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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Mlc2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Myosin light chain 2
Annotation Symbol
CG2184
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002773
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Myosin light chain 2 (Mlc2) encodes a subunit of the myosin complex involved in myofibril assembly. It contributes to different flight-related processes including wing beat frequency, and indirect flight muscle contraction. [Date last reviewed: 2019-07-11]
Also Known As

RLC, MRLC, myosin regulatory light chain, Dmlc2, Ifm(3)99Eb

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,171,438..30,174,551 [-]
Recombination map

3-100

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:30171438..30174551
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (5 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002048
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS -
Myosin light chains (MLC) bind myosin heavy chains via an IQ motif in the neck region. They are involved in myosin motor-based movement along actin filaments, regulating ATP hydrolysis or providing a structural function. The calmodulins included in this group have been shown to act as MLCs. (Adapted from FBrf0134714).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Mlc2
Encodes a myosin light chain homologous to chicken MLC2. Expression abundant in late embryo, first and third larval instars, late pupae and adults; no expression in early embryos or early pupae. Phosphorylation of the polypeptide determined to be necessary for filament assembly (Hayashi and Hotta, 1982, Dev. Growth Differ. 24: 417).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Mlc2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089747
2286
222
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088688
23.7
222
4.41
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Myosin is a hexamer of 2 heavy chains and 4 light chains.

(UniProt, P18432)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Mlc2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Expression dependent on Mef2 levels.

Mlc2 is enriched in border follicle cells relative to follicle cells.

Expression is observed in differentiating somatic muscle cells from embryonic stage 13 on.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Mlc2.H-Stinger}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Mlc2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Mlc2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Mlc2
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3  
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1  
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1  
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (6)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
4 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190IQF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DEP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0G8K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0G96 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0QF6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Myosin is a hexamer of 2 heavy chains and 4 light chains.
(UniProt, P18432 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-100

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,171,438..30,174,551 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
99E1-99E1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
99E-99F
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
99E1-99E3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
99E-99E
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (10)
Genomic Clones (14)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (357)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Mlc2 CG2184

Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments

Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).

Identified as a potential component of the hh signalling pathway in a genome-wide RNAi screen. dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed affects the extent of expression of a hh signaling reporter construct in Clone 8 cells.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

Analysis of Mlc2 mutants in which one or both Strn-Mlck phosphorylation sites have been mutated suggests that a decrease in the constitutive level of phosphorylation of the Mlc2 protein, without detectable disruption of sarcomere structure or cross-bridge derangement, decreases stretch activation and net power output of the indirect flight muscle by reducing the number of attached cross-bridges rather than by changing the kinetics of the power-producing step of the attached cross-bridges.

Phosphorylation of indirect fight muscle is not required for calcium-activated force obtained at low strain but the absence of phosphorylation severely reduces the power output in the oscillating muscle which depends upon stretch activation.

Strn-Mlck-dependent phosphorylation of Mlc2 is not required for myofibrillogenesis or for the development of maximal isometric force in indirect flight muscles. Single or double substitutions at the major phosphorylation site produce reduced power output in isolated flight muscle fibres and reduced flight ability showing that myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation is a key determinant of the stretch activation response.

Tm1, muscle promoter of Tm2, Act57B and Mlc2 were not transcribed by embryonic extracts. The contractile protein genes may possess a common feature related to in vitro transcription that prevents their transcription.

Mutant alleles of Tm2 are semi-lethal when Mlc2 is heterozygously deficient.

Isolated from a genomic library using a probe enriched for sequences complementary to myotube-specific mRNA.

Phosphorylation of the Mlc2 polypeptide determined to be necessary for filament assembly.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 35 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
l(3)99Eb
Name Synonyms
Myosin II Regulatory Light Chain
Myosin LC2
Myosin Light Chain-2
Myosin Regulatory Light Chain
Myosin alkali light chain 2
muscle-specific myosin regulatory light chain
myosin light chain
myosin light chain-2
myosin light-chain 2
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (147)