells is sufficient to endow them with a second wave cell fate response repertoire
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\lz or the JBrowse view of Dmel\lz for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071320
3468
826
FBtr0112814
3105
705
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.468 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071255
84.7
826
7.22
FBpp0111726
73.2
705
7.06
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\lz using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (25 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000040
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:run; FB:FBgn0003300
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:10471
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Su(H); FB:FBgn0004837
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:B; FB:FBgn0000154
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0003677
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:run; FB:FBgn0003300
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:10471
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:99829
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
crystal cell primordium

Comment: reported as crystal cell specific anlage

Additional Descriptive Data
lz transcript levels are thought to be very low as no message was detected on RNA blots or in situ hybridizations to eye discs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
lz protein is expressed in the female genital discs of third instar larvae. Expression is localized to the anterior medial domain of the A8 primordium, and in lateral domains of the A9 primordium.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}lzgal4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal disc | restricted

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

external sensory organ precursor cell of antennal disc

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

antennal lobe glomerulus DL3

Comment: reference states 36 hr APF

antennal lobe glomerulus DM6

Comment: reference states 36 hr APF

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\lz in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 141 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of lz
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of lz
Deletions and Duplications ( 42 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
fascicle & antennal segment 3
photoreceptor cell R1 & axon
photoreceptor cell R2 & axon
photoreceptor cell R5 & axon
photoreceptor cell R6 & axon
sensillum coeloconicum & antennal segment 3
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
6 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190991 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507U1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06AW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X095H )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0CXB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-27
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:9,284,649..9,303,636 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    8D5-8D6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1450&P{EP}EP1356 and P{EP}EP912EP912
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    8D-8D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    lzb maps 0.187 map units distal to lz50e, and 0.053 map units proximal to lzg.
    The lz region has been subdivided into four recombinationally separable groups of alleles; recombination is observed between but not within groups. Not all alleles have been mapped. The total genetic length of the region is 0.14 cM.
    Mitotic exchange has occurred between lz36 and lzy4.
    The lz region has been subdivided into four recombinationally separable groups of alleles.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (62)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (1)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          BDGP DGC clones
            Other clones
              RNAi and Array Information
              Linkouts
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Antibody Information
              Laboratory Generated Antibodies
               
              Commercially Available Antibodies
               
              Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
              Other Information
              Relationship to Other Genes
              Source for database identify of
              Source for identity of: lz CG1689
              Source for database merge of
              Additional comments
              Other Comments
              lz protein can act as a transcriptional repressor of dpn in the presence of ct protein, with which it directly interacts.
              lz is required during stages 10 to 14 of embryogenesis for crystal cell development, and later during larval stages to replenish lost crystal cells.
              lz acts in a dose-dependent manner to specify the fate of the sensilla trichoidea and sensilla basiconica in the antenna.
              lz participates in the regulatory hierarchy of eye development by specifying cell fates for several cell types, promoting non-neuronal cell fates of cone and pigment cells over the neuronal fates. Developmental basis of the lz eye phenotype can be attributed to changes in cell identity and recruitment.
              Lack of lz function causes a change in cone cell fate inducing them to take on a neuronal identity.
              lz functions as a negative regulator of svp in R7 and cone cell precursors. lz controls svp and B expression in the developing eye disc, helping to define the fate of cells that arise from the second wave of mitotic division (R1/R6, R7 and cone cells).
              lz may play a permissive role in allowing the non-neuronal support cells (cone or pigment cells) to choose their fate.
              Mutation analysis of lz3 suggests that lz activity may be required for founder cell specification.
              Additional alleles of lz have been isolated in screen for lethal mutations that fail to complement Df(1)10-70d.
              Mutations in lz cause a pleiotropic range of phenotypes including severe morphological defects in the compound eye. These defects are associated with altered patterns of cell birth and cell death occurring during critical periods of cell-cell interactions with recruitment.
              Alleles show a wide range of phenotypes. Eyes variably reduced in size and often ovoid in shape. Surface with fused facets producing a roughened glistening appearance (= glossy), or smooth with pigment either uniformly distributed or concentrated at periphery of the eye (= spectacle). Tarsal claws reduced to different extents by different alleles. Females often sterile, but sterility appears to be primarily an ovarian defect, since some genotypes which lack parovaria and spermathecae are female fertile. Some alleles lack the class of hemocytes called crystal cells, or at least lack the crystalline inclusions of those cells; the inclusions can be shown to comprise prophenoloxidase and flies lacking crystal cells are deficient in phenol oxidase activity and suppress the phenotype of Bc. Double mutants produced by recombination all have the extreme phenotype of lzs.
              It has been postulated that lz+ crucial to differentiation of crystal cells and is not a structural gene for any of the five phenol oxidase moieties.
              Behavioural data suggests antennal and maxillary basiconic sensilla may be important receptors for short chain alcohols and organic acids but less crucial for acetates, aldehydes and ketones.
              The lz mutant phenotype and the loss of maxillary basiconic sensilla have only subtle effects on the behaviours induced by esters and carbonyl compounds.
              Mutants in lz cause the loss of prophenoloxidase activity. Encapsulation of eggs from the parasitoid strain L.boulardi demonstrate that phenoloxidases are required only for blackening and hardening of haemolytic capsules.
              Mating studies of lz mutants suggests that antennal basiconic sensilla are important for neither the perception of the attraction pheromones of virgin females nor the inhibitory pheromone of mated females.
              Five out of 15 alleles of lz suppress the Bc1 phenotype.
              The lz locus is active during the first half of the egg stage.
              No phenol oxidase activity in lzrfg, but normal levels in lz1 and lzg.
              Defective phenol oxidase activity in lzg.
              Defective phenol oxidase activity in lz64j, lz66c, lzs and lzy4, but not in lz50e, or lzK.
              Spermathecae and parovaria (= accessory glands) often missing in homozygotes with abnormal parovaria seen in some heterozygous females.
              Eye pigment variably reduced and Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal.
              Origin and Etymology
              Discoverer
              Etymology
              Identification
              External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 188 )
              Sequence Crossreferences
              NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
              GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
              RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
              UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              Other crossreferences
              BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
              Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
              Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
              KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
              KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
              modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
              Linkouts
              BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
              DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
              FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
              FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
              FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
              Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
              InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
              KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
              MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
              MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
              Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
              Reported As
              Symbol Synonym
              fs(1)A1569
              spe
              Secondary FlyBase IDs
                Datasets (0)
                Study focus (0)
                Experimental Role
                Project
                Project Type
                Title
                References (426)