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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\msl-3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
male-specific lethal 3
Annotation Symbol
CG8631
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002775
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3) encodes a chromodomain protein, reported to interact with H3K36me3, H4K20me1 and DNA. It is a member of the Male-Specific-Lethal dosage compensation complex, which increases male X chromosome transcription approximately two-fold. Homozygous mutant males die as larvae, while females are viable. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
MSL3, MSL, mle3
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:7,123,213..7,125,533 [-]
Recombination map
3-19
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MALE SPECIFIC LETHAL COMPLEX -
The Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is a chromatin modifying complex composed of five protein subunits and two non-coding RNAs. MSL is involved in X chromosome dosage compensation in males. (Adapted from FBrf0228243).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
The MSL proteins are essential for elevating transcription of the single X chromosome in the male (X chromosome dosage compensation). Mle, msl-1 and msl-3 are colocalized on the X chromosome. Each of the MSL proteins requires all the other MSLs for wild-type X-chromosome binding.
(UniProt, P50536)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
mle3
Homozygous males exhibit delayed development; survive as larvae for ten days. Ten-day-old male larvae have small undeveloped imaginal discs, which, however, when transplanted into wild type larvae are capable of undergoing nearly complete (wing, leg) or partial (eye-antenna) differentiation; few homozygous mle gynandromorphs survive; XO patches small, with small bristles, and mostly confined to abdomen [Uenoyama, Uchida, Fukunaga, and Oishi, 1982, Genetics 102: 223-31(fig.)]. No interaction with mle. Females transformed into phenotypic males (tra, tra2) or intersexes (dsx) unaffected by mle3, i.e. mle3 acts only upon single-X-bearing flies. Females heterozygous for SxlF1 and homozygous (and to a lesser extent heterozygous) for mle3 show signs of intersexual development; effect less severe when mothers homozygous for mle3 [Uenoyama, Fukunaga, and Oishi, 1982, Genetics 102: 233-43 (fig.)]. Staining of polytene X chromosome of mle3 males similar to that of mle males (Lucchesi, Skripsky, and Tax, 1982, Genetics 100: s42; Okuno, Satou, and Oishi, 1984, Jpn. J. Genet. 59: 237-47).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
chromatin component - dosage compensation - MRG family - chromo-barrel domain of MSL3 reveals a binding preference for mono- or dimethyllysine 20 on histone H4.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\msl-3 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\msl-3 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076926
1970
512
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.8 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076635
58.9
512
7.21
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
512, 481 (aa); 58 (kD observed); 57, 53 (kD predicted)
Comments
Antibodies were made to regions common to both of the predicted msl-3 proteins.
The putative 481aa msl-3 protein is predicted from the sequence of one cDNA which represents a transcript generated by alternative splicing. The encoded protein has three unique amino-terminal amino acids and is colinear with the longer msl-3 protein from amino acid 35 of the 512aa protein on. A protein of the expected size has not been detected in larvae by western blots.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex at least composed of mof, msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3.
(UniProt, P50536)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\msl-3 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (22 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093964
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093963
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093964
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093964
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093964
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000853767
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093963
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000853767
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093964
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
msl-3 protein is associated with hundreds of specific sites along the length of the male X chromosome. Variable staining is seen at 10-20 autosomal sites in males. No staining is observed in females. The sites of msl-3 protein staining on the X chromosome colocalize with sites of mle and msl-1 protein staining. Furthermore, the sites of msl-3 protein staining on the autosome are also sites of mle protein staining.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\msl-3 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of msl-3
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of msl-3
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
2 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
3 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919061W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508GH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0942 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X090A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0E3M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex at least composed of mof, msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3.
    (UniProt, P50536 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-19
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:7,123,213..7,125,533 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    65E4-65E4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L4060L4060 and P{PZ}corn04202
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    3-25.8
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (59)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Gene products of the male specific lethal (msl) group of genes preferentially associate with the male X chromosome and may have a role in dosage compensation. This may be achieved by regulating an inverse dosage effect, which would be maintained on the male X and nullified on the autosomes.
    Gene products of the male specific lethal (msl) group of genes including msl-1, msl-2, msl-3, mle, and mof are associated with all female chromosomes at a low level but are sequestered to the X chromosome in males. There is evidence for the presence of nucleation sites for association of msl proteins with the X chromosome rather than individual gene binding sites.
    mof colocalises with the MSL complex on the X chromosome: a sequence of binding events results in the formation of the MSL complex on the X chromosome in males and in the targeting of mof to its presumed site of action.
    msl-2 and msl-1 colocalise to a reproducible subset of their wild-type X chromosome sites in the absence of either mle or msl-3.
    Male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins accumulate in a subregion of male nuclei (the X chromosome) beginning at late blastoderm stage. X chromosomal binding of the MSLs is observed throughout embryonic and larval development in both diploid and polytene tissues. His4 colocalises with the MSLs in embryos. Binding of the MSLs is interdependent in diploid cells and is prevented in female embryonic cells by Sxl.
    Sex- and chromosome-specific binding of the male-specific lethal (msl) proteins occurs in Drosophilid species spanning 4 genera. msl binding correlates with the evolution of the sex chromosomes.
    The products of msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 loci specifically associate with hundreds of sites along the X chromosome in males, but not in females. The binding of each of the four proteins requires the functional products from the other three. 2X3A individuals are mosaic for both Sxl expression and msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 binding to the X chromosome, with a perfect inverse correlation at the cellular level between Sxl expression and msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 X chromosome binding.
    Immunostaining of embryonic and larval stages demonstrates that His4, msl-1 and msl-3 are associated with the male X chromosome as early as gastrulation, while mle binding is not detected until the late embryonic/late larval stages.
    The msl-3, mle and msl-1 gene products may associate with one another in a male-specific heteromeric complex on the X chromosome to achieve its hyperactivation.
    Elements needed for dosage compensation are localised to the X chromosome only after blastoderm and msl-dependent dosage compensation is not necessary during the first part of embryogenesis. This suggest the existance of an additional msl-independent dosage compensation mechanism; dosage compensation of run expression at blastoderm is not dependent on male specific lethal genes.
    The msl-2 primary transcript may play a role in male-specific binding of mle, msl-3 and msl-1 to the X chromosome.
    Association of H4Ac16 protein with the male X chromosome requires wild type function of msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3.
    The four msl gene products interact to form a multiprotein complex.
    The X chromosome binding of mle requires wild type msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3 functions.
    Mutants are defective for dosage compensation in males. Homozygous males exhibit delayed development; survive as larvae for ten days. Ten-day-old male larvae have small undeveloped imaginal discs, which, however, when transplanted into wild type larvae are capable of undergoing nearly complete (wing, leg) or partial (eye-antenna) differentiation. Mutants show no interaction with mle1. Females transformed into phenotypic males (tra1, tra21) or intersexes (dsx1) are unaffected by msl-31, i.e. msl-31 acts only upon single-X-bearing flies.
    Staining of polytene X chromosome of msl-3 males similar to that of mle males.
    Few homozygous msl-32 gynandromorphs survive; X0 patches small, with small bristles and mostly confined to abdomen.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 39 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    MSL3
    (Cheetham and Brand, 2018, Kaye et al., 2018, Joshi and Meller, 2017, Kaye et al., 2017, Schunter et al., 2017, Chlamydas et al., 2016, Cugusi et al., 2016, Kuzu et al., 2016, Zee et al., 2016, Cugusi et al., 2015, Keller and Akhtar, 2015, Lindehell et al., 2015, Lucchesi and Kuroda, 2015, Ramírez et al., 2015, Alekseyenko et al., 2014, Comoglio and Paro, 2014, Dias et al., 2014, Ferrari et al., 2014, Figueiredo et al., 2014, Militti et al., 2014, Quinn et al., 2014, Ilik et al., 2013, Soruco et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Alekseyenko et al., 2012, Conrad et al., 2012, Maenner et al., 2012, Philip et al., 2012, Villa et al., 2012, Simon et al., 2011, Straub and Becker, 2011, Strukov et al., 2011, Gorchakov et al., 2010, Gorchakov et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Moore et al., 2010, Raja et al., 2010, Gelbart et al., 2009, Grimaud and Becker, 2009, Kind et al., 2008, Matyunina et al., 2008, Straub et al., 2008, Sural et al., 2008, Mendjan and Akhtar, 2007, Park et al., 2007, Prasanth and Spector, 2007, Straub and Becker, 2007, Weake and Scott, 2007, Alekseyenko et al., 2006, Dahlsveen et al., 2006, Deng and Meller, 2006, Deng and Meller, 2006, Furuhashi et al., 2006, Gilfillan et al., 2006, Hamada et al., 2005, Li et al., 2005, Morales et al., 2005, Nusinow and Panning, 2005, Gilfillan et al., 2004, Kelley, 2004, Larsson et al., 2004, Morales et al., 2004, Sural and Kuroda, 2004, Andersen and Panning, 2003, Carrozza et al., 2003, Deng and Meller, 2002, Rattner and Meller, 2001, Wang et al., 2001, Gu et al., 2000, Kelley and Kuroda, 2000, Pannuti and Lucchesi, 2000, Scott et al., 2000, Smith et al., 2000, Stuckenholz et al., 1999, Copps et al., 1998, Koonin et al., 1995)
    mle(3)132
    Name Synonyms
    Male-Specific Lethal 3
    male sex lethal 3
    male sex lethal-3
    male specifc lethal
    male specific lethal 3
    males specific lethal 3
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (307)