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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mei-S332
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
meiotic from via Salaria 332
Annotation Symbol
CG5303
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002715
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
meiotic from via Salaria 332 (mei-S332) encodes the founding member of the Shugoshin protein family and is required for retention of centromere cohesion in both male and female meiosis I. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
MeiS332, Shugoshin, mei-S322
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:22,122,101..22,124,566 [+]
Recombination map
2-98
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the shugoshin family. (Q24141)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Plays a central role in chromosome cohesion during meiosis and mitosis by preventing premature dissociation of cohesin complex from centromeres after prophase, when most of cohesin complex dissociates from chromosomes arms. May act by protecting or Rad21 from cleavage by Sse/separase. Required during meiosis in both males and females.
(UniProt, Q24141)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
mei-S332 (R.S. Hawley)
mei-S332 is a semidominant autosomal mutation that increases nondisjunction of all chromosomes to the same extent in both sexes. Although female recombination is normal, mei-S332 causes high frequencies of equational nondisjunction in both sexes as well as chromosome loss (Davis, 1971; Goldstein, 1980). In the male germline sister chromatid associations are generally normal during prophase I and metaphase I. However, by telophase I sister chromatids have frequently undergone precocious separation (Goldstein, 1980). The equational exceptions produced by mei-S332 males and females presumably result from precociously separated sister chromatids going to the same pole at anaphase II. Goldstein (1980) has also suggested that "in the case of mei-S332, chromosomes which lag in the second meiotic division are usually lost and most of the genetically observed loss in mei-S332 occurs in the second meiotic division." The hypothesis that lagging chromatids are often lost at anaphase II is consistent with Hardy's observation that mei-S332 has micronuclei present at the early spermatid stages (Hardy, 1975). Thus mei-S332 presumably defines a function required for sister chromatid cohesion. Sandler et al. (1974) have shown that ring chromosomes are frequently converted into dominant lethals in mei-S332 females, presumably resulting from an impaired ability to resolve sister ring chromosomes at anaphase II. Baker et al. (1978) have also shown that mitotic chromosome instability is elevated in the presence of mei-S332. They suggest that the function of the mei-S332+ locus is to delay the separation of sister chromatids at all divisions. Because the sole mei-S332 allele is viable, they have further suggested that either this allele is leaky or that there are overlapping or redundant functions that can compensate for this defect.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
conserved protein - essential in meiosis for maintaining cohesion at centromeres until sister chromatids separate at the metaphase II/anaphase II transition
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\mei-S332 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\mei-S332 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071761
1504
401
FBtr0342979
1594
401
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.8, 1.75, 1.6, 1.55 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071675
44.4
401
8.68
FBpp0309743
44.4
401
8.68
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

401 aa isoforms: mei-S332-PA, mei-S332-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
401 (aa); 44 (kD predicted)
Comments
mei-S332 protein was shown to assemble onto chromosomes during prometaphase. In meiosis, mei-S332 protein exhibits nuclear localization at late meiotic prophase I. The carboxy-terminus was shown to be essential for centromere localization both in mitosis and meiosis. Alterations in the basic region impede but do not prevent chromosomal localization. The coiled-coil structure is not necessary for mei-S332 protein chromosomal localization.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer. Interacts with Incenp.
(UniProt, Q24141)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylation by polo-like kinase (PLK) on Thr-331 antagonizes cohesive function. Phosphorylation on Thr-331 at the metaphase anaphase transition leads to its dissociation from centromeres. In contrast, phosphorylation by ial on either Ser-124, Ser-125 or Ser-126 is required for association with centromeres.
(UniProt, Q24141)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mei-S332 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
There is no information supporting a Molecular Function term for this gene. (Based on a review of available data before: 2006-08-03 )
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
pole plasm

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The 1.6kb mei-S332 transcript is detected in third instar larvae, in pupae, and in the testis of adult males. It is the most abundant mei-S332@ transcript in the testis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
A fusion of mei-S332 to GFP was used to localize mei-S332 protein in the cell. In early prophase I, mei-S332 is found in the cytoplasm. Protein is first observed on distinct sites on the chromosomes late in prometaphase I. During anaphase I, these sites can be identified as centromeres. The protein stays on the centromeres through metaphase II and is no longer detected in early anaphase II.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mei-S332 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 13 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mei-S332
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mei-S332
Deletions and Duplications ( 13 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BZB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507JT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer. Interacts with Incenp.
    (UniProt, Q24141 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-98
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:22,122,101..22,124,566 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    58B9-58B10
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG6393EP2457 and P{PZ}ari-207768
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (84)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: mei-S332 CG5303
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: mei-S332 BEST:LD13774
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    mei-S332 function is necessary for normal minichromosome transmission.
    A balance between the activity of mei-S332 and ord is required for proper regulation of meiotic cohesion.
    Flies that are double mutant for mei-S332 and ord are viable and fertile. ord is epistatic to mei-S332.
    mei-S332 protein assembles into a multimeric protein complex that localises to the centromeric regions during prometaphase.
    mei-S332 is required for the maintenance of sister-chromatid cohesion until anaphase rather than for the establishment of sister-chromatid cohesion in S phase.
    mei-S332 is necessary for chromosome segregation and can interact specifically with the centromere.
    mei-S332 is required to maintain sister-chromatid cohesion during meiosis in both males an females. Mutations result in precocious separation of sisters after the metaphase I/anaphase I transition when cohesion is restricted to the kinetochore region.
    A fusion of mei-S332 to Avic\GFP is fully functional and localises specifically to the centromere region of meiotic chromosomes. When sister chromatids separate at anaphase II mei-S332-Avic\GFP disappears from the chromosomes suggesting that the destruction or release of this protein is required for sister-chromatid separation.
    The earliest manifestation of the requirement for mei-S332 can be observed cytologically at mid-late anaphase I. Mutations in mei-S332 do not effect recombination so the locus is not required for homologous pairing. The mei-S332 gene product is not absolutely required during mitosis.
    Mutations at ord cause precocious separation of sister chromatids, at earlier stages than do mutations at mei-S332.
    mei-S332 is required for proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in both males and females. Mutant individuals display separation of sister chromatids in mid-late anaphase I.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0046271
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (139)