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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\E(spl)m2-BFM
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Enhancer of split m2, Bearded family member
Annotation Symbol
CG6104
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002592
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

m2, E(spl)m2, E(spl) region transcript m2, E(spl)

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:26,016,514..26,017,470 [-]
Recombination map

3-89

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:26016514..26017470
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (4 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
There is no information supporting a Cellular Component term for this gene. (Based on a review of available data on: 2013-02-14 )
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ENHANCER OF SPLIT GENE COMPLEX -
The Enhancer of split complex (E(spl)-C) of D.mel is a well characterized genetic locus on chromosome 3R containing 12 genes - with the exception of Kaz-m1, all are Notch responsive. Seven genes are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, four are bearded family genes. Kaz-m1 is unrelated, sharing some sequence similarity to Kazal class protease inhibitors. (Adapted from FBrf0211195).
BEARDED GENE FAMILY -
The Bearded gene family, named from homology with Brd, encode small proteins containing predicted basic amphipathic α-helical domains in their N-terminal regions. They are located in two genomic complexes - the Bearded Complex and the Enhancer of Split Complex. Some members have been implicated in Notch signaling. (Adapted from FBrf0123097).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Positive regulators of the pathway enhance the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Part of the Notch signaling pathway.
(UniProt, O97177)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\E(spl)m2-BFM for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.42

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084981
957
218
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

0.9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084354
24.1
218
6.94
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\E(spl)m2-BFM using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
wing vein | surrounding

Comment: expression flanks developing wing veins

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 14-20 hr AEL

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

E(spl) genes were found to be differentially expressed during metamorphosis. E(spl)m2-BFM is one of 5 genes that shows an increase in expression at 2-3 hours post-puparium formation.

In the wing disc, adepithelial cells that express m2 transcript also express twi protein.

m2 transcripts are first detcted in a dynamic pattern in the neurectoderm in stage 9 embryos. In stages 10 and 11, they accumulate at a high level in the presumptive mesoderm but disappear quickly with the onset of germ band retraction. m2 transcripts are expressed at a low level in discs. In the eye disc, expression is observed close to and posterior to the morphogenetic furrow. In wing discs, staining is observed in areas of proneural clusters as well as in the dorso-ventral boundary and the vein/intervein regions.

The peak of m2 expression during embryogenesis occurs at 14-20 hours. By in situ hybridization, m2 expression is detected at low levels ubiquitously throughout embryogenesis.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\E(spl)m2-BFM in GBrowse 2
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 0 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of E(spl)m2-BFM
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of E(spl)m2-BFM
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 7 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HBD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B9C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
    The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Positive regulators of the pathway enhance the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-89

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:26,016,514..26,017,470 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    96F10-96F10
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rQ197rQ197 and P{lacW}scribj7B3
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    96F11-96F14
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    3-89.1

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (2)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (100)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: E(spl)m2-BFM m2

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      m2 and m6 are direct targets of regulation by the N-activated Su(H) transcription factor. Overall orientation not stated: HLHmδ+ HLHmγ+ HLHmβ- mα+ m1+ m2- HLHm3+ m4- HLHm5- m6+ HLHm7+ E(spl)+ gro+

      Overexpression of m2 or m6 interferes with N dependent cell fate decisions in adult PNS development. Overexpression of m2 potentiates lateral inhibition.

      The distinct expression patterns of genes of the E(spl) complex in imaginal tissues depend to a significant degree on the capacity of their transcriptional cis-regulatory apparatus to respond selectively to direct proneural and Su(H)-mediated activation, often in a subset of the territories and cells in which proneural and Su(H) regulation is occurring.

      The bristle loss phenotype of H mutants can be suppressed by deleting components of the E(spl)-complex. The degree of suppression depends on both the number and identity of E(spl)-complex transcription units removed.

      E(spl) bHLH proteins are turned on in cells which are inhibited from becoming neural by signals from the delaminating neuroblast.

      Arrangement and sequence of E(spl)-complex genes in D.melanogaster and D.hydei revealed that the E(spl)-gene, and the structure of complex are highly conserved, suggesting that each individual gene, as well as the organization of the complex, is of functional importance.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 87 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (73)