General Information
Symbol
Dmel\lz
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
lozenge
Annotation Symbol
CG1689
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002576
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Lozenge (Lz) is an alpha-subunit of the transcription factor complex Core Binding Factor, which is involved in transcription regulation. It plays an important role during eye development contributing to programmed cell death, eye morphogenesis, eye cone cell differentiation and R7 cell development. Lz functions include hemopoiesis and wound healing. [Date last reviewed: 2017-06-15]
Also Known As
fs(1)M69, lozenge
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:9,284,649..9,303,636 [+]
Recombination map
1-27
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
RUNT DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Runt-domain (RD) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These proteins are characterized by a Runt domain of 128 amino acids that mediates DNA binding and heterodimerization with a non-DNA binding β-subunit to form the Core Binding Factor transcription factor complex. (Adapted from FBrf0206845 and FBrf0138356).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Involved in prepatterning photoreceptor precursors in the developing eye; in the larval eye disk it defines a subset of cells as an equipotential group that is competent to respond to the sevenless developmental signal and another subset that confer proper photoreceptor identity by positively regulating the homeo box gene Bar. Involved in the aop/pnt dynamic in a Ras-dependent manner to regulate pros expression. Promotes apoptosis in the pupal eye by directly activating aos and klu. Also modulates hid- and rpr-mediated cell death. Regulates amos function in olfactory sensilla development.
(UniProt, Q9W349)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
lz: lozenge
Many alleles with a wide range of phenotypes. Homozygous males have eyes size variably reduced and often ovoid in shape. Surface with fused facets producing a roughened glistening appearance (= glossy), or smooth with pigment either uniformly distributed or concentrated at periphery of the eye (= spectacle). Eye pigment variably reduced, and Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Tarsal claws reduced to different extents by different alleles. Spermathecae and parovaria (= accessory glands) often missing in homozygotes with abnormal parovaria seen in some heterozygous females (Anderson, 1945). Females often sterile, but sterility appears to be primarily an ovarian defect, since some genotypes which lack parovaria and spermathecae are female fertile. Some alleles lack the class of hemocytes called crystal cells, or at least lack the crystalline inclusions of those cells; the inclusions can be shown to comprise prophenoloxidase, and flies lacking crystal cells are deficient in phenol oxidase activity and suppress the phenotype of Bc. Five of fifteen alleles tested (lz36f17, lz46, lzD, lzrfg, and lzs) suppress Bc and lack crystal cells and phenol oxidase activity (Rizki and Rizki, 1981, Genetics 97: s90); postulated that lz+ crucial to differentiation of crystal cells, and is not a structural gene for any of the five phenol oxidase moieties. Peeples, Geisler, Whitcraft, and Oliver report defective phenol oxidase activity in lzg (1969, Biochem. Genet. 3: 563-69) lz64j, lz66c, lzs, and lzy4, but not in lz50e, or lzK (1969, Genetics 62: 161-70); Warner, Grell, and Jacobson (1974, Biochem. Genet. 11: 359-65) found no phenol oxidase activity in lzrfg, but normal levels in lz1 and lzg.
lz1
Eye narrower than wild type and ovoid. Irregular facets in some areas cause rough patches; areas of fused facets appear as smooth patches. Eye color appears normal but, in combination with st, slight reduction in red pigment detectable. Tarsal claws reduced. Developmental study by Waddington and Pilkington (1942, DIS 16: 70) shows failure of middle cell layer of optic disk to penetrate between cells of outer layer; surface thus covered with primary pigment cells. Females sterile. Parovaria and spermathecae absent; some lz/+ females have abnormal parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). Suppressed by su(f)6 (Schalet, 1970, Genen. Phaenen 14: 16-17), su(Hw)2, e(we)s, and su(pr)e3; enhanced by su(s)3 and su(wa) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, 1988, Genetics 119: 391-97). Phenol oxidase activity increased from 17% to 71% normal (Snyder and Smith, 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17). RK1.
lz3
Eye size sharply reduced; surface smooth. Optic disk of mature larva and prepupa two-thirds normal size (Chen, 1929, J. Morphol. 47: 135-99). Red pigment greatly reduced; color yellowish brown, cream colored in combination with v. Tarsal claws vestigial. Homozygous females lack parovaria and spermathecae and are sterile; lz3/+ females lack parovaria and many have abnormal spermathecae [Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96 (fig.)]. Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet, Snyder, and Smith, 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17). RK1.
lz34
Eye phenotype intermediate between lz and lz3. Surface of eye has large areas of fused facets with a few normal facets (Clayton, 1957, Genetics 42: 28-41); eye color dark red with small yellowish spots. Larval Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal; variable (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Tarsal claws reduced. Spermathecae and parovaria absent from homozygous females, which accumulate stage 14 oocyte and are quite infertile; some lz34/+ females have abnormal parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). Eye effect, but not other aspects of phenotype, enhanced by spae(lz); eye converted from a glossy to a spectacle phenotype (Beeson and Bender, 1975, J. Exp. Zool. 193: 177-90). In the presence of su(lz34), lz34 flies have virtually normal eyes. Beeson and Bender were unable to confirm previous observations of Bender and Green (1960, Genetics 45: 1563-66) that su(lz34) increases the fecundity of lz34 females. Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet) or su(Hw)2; however suppressed by su(pr) and enhanced by su(s) and su(wa) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, 1988, Genetics 119: 391-97). RK1.
*lz35
Eyes reduced and diamond shaped; color opaque brown. Homozygous females sterile. lz35/lz females fertile. RK1.
lz37
Eye size reduced. Areas of irregular facets in posterior region of eye; eye color normal. Enhanced by su(f)6 (Schalet, 1970, Genen. Phaenen 14: 16-17); also enhanced by su(Hw)2 and su(s) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, Genetics 119: 391-97). Phenol oxidase level decreased from 94% to 58% of normal (Snyder and Smith, 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17). RK1.
lz48f
Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet).
*lz49h
Eye size sharply reduced; surface smooth; red pigment distributed over entire eye. Tarsal claws normal. Spermathecae and parovaria present and normal in females, which are fertile. Complements all lz alleles tested except lz50e.
lz50e
Like lz49h. Eyes reduced in size and almond shaped; no indication of facets; covered with indentations, giving a pock-marked appearance. Hairs on eye surface sparse or absent; eye surface glossy with many large black or brown flecks. Tarsal claws normal. Females fertile; spermathecae and parovaria present and normal. lz50e/lz has normal eyes except for a few flecks. Complements most other lz alleles except lz49h, lz52c, and those associated with rearrangements or deficiencies. Unaffected by su(f)6 (Schalet). RK1.
*lz52c
Eyes mottled, yellowish brown, darker at rim; facets fused. Males semisterile with missing tarsal claws, although pulvilli and endopodia normal. Third antennal segment slightly reduced. lz52c/lz50e females resemble lz50e. RK1.
*lz59
Eyes reduced in size and ovoid; facets fused; surface slightly rough and almost or completely hairless; color light brown with darker, slightly reddish rim; almost colorless in combination with v. Tarsal claws practicaly absent as in lzc1. Males sterile, (possibly associated with X-autosome translocation), transmit no motile sperm to females; therefore, homozygous females not observed. lz59/lz37 females intermediate between the two mutants in eye phenotype, have reduced tarsal claws, and are weakly fertile. RK2.
lz61f
Facets completely fused; eye color dark, but pigment unevenly distributed and concentrated at margin. Females found to be fertile by Burdicks, but were sterile when studied by Schwalm, Bender, and Klingle (1970, DIS 45: 91) who studied the ultrastructure of eggs produced by homozygous females. lz61f/lz females more nearly normal than either mutant; facets disrupted and fused only in posterior third of eye; also fertile. RK1.
lz63
Eye shape oval; color brown, darkest at margin; surface smooth and glossy. Viability and fertility of both sexes good. RK1.
lz63f
Eye size moderately reduced; surface smooth; color brownish with darker margin. Tarsal claws and pulvilli strongly reduced. Spermathecae and parovaria absent; female reproductive capability strongly reduced. lz63f complements lz50e but not lz34, lzD, or lz61f (Klingele). Spermathecal number of lz63f/lzK 0-3. RK1.
lz71a
Phenol oxidase activity severely reduced; further reduced in presence of su(f) (Snyder and Smith), 1976, Biochem. Genet. 14: 611-17.
*lzcl: lozenge-clawless
Eyes narrow and small without facets; surface has rough spots; color amber, both pteridines and ommochromes affected, darker at rim. Tarsal claws absent. Third antennal segment reduced; sensilla on antennae abnormal. Phenotype similar in both sexes. Females infertile and lack spermathecae and parovaria. Autonomous in transplants. RK1.
lzD: lozenge-Dominant
Males and homozygous females resemble lzs. Heterozygous females sometimes have roughened eyes. Apparent dominance shown by H. Bender to be caused by the presence of spae(lz); heterozygous expression additionally enhanced by presence of In(2LR)bwV1.
lzg: lozenge-glossy
Eyes smaller than wild type; surface glossy from fused facets; a few normal facets also present; color dark blood red, bright red in combination with st or v. Larval Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Tarsal claws reduced. Spermathecae and parovaria absent from homozygous females, which have reduced fertility; lzg/+ females tend to have abnormal parovaria [Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96 (fig.)]. RK1.
*lzgl: lozenge-glued
Eyes of male reduced and roughened like Gl; color dark; female eyes somewhat less extreme. lzgl/lz intermediate between lzg1 and lz and sterile. Homozygous females fertile. RK1.
lzK: lozenge of Krivshenko
Eyes narrow and moderately rough; facets irregular; eyes of homozygous females more nearly normal than those of males. Tarsal claws normal. Females fertile; spermathecae and parovaria present. Interactions of lzK with other lz alleles described by Green [1961, Genetics 46: 1169-76 (fig.)]. Unaffected by su(f)6 or su(Hw)2; however suppressed by su(pr) and enhanced by su(s) and su(wa) (Rutledge, Mortin, Schwarz, Thierry-Mieg, and Meselson, 1988, Genetics 119: 391-97). RK1.
*lzM58: lozenge of Meyer
Eyes small and oval; surface glossy; color brownish. Tarsal claws missing. Homozygous females moderately fertile, although spermathecae absent; lzM58/lzs also fertile. RK1.
lzs: lozenge-spectacled
Eye size reduced, narrower than normal; no true facets; whole eye has glossy surface; color yellow-brown with darker rim, creamy in combination with v. Tarsal claws vestigial. Homozygous females lack spermathecae and parovaria and are sterile. lzs/+ females tend to have abnormal parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). RK1.
lzy4: lozenge in yellow-4
Similar to lzs but eye color redder. Homozygous females lack spermathecae and parovaria and are sterile; lzy4/+ females have abnormal parovaria and tend to lack spermathecae and parovaria (Anderson, 1945, Genetics 30: 280-96). RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\lz or the JBrowse view of Dmel\lz for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071320
3468
826
FBtr0112814
3105
705
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.468 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071255
84.7
826
7.22
FBpp0111726
73.2
705
7.06
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\lz using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Mlf; FB:FBgn0034051
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:DnaJ-1; FB:FBgn0263106
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000040
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:run; FB:FBgn0003300
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:10471
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Su(H); FB:FBgn0004837
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:B; FB:FBgn0000154
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0003677
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:run; FB:FBgn0003300
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:10471
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:99829
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
crystal cell primordium

Comment: reported as crystal cell specific anlage

Additional Descriptive Data
lz transcript levels are thought to be very low as no message was detected on RNA blots or in situ hybridizations to eye discs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
lz protein is expressed in the female genital discs of third instar larvae. Expression is localized to the anterior medial domain of the A8 primordium, and in lateral domains of the A9 primordium.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}lzgal4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal disc | restricted

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

external sensory organ precursor cell of antennal disc

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

antennal lobe glomerulus DL3

Comment: reference states 36 hr APF

antennal lobe glomerulus DM6

Comment: reference states 36 hr APF

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\lz in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 141 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of lz
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
              0
              --
                --
                  --
                    0
                    --
                      0
                      --
                        0
                        --
                          0
                          --
                            0
                            --
                              0
                              --
                                0
                                --
                                  0
                                  --
                                    0
                                    --
                                      0
                                      --
                                        0
                                        --
                                          0
                                          --
                                            0
                                            --
                                              0
                                              --
                                                0
                                                Yes
                                                Other relevant insertions
                                                Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
                                                For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
                                                Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of lz
                                                Allele of lz
                                                Mutagen
                                                Associated Transgenic Construct
                                                Stocks
                                                Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of lz
                                                GAL4 construct
                                                Name
                                                Expression Data
                                                Deletions and Duplications ( 42 )
                                                Summary of Phenotypes
                                                For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
                                                Lethality
                                                Allele
                                                Sterility
                                                Allele
                                                Other Phenotypes
                                                Allele
                                                Phenotype manifest in
                                                Allele
                                                fascicle & antennal segment 3
                                                photoreceptor cell R1 & axon
                                                photoreceptor cell R2 & axon
                                                photoreceptor cell R5 & axon
                                                photoreceptor cell R6 & axon
                                                sensillum coeloconicum & antennal segment 3
                                                Orthologs
                                                Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                                                Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
                                                Species\Gene Symbol
                                                Score
                                                Best Score
                                                Best Reverse Score
                                                Alignment
                                                Complementation?
                                                Transgene?
                                                6 of 15
                                                Yes
                                                Yes
                                                6 of 15
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                5 of 15
                                                No
                                                No
                                                 
                                                Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                                                Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
                                                Species\Gene Symbol
                                                Score
                                                Best Score
                                                Best Reverse Score
                                                Alignment
                                                Complementation?
                                                Transgene?
                                                7 of 15
                                                Yes
                                                Yes
                                                6 of 15
                                                No
                                                No
                                                5 of 15
                                                No
                                                No
                                                Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
                                                6 of 13
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                6 of 13
                                                Yes
                                                Yes
                                                3 of 13
                                                No
                                                No
                                                Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
                                                3 of 12
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                3 of 12
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                3 of 12
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
                                                6 of 15
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                6 of 15
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                3 of 15
                                                No
                                                No
                                                3 of 15
                                                No
                                                No
                                                Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
                                                6 of 15
                                                Yes
                                                No
                                                Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
                                                No orthologs reported.
                                                Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
                                                No orthologs reported.
                                                Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
                                                No orthologs reported.
                                                Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190991 )
                                                Organism
                                                Common Name
                                                Gene
                                                AAA Syntenic Ortholog
                                                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                                Drosophila melanogaster
                                                fruit fly
                                                Drosophila simulans
                                                Drosophila sechellia
                                                Drosophila erecta
                                                Drosophila yakuba
                                                Drosophila ananassae
                                                Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
                                                Drosophila persimilis
                                                Drosophila willistoni
                                                Drosophila virilis
                                                Drosophila mojavensis
                                                Drosophila grimshawi
                                                Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507U1 )
                                                Organism
                                                Common Name
                                                Gene
                                                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                                Mayetiola destructor
                                                Hessian fly
                                                Aedes aegypti
                                                Yellow fever mosquito
                                                Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06AW )
                                                Organism
                                                Common Name
                                                Gene
                                                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                                Bombyx mori
                                                Silkmoth
                                                Bombyx mori
                                                Silkmoth
                                                Bombyx mori
                                                Silkmoth
                                                Bombyx mori
                                                Silkmoth
                                                Danaus plexippus
                                                Monarch butterfly
                                                Danaus plexippus
                                                Monarch butterfly
                                                Danaus plexippus
                                                Monarch butterfly
                                                Danaus plexippus
                                                Monarch butterfly
                                                Heliconius melpomene
                                                Postman butterfly
                                                Heliconius melpomene
                                                Postman butterfly
                                                Heliconius melpomene
                                                Postman butterfly
                                                Heliconius melpomene
                                                Postman butterfly
                                                Heliconius melpomene
                                                Postman butterfly
                                                Apis florea
                                                Little honeybee
                                                Apis florea
                                                Little honeybee
                                                Apis florea
                                                Little honeybee
                                                Apis florea
                                                Little honeybee
                                                Apis mellifera
                                                Western honey bee
                                                Apis mellifera
                                                Western honey bee
                                                Apis mellifera
                                                Western honey bee
                                                Apis mellifera
                                                Western honey bee
                                                Bombus impatiens
                                                Common eastern bumble bee
                                                Bombus impatiens
                                                Common eastern bumble bee
                                                Bombus impatiens
                                                Common eastern bumble bee
                                                Bombus impatiens
                                                Common eastern bumble bee
                                                Bombus terrestris
                                                Buff-tailed bumblebee
                                                Bombus terrestris
                                                Buff-tailed bumblebee
                                                Bombus terrestris
                                                Buff-tailed bumblebee
                                                Bombus terrestris
                                                Buff-tailed bumblebee
                                                Linepithema humile
                                                Argentine ant
                                                Linepithema humile
                                                Argentine ant
                                                Linepithema humile
                                                Argentine ant
                                                Linepithema humile
                                                Argentine ant
                                                Megachile rotundata
                                                Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                                                Megachile rotundata
                                                Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                                                Megachile rotundata
                                                Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                                                Megachile rotundata
                                                Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                                                Nasonia vitripennis
                                                Parasitic wasp
                                                Nasonia vitripennis
                                                Parasitic wasp
                                                Nasonia vitripennis
                                                Parasitic wasp
                                                Nasonia vitripennis
                                                Parasitic wasp
                                                Dendroctonus ponderosae
                                                Mountain pine beetle
                                                Dendroctonus ponderosae
                                                Mountain pine beetle
                                                Dendroctonus ponderosae
                                                Mountain pine beetle
                                                Dendroctonus ponderosae
                                                Mountain pine beetle
                                                Tribolium castaneum
                                                Red flour beetle
                                                Tribolium castaneum
                                                Red flour beetle
                                                Tribolium castaneum
                                                Red flour beetle
                                                Tribolium castaneum
                                                Red flour beetle
                                                Pediculus humanus
                                                Human body louse
                                                Pediculus humanus
                                                Human body louse
                                                Pediculus humanus
                                                Human body louse
                                                Pediculus humanus
                                                Human body louse
                                                Pediculus humanus
                                                Human body louse
                                                Rhodnius prolixus
                                                Kissing bug
                                                Cimex lectularius
                                                Bed bug
                                                Cimex lectularius
                                                Bed bug
                                                Cimex lectularius
                                                Bed bug
                                                Cimex lectularius
                                                Bed bug
                                                Acyrthosiphon pisum
                                                Pea aphid
                                                Acyrthosiphon pisum
                                                Pea aphid
                                                Acyrthosiphon pisum
                                                Pea aphid
                                                Zootermopsis nevadensis
                                                Nevada dampwood termite
                                                Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X095H )
                                                Organism
                                                Common Name
                                                Gene
                                                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                                Ixodes scapularis
                                                Black-legged tick
                                                Tetranychus urticae
                                                Two-spotted spider mite
                                                Daphnia pulex
                                                Water flea
                                                Daphnia pulex
                                                Water flea
                                                Daphnia pulex
                                                Water flea
                                                Daphnia pulex
                                                Water flea
                                                Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0CXB )
                                                Organism
                                                Common Name
                                                Gene
                                                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                                                Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
                                                Purple sea urchin
                                                Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
                                                Purple sea urchin
                                                Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
                                                Purple sea urchin
                                                Ciona intestinalis
                                                Vase tunicate
                                                Gallus gallus
                                                Domestic chicken
                                                Gallus gallus
                                                Domestic chicken
                                                Human Disease Model Data
                                                FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                                                  Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                                                  Download
                                                  Models ( 0 )
                                                  Allele
                                                  Disease
                                                  Evidence
                                                  References
                                                  Interactions ( 0 )
                                                  Allele
                                                  Disease
                                                  Interaction
                                                  References
                                                  Comments ( 0 )
                                                   
                                                  Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                                                  Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                                                  Functional Complementation Data
                                                  Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                                                  Interactions
                                                  Summary of Physical Interactions
                                                  esyN Network Diagram
                                                  Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
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                                                  Protein
                                                  RNA
                                                  Selected Interactor(s)
                                                  Interactions Browser

                                                  Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                                                  protein-protein
                                                  Interacting group
                                                  Assay
                                                  References
                                                  Summary of Genetic Interactions
                                                  esyN Network Diagram
                                                  esyN Network Key:
                                                  Suppression
                                                  Enhancement

                                                  Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                                                  Starting gene(s)
                                                  Interaction type
                                                  Interacting gene(s)
                                                  Reference
                                                  Starting gene(s)
                                                  Interaction type
                                                  Interacting gene(s)
                                                  Reference
                                                  External Data
                                                  Linkouts
                                                  BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                                                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                                                  InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                                                  Pathways
                                                  Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                                                  Chromosome (arm)
                                                  X
                                                  Recombination map
                                                  1-27
                                                  Cytogenetic map
                                                  Sequence location
                                                  X:9,284,649..9,303,636 [+]
                                                  FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                                                  Cytogenetic map
                                                  Evidence for location
                                                  8D5-8D6
                                                  Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1450&P{EP}EP1356 and P{EP}EP912EP912
                                                  Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                                                  Cytogenetic map
                                                  Notes
                                                  References
                                                  8D-8D
                                                  (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                                                  Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                                                  Notes
                                                  lzb maps 0.187 map units distal to lz50e, and 0.053 map units proximal to lzg.
                                                  The lz region has been subdivided into four recombinationally separable groups of alleles; recombination is observed between but not within groups. Not all alleles have been mapped. The total genetic length of the region is 0.14 cM.
                                                  Mitotic exchange has occurred between lz36 and lzy4.
                                                  The lz region has been subdivided into four recombinationally separable groups of alleles.
                                                  Stocks and Reagents
                                                  Stocks (62)
                                                  Genomic Clones (22)
                                                  cDNA Clones (1)
                                                   

                                                  Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                                                  cDNA clones, fully sequences
                                                  BDGP DGC clones
                                                    Other clones
                                                      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                                                      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                                                        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                                                        BDGP DGC clones
                                                          Other clones
                                                            RNAi and Array Information
                                                            Linkouts
                                                            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                                                            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                                                            Antibody Information
                                                            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                                                             
                                                            Commercially Available Antibodies
                                                             
                                                            Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
                                                            Other Information
                                                            Relationship to Other Genes
                                                            Source for database identify of
                                                            Source for identity of: lz CG1689
                                                            Source for database merge of
                                                            Additional comments
                                                            Other Comments
                                                            lz protein can act as a transcriptional repressor of dpn in the presence of ct protein, with which it directly interacts.
                                                            lz is required during stages 10 to 14 of embryogenesis for crystal cell development, and later during larval stages to replenish lost crystal cells.
                                                            lz acts in a dose-dependent manner to specify the fate of the sensilla trichoidea and sensilla basiconica in the antenna.
                                                            lz participates in the regulatory hierarchy of eye development by specifying cell fates for several cell types, promoting non-neuronal cell fates of cone and pigment cells over the neuronal fates. Developmental basis of the lz eye phenotype can be attributed to changes in cell identity and recruitment.
                                                            Lack of lz function causes a change in cone cell fate inducing them to take on a neuronal identity.
                                                            lz functions as a negative regulator of svp in R7 and cone cell precursors. lz controls svp and B expression in the developing eye disc, helping to define the fate of cells that arise from the second wave of mitotic division (R1/R6, R7 and cone cells).
                                                            lz may play a permissive role in allowing the non-neuronal support cells (cone or pigment cells) to choose their fate.
                                                            Mutation analysis of lz3 suggests that lz activity may be required for founder cell specification.
                                                            Additional alleles of lz have been isolated in screen for lethal mutations that fail to complement Df(1)10-70d.
                                                            Mutations in lz cause a pleiotropic range of phenotypes including severe morphological defects in the compound eye. These defects are associated with altered patterns of cell birth and cell death occurring during critical periods of cell-cell interactions with recruitment.
                                                            Alleles show a wide range of phenotypes. Eyes variably reduced in size and often ovoid in shape. Surface with fused facets producing a roughened glistening appearance (= glossy), or smooth with pigment either uniformly distributed or concentrated at periphery of the eye (= spectacle). Tarsal claws reduced to different extents by different alleles. Females often sterile, but sterility appears to be primarily an ovarian defect, since some genotypes which lack parovaria and spermathecae are female fertile. Some alleles lack the class of hemocytes called crystal cells, or at least lack the crystalline inclusions of those cells; the inclusions can be shown to comprise prophenoloxidase and flies lacking crystal cells are deficient in phenol oxidase activity and suppress the phenotype of Bc. Double mutants produced by recombination all have the extreme phenotype of lzs.
                                                            It has been postulated that lz+ crucial to differentiation of crystal cells and is not a structural gene for any of the five phenol oxidase moieties.
                                                            Behavioural data suggests antennal and maxillary basiconic sensilla may be important receptors for short chain alcohols and organic acids but less crucial for acetates, aldehydes and ketones.
                                                            The lz mutant phenotype and the loss of maxillary basiconic sensilla have only subtle effects on the behaviours induced by esters and carbonyl compounds.
                                                            Mutants in lz cause the loss of prophenoloxidase activity. Encapsulation of eggs from the parasitoid strain L.boulardi demonstrate that phenoloxidases are required only for blackening and hardening of haemolytic capsules.
                                                            Mating studies of lz mutants suggests that antennal basiconic sensilla are important for neither the perception of the attraction pheromones of virgin females nor the inhibitory pheromone of mated females.
                                                            Five out of 15 alleles of lz suppress the Bc1 phenotype.
                                                            The lz locus is active during the first half of the egg stage.
                                                            No phenol oxidase activity in lzrfg, but normal levels in lz1 and lzg.
                                                            Defective phenol oxidase activity in lzg.
                                                            Defective phenol oxidase activity in lz64j, lz66c, lzs and lzy4, but not in lz50e, or lzK.
                                                            Spermathecae and parovaria (= accessory glands) often missing in homozygotes with abnormal parovaria seen in some heterozygous females.
                                                            Eye pigment variably reduced and Malpighian tubes slightly lighter than normal.
                                                            Origin and Etymology
                                                            Discoverer
                                                            Etymology
                                                            Identification
                                                            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 168 )
                                                            Crossreferences
                                                            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                                                            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                                                            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                                                            UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                                                            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                                                            Linkouts
                                                            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                                                            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                                                            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                                                            Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
                                                            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                                                            FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                                                            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
                                                            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
                                                            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                                                            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                                                            iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                                                            Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                                                            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                                                            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                                                            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
                                                            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
                                                            Reported As
                                                            Symbol Synonym
                                                            fs(1)A1569
                                                            spe
                                                            Secondary FlyBase IDs
                                                              Datasets (0)
                                                              Study focus (0)
                                                              Experimental Role
                                                              Project
                                                              Project Type
                                                              Title
                                                              References (419)